US 3657517 A
A elongate, flexible, resilient, split-sleeve resistance heater of predetermined cross-section yieldingly, releasably engageable about an elongate part of similar cross-section. Said heater including an inner flexible sheet-like resistance heater element an outer, flexible, sheet-like ground, heat sink and armor screen, longitudinally spaced split band-like forming and gripping springs, flexibly connecting means between the element, screen and a power supply cord and a thermo responsive control switch; the above elements and parts being sandwiched between and sealed within vulcanized together sheets and masses of dialectric, heat resistant silicon rubber compound to be hermetically sealed therein and electrically insulated thereby.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Hoyt,
 RELEASABLE CLAMP-ON HEATER BAND  Inventor: Edwin D. Hoyt, Helmet, Calif.
 Assignee: Rama Industrial Heater Co., San Jacinto,
 Filed: Apr. 26, 1971  Appl.No.: 137,408
 U.S. Cl .219/535, 219/528, 219/536, 219/544, 18/38, 219/439, 219/442  Int. Cl. ..H05b 3/58  Field of Search; ..219/345, 442,528, 529, 439, 219/535-537, 549,544,211; 138/33; 165/56;
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,404,736 7/1946 Marick ..219/537 2,572,695 10/1951 Briscoe et al. .....2l9/535 2,593,459 4/1952 Johnson ..2l9/282 2,741,692 4/1958 Luke ..219/528 2,844,696 7/1958 Custer, Jr ..219/528 X [is] 3,657,517 Apr. 18, 1972 3,084,241 4/ 1963 Carrona ..219/21 1 3,178,560 4/1965 Mapp et al ..2l9/528 3,374,338 3/1968 Morey ..219/537 X 3,387,333 6/1968 Irvine et al ..219/528 X 3,393,297 7/1968 Hart ..2l9/535 X Primary ExaminerVolodymyr Y. Mayewsky Attorney-Georges A. Maxwell 57 ABSTRACT A elongate, flexible, resilient, split-sleeve resistance heater of predetennined cross-section yieldingly, releasably engageable about an elongate part of similar cross-section. Said heater including an inner flexible sheet-like resistance heater element an outer, flexible, sheet-like ground, heat sink and armor screen, longitudinally spaced split band-like forming and gripping springs, flexibly connecting means between the element, screen and a power supply cord and a thermo responsive control switch; the above elements and parts being sandwiched between and sealed within vulcanized together sheets and masses of dialectric, heat resistant silicon rubber compound to be hermetically sealed therein and electrically insulated thereby.
9 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures 1 RELEASABLE CLAMP-ON HEATER BAND This invention has to do with an electric resistance heater and is more particularly concerned with a novel, resilient, flexible blanket-type heater adopted to be releasably engaged about a bottle or like liquid container to heat the liquid therein.
For the purposes of conserving of time, space, handling and general convenience, it is becoming an ever increasing and common practice to deposit predetermined one-shot or one-batch volumes of liquids in bottles or like containers. Such bottling of liquids permits convenient and advantageous storing, merchandising, transporting and general handling of the liquids, as well as for the most convenient use and/or dispensing of the liquids.
Throughout the many arts where bottled liquids are used, there is an ever increasing number of circumstances and/or instances where the liquids must be heated and maintained at a predetermined temperature when put to use or dispensed.
In the past, when it was required that the liquid contents of a bottle be heated, the liquid might be placed in a pot above an electric hotplate or burner; -or the bottle, if capable of withstanding high temperatures might be placed on the hotplate or burner. In carrying out such practices, a thermometer was used to determine and effect control of the temperature of the liquid. In other situations, the bottle was placed in a vessel containing boiling water heated by a gas burner or electric resistance heating element. In more recent years and in the more sophisticated cases where liquids in a bottle are to be heated, electric resistance heating elements, under controls of thermostats, have been inserted into the liquids in the containers.
In yet other cases where it is not possible to insert a heating element into the liquid, electric resistance heaters have been strapped or otherwise tied to the exteriors of the bottles. Such efforts have, for the most part, been carried out by makeshift, gerry rigging which is of questionable effectiveness and safety.
