|Publication number||US3658570 A|
|Publication date||Apr 25, 1972|
|Filing date||Dec 9, 1969|
|Priority date||Dec 9, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3658570 A, US 3658570A, US-A-3658570, US3658570 A, US3658570A|
|Inventors||Crooks Larry L, Stump Walter|
|Original Assignee||Crooks Larry L, Stump Walter|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (28), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Crooks et a1.
[ 51 Apr. 25, 1972 IMPARTING A SATIN LIKE FINISH TO ONE SIDE OF A FABRIC lnventors: Larry L. Crooks, Route 4, P. O. Box 365 RE, Orangeburg, SC. 29115; Walter Stump, 2010 Eastmeade Avenue SE, Decatur, Ala. 35601 Filed: Dec. 9, 1969 Appl. No.: 880,477
Related U.S. Application Data Continuation of Ser. No. 548,394, May 9, 1966, abandoned;
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,402,070 9/1968 Brodmann ..l 17/139.5 X 2,870,038 l/l959 Maclntyre.... ..1 17/64 X 3,401,006 9/1968 Perrino 1l7/l39.5 X 3,077,460 2/1963 Fortess et al..... 117/141 X 3,345,318 10/1967 Lindemann 117/141 X 3,296,023 l/1967 Leaderman ..117/l38.8 2,959,497 11/1960 William l7/138.8 2,819,179 l/1958 Barnard ..1 17/10 3,178,498 4/1965 Brannock ..l 17/138.8 2,595,916 5/1962 Bartels ..l17/34 X Primary Examiner.-Wi1liam D. Martin Assistant Examiner-William R. Trenor Attorney-Robert I... Broad, Jr.
 ABSTRACT A satin-like finish is applied to one side of a fabric by contacting that side of the fabric with an aqueous emulsion comprised of an acrylic resin, and, without first allowing the acrylic resin to dry, calendaring the fabric at a temperature above about 250 F.
7 Claims, No Drawings IMPARTING A SATIN LIKE FINISH TO ONE SIDE OF A FABRIC This application is a continuation of my co-pending application Ser. No. 548,394, filed May 9, 1966, and now abandoned.
This invention relates to a process of treating a fabric to improve its physical characteristics. More specifically, the invention relates to a process of treating a fabric to impart a smooth or satin-like finish to one side of the fabric.
The comfort of wearing apparel is a very important and significant problem to the clothing industry. Clothing having a rough inside surface gives an uncomfortable feel to the wearer. For example, some clothing made of wool has a rough inside surface which gives to the wearer an irritating and uncomfortable feel. To prevent this discomfort, the apparel industry has lined such clothing with a fabric which has a smooth or satin-like finish, e.g. acetate, silk, or nylon. Lining the apparel is usually effected by sewing the lining fabric to the under-side of the apparel. Such a lining process is expensive in that it requires many man-hours of sewing. Also, the additional layer of fabric affects the drape, etc. of the apparel.
ln some cases, the apparel industry has diminished the expense of lining by bonding a smooth or satin-like finish fabric onto the basic fabric of the apparel. For example the underside of an apparel made of wool fabric can be lined by bonding a lining material such as acetate onto the wool fabric. Even though this process is cheaper than sewing the lining inside the apparel, it is still relatively expensive since it requires two layers of fabric and the process of bonding them together. Also, such a lining affects the handle and feel of the apparel since a composite fabric would have more of a stiffening characteristic due to the two layers of fabrics bonded together. In addition, the bulk of such a lined fabric would affect the drape of the apparel.
If a fabric requiring on one side thereof a satin-like finish could be chemically and mechanically treated to impart such a I rayon (a manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellufinish, apparel made from such a treated fabric would have the quality of good feel, good handle, comfort, would be inexpensive and would be lighter in weight than a conventionally lined fabric. Also, such a treated fabric would be attractive to the clothing industry from an economical standpoint and an operational standpoint.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a process of imparting a satin-like finish to one side of the fabric.
Another object of this invention is to provide a fabric having a satin-like finish on one side of the fabric.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a process of treating a fabric to impart a satin-like finish to one side thereof whereby the weight of the treated fabric resembles that of the original fabric.
Another object of this invention is to provide an inexpensive process of treating a fabric to impart a satin-like finish to one side thereof.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide an inexpensive fabric having a satin-like finish on one side of the fabric.
Other objects of the invention will become apparent throughout the course of the specification and claims.