An object of my invention is to provide an electric resistance heater which is such that it engages and establishes contact with and about the exterior of a bottle or the like to effectively heat the bottle and the liquid contents thereof.
Another object of this invention is to provide a heater of the character referred to which is flexible and which contains spring means which yieldingly urge and hold the heater in heat conducting engagement with and about the bottle and which is such that the heater can be easily, quickly and conveniently manually biased or sprung for engagement with or disengagement from the bottle.
It is yet another object of my invention to provide a heater structure of the character referred to which is such that it can be easily, conveniently and economically made to engage and effectively heat bottles or like containers (and the contents thereof) of different and varying size and shape.
An object and feature of the instant invention is to provide a heater structure of the character referred to which can be made to extend about the exterior of a bottle or the like to any desired extent in excess of 180 and which is such that the bottle can be heated throughout the circumferential area or extent thereof engaged by the heater or at any zone or zones of limited extent within the area engaged by the heater, as circumstances require or as desired.
Another object and feature of this invention is to provide a heater structure of the character referred to which is such that it can be made to extent longitudinally throughout the entire or any desired portion of a principle portion of the container or bottle with which it is related. For example, it can be made to engage the whole or any desired portion of the body portion or of the neck portion of a bottle.
A principle object and feature of this invention is to provide a heater of the character referred to which is spark and shock proof whereby it can be conveniently and safely used in and about inflamables, combustibles and conductors, such as water.
An object and feature of the present invention is to provide a heater of the character referred to which is hygienically clean and free of sharp and dangerous comers and the like which might cause damage and which is free of comers, openings or the like which might collect and hold dirt or foreign matter.
The foregoing and other objects and features of my invention will be fully apparent from the following detailed description of typical preferred fonns and embodyments of the invention, throughout which description reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is an isometric view showing my heater applied to a bottle;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken substantially as indicated by line 2-2 on FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken as indicated by line 3-3 on FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken as indicated by line 4-4 on FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is an exploded isometric view of portions of the structure provided; and,
FIG. 6 is an isometric view of a portion of my new structure with portions removed and in section.
In FIG. 1 of the drawings, I have shown a special and unique bottle structure B and a heater A, as provided by this invention, especially designed for use with and cooperatively engaged with the bottle B.
The bottle B is an especially designed bottle provided for medical use. More particularly, the bottle B is designed for use in a breathing apparatus and is used to scrub and humidify oxygen, prior to its being breathed by persons suffering with respiratory ailments.
When in use, the bottle B is supported by post and clamp means X in an inverted position, that is, with its reduced neck portion N disposed downwardly.
The bottle B is established of blown or vacuum formed plastic material and is such that it cannot be subjected to temperatures in excess of, for example, 225 F.
The bottle B, as it effects the instant invention, is unique in that its primary body portion P is substantially semi-circular or half round in cross-section, said body portion being characterized by vertical, rounded or semi-circular front and side wall portions 10 and 11 and by a flat, vertical, rear wall portion 12 with a central, vertically extending duct 14 projecting rearwardly therefrom.
When in use, the bottle B is filled with sterile distilled water through which oxygen is bubbled. So as to assure proper humidifying of the oxygen and so as to wann the oxygen so that it is comfortable to breathe, the water must be warmed and not let to become cooled or chilled below, for example, F. (a temperature well above normal room temperatures of between 70 F. and 75 F.).
The heater A is an electric resistance heater structure and is such that it engages uniformly and snuggly about the body portion P of the bottle B to heat that portion of the bottle and the liquid contents thereof to the desired temperature and to subsequently maintain the body and the liquid at said temperature.
It is to be noted that as oxygen is released from a compressed state and bubbled upwardly through the water, it tends to cool and chill the water. Further, as the rate of flow of oxygen is increased or decreased, to meet the demands of the patient, the rate of cooling effected by the oxygen is increased or decreased.
As a result of the above, the demand on the heater is not constant, but is subject to considerable variation.
The heater A must be hygienically clean, easy, quick and convenient to use and must be shock and spark proof, as the apparatus with which it is related is a medical apparatus, must frequently be set up rapidly to meet emergencies and is used in the presence of oxygen.
The heater A, in the form of the invention illustrated, is a split, vertical sleeve-like unit corresponding substantially in inside cross-sectional configuration with the outside configuration of the body portion I of the bottle B and of sufficient vertical extent to engage about a substantial and predetermined extent of said body portion of the bottle.
To the above extent, the heater A has circular front and side wall portions 20 and 21, flat rear wall portions 22, defining an outer surface 23, an inner surface 24 to oppose the outer surface of the body portion of the bottle B, horizontal top and bottom edges 25 and 26 and vertical end edges 27 defined by the split. The split in the sleeve-like structure occurs at the rear of the bottle and so that the vertical end edges 27 occur at the opposite sides of and oppose the vertical duct projection on the rear wall of the bottle.
The heater A is, basically, a flexible, resilient unit adapted to normally snuggly embrace the bottle as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings and such that it can be easily and conveniently flex to an open position, as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 2 of the drawings, to facilitate its being engaged with or removed from engagement with the bottle.
The heater is a laminate structure, made up of inner, central and outer laminations of soft flexible rubber or rubber impregnated and coated fabric sheets 30, 31 and 32, a flat, flexible, planar or sheet-like resistor element R between the inner and intermediate sheets 30 and 31, an armor, heat sink and ground screen G between the intermediate and outer sheets 31 and 32, spring means S between said intermediate and outer sheets, power supply and connecting means M for the resistor R and thermostatic control means T.
The several laminate sheets 30, 31 and 32 are alike and each is established of a thin, flat, rectangular sheet of heat resistant silicone rubber. In the preferred carrying out of the invention, each sheet 30, 31 and 32 has a woven, fiber glass fabric core C which permits for flexing and bending of the sheet, but which prevents stretching and undesired planar distorting of the sheet.
In practice, the sheets are bonded and vulcanized together, with the resistor R, screen G, the springs therebetween. The resistor, screen and springs cooperate to effect the same reinforcing as do the cores C, with the result that the cores C in the laminate sheets are not absolutely necessary.
In FIGS. 4 and 6 of the drawings, I elected not to show the cores C in the laminate sheets, as illustration thereof tends to unduely complicate and obscure the invention sought to be shown.
The resistor R can take any one of several forms; that is, it can be established of one or more lengths of fine nickel alloy wire arranged in a planar sinuate pattern between the opposing services surfaces of the inner and intermediate laminates 30 and 31 and connected with upper and lower, flexible ribbon-like conductor busses arranged between said laminates or, if desired, it can be established by thin, flexible resistor ribbons between said laminates and extending between conductor busses.
In the preferred carrying out of the invention and as illustrated in the drawings, the resistor R is established of a flat, rectangular sheet of thin, flexible woven fabric which is impregnated and coated with a resistive material, such as that resistor fabric produced by l. E. Du Pont Company and sold under the trade name Pyralin.
The Pyralin resistor sheet has horizontal top and bottom edges 40 and 41 which are suitably connected with thin, elongate, flexible, horizontal ribbon-like upper and lower conductor busses 42 and 43. The busses 42 and 43 are established of thin copper ribbons which are bonded to the resistor by an electrically conductive pressure adhesive. In practice, and as illustrated, the ribbon stock establishing the busses 42 and 43 is sufficiently wide so that it can and is folded over the edges of the resistor to embrace said edges and such that parting or separating of contact between the busses and the resistor, at any point longitudinally of the busses and as might otherwise occur when the structure is flexed, is prevented.
In practice, the resistor R can be substantially coextensive with the extent of the split heating sleeve, with its edges as near or close as one-eighth inch from the related edges of the sleeve structure, or can be of any desired lesser extent, within the confined of the edges of the sleeve structure.
The spring means S that I provide includes one or more elongate, horizontally extending leaf springs formed to correspond to the normal cross-section of the heater and arranged in flat bearing engagement between and with .the opposing surfaces of the intermediate and outer laminate sheets 31 and 32.