Fabrics useful with the invention include any fabric. Especially useful fabrics include those having a rough characteristic to the surface thereof and which give an uncomfortable feel to the wearer of an apparel made from such a fabric and those fabrics which need some body or strength built into the fabric. Any fabric made of natural fibers, man-made fibers or blends thereof are useful with the invention. Examples of useful fabrics include fabrics composed of fibers or a blend of I lose, as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which substitutes have replaced not more than 15 percent of the hydrogens of the hydroxyl groups), acetate (a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate; where not less than 92 percent of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the term tri-acetate may be used as a generic description of the fiber), polyester (a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least percent by weight of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and a dibasic acid or derivative thereof such as terephthalic acid or dirnethyl terephthalate), olefin (a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any longchain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units), modacrylic (a manufactured fiber in which-the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 85 percent but at least 35 percent by weight of acrylonitrile units), nylon (a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (CONH) as an integral part of the polymer chain), and acrylic (a manufactured fiber in which the fiberforrning substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of acrylonitrile units). The preferred fibers include acrylic fiber, blends of acrylic fiber and wool fiber having an acrylic fiber content above about 50 percent, blends of acrylic fiber and cellulosic fiber, for example rayon and/or acetate, having an acrylic fiber content above 50 percent, polyester fiber, blends of polyester fiber and cotton fiber or another cellulosic fiber having a polyester fiber content above about 50 percent, blends of polyester fiber and wool fiber having a polyester fiber content above about 50 percent, blends of polyamide fiber and wool fiber having a polyamide fiber content less than about 30 percent, blends of polyamide fiber and a cellulosic fiber, for example cotton fiber, having a polyamide content less than about 40 percent, and wool fiber.
The aqueous emulsion useful in the invention is comprised of an acrylic polymer. Examples of useful aqueous emulsions include Rhoplex HA-8, an aqueous emulsion of a self-crosslinking acrylic polymer containing about 45.5 percent solids, a pH of 2.0 to 4.0 and made by the Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia 5, Pennsylvania; Rhoplex l-lA-l2 an aqueous emulsion containing a self-crosslinking acrylic polymer containing about 45 percent solids, a pH of 2.0 to 4.0 and made by Rohm and Haas Company; Rhoplex B-lS an aqueous emulsion of an acrylic polymer containing about 45 percent solids (composed of 83 percent ethyl acrylate, 15 percent methyl methacrylate and 2 percent methacrylic acid), a pH of 6.1 to 6.7 and sold by Rohm and Haas Company; Rhoplex K-3 an aqueous emulsion containing an acrylic polymer having a solids content of about 45 percent, a pH of 2.8 to 3.0 and sold by Rohm and Haas Company; Rhoplex E- 32 an aqueous emulsion of a self-crosslinking polymer having a solids content of about 46 percent, a pH of 3.0 to 4.0 and made by Rohm and Haas Company; and Hycar 1562 defined as a nitrile lactice being a medium acrylonitrile polymer having a total solids content of about 40 percent and sold by B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company, Cleveland 15, Ohio. As mentioned previously, the aqueous emulsion is comprised of an acrylic polymer, i.e. the emulsion should contain at least about 50 percent of one of the above emulsion containing acrylic polymers or like emulsion containing acrylic polymers. For example, the aqueous emulsion can contain at least about 50 percent of an emulsion containing acrylic polymer and less than about 50 percent of an organo polysiloxane emulsion such as Decetex Emulsion 104 (having a pH of 5 to 7 and containing about 40 percent solids) made by Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan, or Silicone 5167 (having a pH of 3 to 5 and containing at least about 30 percent solids) made by Dow Corning Corporation. Examples of useful organo polysiloxane emulsions can be defined by the formula wherein R can be a lower alkyl group such as methyl or ethyl, R" can be alkyl (for example methyl, ethyl, etc.), aryl or hydrogen and X can be an interger from about 1 to about 2,000 or more.
Contacting the fabric with the aqueous emulsion can be effected by any method which wets one side of the fabric with the emulsion. For example the fabric can be contacted by spraying, kiss rolling, and any other like means wherein one side of the fabric is coated with the aqueous emulsion. The temperature at which the fabric is contacted is not critical, e.g. the temperature can be within the range of from about ambient temperature up to about the boiling point temperature of the aqueous emulsion. The preferred method of contacting the fabric with the emulsion is by spraying the emulsion at ambient temperature onto the fabric.
The amount of aqueous emulsion containing the acrylic polymer desired on the fabric is within the range of from about 1 percent up to about percent, the percents based on the weight of the fabric. Amounts in excess of 10 percent are useful, however if the fabric is treated with an excess of the aqueous emulsion the treated fabric will be impermeable to air and will not be permitted to breath. It is therefore preferred that less than about 10 percent of the aqueous emulsion, the percent based on the weight of the fabric, be deposited on the fabric for best results. Also, it is preferred that the aqueous emulsion be evenly and uniformly distributed over the fabric.