In the case illustrated, I provide two vertically spaced springs 50 and 51, which springs are arranged to occur outward of the busses 42 and 43 and so they serve to back up the busses and prevent excessive bending, twisting and biasing of said busses and, so that when the structure is in use and engaged about the bottle, the springs exert pressure on the busses and urge the busses into positive contact with their related edge portions of the resistor R. g
The springs 50 and 51 are of such longitudinal extent and are so arranged between the laminates 31 and 32 so that they are spaced an effective and safe distance inward from the horizontal and vertical edges of the heater related thereto and are not subject to creating danger or hazard.
The armor, heat sink and ground screen G is a thin, flat, flexible, rectangular sheet of copper or brass wire fabric or screen and is arranged between the opposing surfaces of the laminates 31 and 32 and between the opposing edges of the upper and lower springs 50 and 51.
The screen G, like the springs S, is maintained in insulated relationship from the resistor R and busses 42 and 43 by the thin, intermediate laminate 31.
When the heater is in operation, the screen G serves as a heat sink and distributing means. It also serves as armor and prevents the heater structure from being penetrated by inpingement of a foreign object, from its outer surface, when it is in use and is such that if the heater is so penetrated and the resistor is contacted, the screen (which is grounded, as will hereinafter be described) effectively grounds the structure and prevents exposed sparks and/or shock to persons and equipment in contact therewith.
The power supply means M to connect the resistor R with a power source comprises a pair of spaced openings in the intermediate laminate 31, a pair of openings in the laminate 32 registering with the openings in the laminate 31 and screen G. The spaced of registering openings cooperate to establish lead openings 60 and 61 entering the outer surface 20 of the structure and extending to the inner surface of the intermediate laminate 31, adjacent the outer surface of the resistor R.
The means M next includes thin, flexible, elongate conductors 62 and 63, the outer ends fixed to the buss conductors 42 and 43 and extending to and having free end accessible at the inner ends of the openings 60 and 61. The conductors 62 and 63 extend from their related busses to their related openings between the opposing surfaces of the resistor R and laminate 31 and are insulated from the resistor by a strip of insulating material 64 arranged therebetween.
The conductors 62 and 63 are preferably established of thin, flexible copper ribbon stock and the outer ends are preferably engaged between the resistor R and the conductor busses 40 and 43, as shown.
The openings can be positioned at any desired location throughout the extent of the heater and are shown located in the central front portion thereof.
In addition to the above, the outer laminate 32 is provided with a third lead opening 65 spaced from (between) the openings 60 and 61 to provide access to the screen G.
The heater is provided with a rubber jacketed power supply cord Y. The cord Y has two insulated, power lines 66 and 67 and one, insulated, ground line 68. The cord Y has an inner end which terminates at the forward central portion of the heater adjacent the openings 60, 61 and 65. The lines 66 and 67 extend from said inner end of the cord, through the openings 60 and 61 and are connected with the free ends of the conductors, as by soldering. The line 68 extends from the inner end of the cord, through the opening 65 and is connect with the screen G, as by soldering.
The thermostatic control means T consists of a standard, capsulized bi-metallic, normally closed thermostatic switch 70 engaged in series in one of the power. lines, for example, the line 66. The thermostatic switch 70 is encapsulized in a copper jacket and is preferably arranged in heat conducting engagement with outer surface 24 of the heater, in close proximity to the openings 60, 61 and 65.
.The switch 70 is preset to open when the unit reaches a predetermined temperature.
The inner end portion of the cord Y, the switch 70 and the lines 66, 67 and 68 are embedded in, covered and protected by a block-like body of rubber 71 which is best termed a terminal block, projecting from the outer central portion of the heater unit. The material of the terminal block or a compatible material can be flowed into the openings 60, 61 and 65 and vulcanized with and about all of the parts and portions of the structure which it contacts.
The other, outer or free end of the cord Y is provided with a suitable connector plug to engage with a power receptacle, in accordance with common practice.
All of the rubber elements, parts and/or portions of the structure provided are vulcanized together, with and into all of the other elements and parts of the construction whereby the heater construction is an integrated, unitary, sealed structure.
With the heater construction described above, it will be apparent that a flexible, resilient heater unit, which is rugged, durable and safe to use can be provided. It will be further apparent that with the construction that I provide, a sleeve-like heater unit can be made in a multitude of different sizes and cross-sections to cooperatively, releasably engage and embrace a nearly infinite number of differently configured structures which are required to be heated.
It is important to note that with the structure here provided, the Spring means holds the part or structure to be heated with sufficient force so that no other fastening or tying means need be provided and manipulated to effect secure engagement of the unit with or removal of the unit from a related structure and that engagement or removal of the unit can be easily, conveniently and quickly effected without the exercise of any special skills.
Having described only typical preferred forms and applications of my invention, 1 do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any modifications and/or variations that may appear to those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains.
HAVING DESCRIBED MY INVENTION, I CLAIM:
1. An elongate, flexible, resilient, split-sleeve resistance heater structure of predetermined cross-section yieldingly releasably engagable about an elongate part of similar crosssection, comprising: a part engaging, flexible, inner laminate sheet, a flexible, intermediate laminate sheet, adjacent the inner laminate sheet, a flexible, sheet-like resistance heat element in flat engagement between the inner and intermediate laminate sheets, a flexible, outer laminate sheet adjacent the intermediate laminate sheet, springs corresponding in configuration with the cross-section of the heater arranged in longitudinal spaced relationship between the intermediate and outer laminate sheets, a flexible metal ground sheet between the intermediate and outer laminate sheets and power supply means comprising a service cord accessible at the exterior of the heater and having a pair of power lines and a ground line, connecting means connecting the power lines to the heater element and the ground line to the ground sheet, said laminate sheets being established of dialectric material and bonded to each other and to the heater element, springs and ground sheet therebetween said heater element has spaced end portions, and said connecting means includes axially aligned series of power access opening in the intermediate, outer ground sheets for the power lines, an elongate flexible conductor strip extending from each end portion of the heater element, between said element and the intermediate laminate sheet to its related power access openings, insulating strips between the heater element and the conductor strips and a ground opening in said outer laminate sheet, each of said power lines extendin through its related power access openings and connec d with the conductor strip related thereto, said ground line extending through said ground opening and connected with said ground sheet, said openings are filled and said lines are encased in a dialectric material bonded with the structure related thereto.
2. A heater structure as set forth in claim 1 which further includes a normally closed thermo responsive switch in control relationship with the power supply means and in heat conducting relationship with the heater structure.
3. A heater structure as set forth in claim 1 wherein the end portions of said heater element define spaced end edges, and the structure further includes flexible conductor busses engaged with and extending longitudinally of said edges, the flexible conductor strip related to each end of the heater is connected with the conductor bus at its related end of the heater element.
4. A heater structure as set forth in claim 3 wherein the conductor busses are arranged inward of and extend parallel with said springs.
5. A heater structure as set forth in claim 3 wherein the ground sheet is established of woven wire screen and serves as a heat sink and armor protection for the heater element.
6. A heater structure as set forth in claim 3 wherein the conductor busses are arranged inward of and extend parallel with said springs, said ground sheet is established of woven wire screen and serves as a heat sink and armor protection for the heater element.
7. A heater structure as set forth in claim 1 wherein the end portions of said heater element define spaced end edges, flexible conductor busses engaged with and extending longitudinally of said edges, said conductor strips being connected with the conductor busses, said structure further including a normally closed thermo responsive switch in control relationship with the power supply means and in heat conducting relationship with the heater structure.
8. A structure as set forth in claim 7, wherein the conductor busses are arranged inward of and extend parallel with said springs, said ground sheet is established of woven wire screen and serves as a heat sink and armor protection for the heater element.
9. A heater structure as set forth in claim 8 wherein the laminate sheets are established of a rubber compound and are vulcanized together and with the heater element, springs and ground sheet.