After the fabric is contacted with the aqueous emulsion containing the acrylic polymer and before it is dried the treated fabric is subjected to a calendering action wherein the roll in contact with the emulsion treated side of the fabric is at a temperature within the range of from about 250 F. up to about the curing temperature of the resin or the decomposition temperature of the fabric, which ever is lower. it is critical that the calender roll in contact with the emulsion treated side of the fabric be at a temperature above about 250 F., and preferably at 260 F. to about 325 F. Also it is critical that the emulsion treated fabric not be dried before it is calenderedif it is dried the calendering will not impart to the treated fabric a smooth or satin-like finish as taught by this invention. The calender can be run at any rate. Examples of useful rates include 6 ft. per minute up to and above ft. per minute. The pressure exerted by the calender on the fabric should be within the range of from about 1,000 lbs. per inch width of the fabric up to about the pressure at which the roll tends to permanently compress the fabric. The preferred rate of pressure exerted by the calender roll is within the range of from about 2,000 lbs. per inch up to about [0,000 lbs. per inch width of fabric. The calendering action also helps to uniformly distribute the emulsion on the treated side of the fabric.
A fabric treated by the process of this invention has the characteristic of a smooth or satin-like finish on one side of the fabric. The treated fabric has a weight resembling that of the original fabric and, in general, retains all of the characteristic, e.g. handle and texture, of the original fabric. The treated fabric can breath" like the original fabric, i.e. the treated fabric is permeable to air. Such a treated fabric is useful for many purposes, e.g. making apparel where it is desired that one side of the fabric exhibits a smooth or satin-like finish.
Examples are presented to specifically illustrate the invention. The samples used in the examples have a dimension of 8 inches by 8 inches. Calendering the samples is accomplished by using a calender made by Morrison Machine Company, Paterson, New Jersey, Ser. No. 134, 2 hp electrical motor with variable speeds from 14 to 56 rpm and the calender has a drive with a gear ratio of 42.7:l. The calenderconsists of three Teflon coated rolls, the top and bottom rolls are 6 inches in diameter and are heated by steam, the middle roll is 9 inches in diameter, and the longer axes of the rolls are in a vertical plane. Thesample is advanced between the top and middle roll with the top roll in contact with the emulsion treated side of the fabric. These examples are presented to illustrate specific working embodiments of the invention and are not to be construed as a limitation of the invention. Unless otherwise illustrated,'the percents are based on weight of the sample.
EXAMPLE 1 Fabric samples composed of 55 percent acrylic fiber and 45 percent wool fiber are sprayed at ambient temperature with the below indicated compositions of aqueous emulsions containing acrylic polymers. Thereafter the fabric is passed through a calender at a rate of 12 ft. per minute, the temperature of the roll in contact with the treated side of the fabric is about 270 F. and the calender exerts a pressure of about 5,000 lbs. per inch width of the fabric sample on the sample. Analyses of the samples indicate that one side of the fabric has a satin-like finish. Table 1 indicates the compositions of the aqueous emulsions and the percent add-on of the aqueous emulsions on the fabric samples:
TABLE 1 EXAMPLE ll Samples of wool fabric are treated as described in Example I except the aqueous emulsions containing the acrylic polymers are composed of the compositions illustrated in Table 2. Analyses of the samples indicate that one-side of the fabric has a satin-like finish. Table 2 indicates the composition of the aqueous emulsions:
TABLE 2 Sample Composition of Aqueous Emulsion l 50% Rhoplex E32,
50% Hycar 1562 2 50% Rhoplex B-IS,
50% Hycar i562 3 Hycar 1562 EXAMPLE III Fabric samples composed of 55 percent acrylic fiber and 45 percent wool fiber are treated as described in Example l except the aqueous emulsions contain the compositions illustrated in Table 3. Analyses of the samples indicate that the treated side of the fabric exhibits a satin-like finish. Table 3 contains the compositions of the aqueous emulsions:
TABLE 3 Sample Aqueous Emulsion Composition l Rhoplex HA-S 2 Rhoplex B-l5 EXAMPLE IV A sample of a dyed wool fabric is sprayed on one side of the fabric at ambient temperature with Rhoplex l-lA-S. The treated fabric is passed through a calender where the roll in contact with the treated side of the fabric is at 325 F. and said roll exerts a pressure of about 2,500 lbs. per inch width on the fabric. About 2 percent of the aqueous emulsion containing the acrylic polymer is deposited on the surface of the fabric. Analysis of the fabric indicates that it exhibits a satin-like finish on the treated side of the fabric.
While the invention has been described with particular reference to specific embodiments, it is to be understood that it is not limited thereto, but is to be construed broadly. For example, equivalent aqueous emulsions obvious to those skilled in the art are also applicable with the invention. The aqueous emulsions can contain auxiliary chemicals to give desired characteristics to the treated fabric.
l. A process of imparting an air-permeable satin-like finish to one side of a fabric comprising coating said one side of the fabric with from about 1.0 percent to about percent, the percent based on the weight of the fabric, of an aqueous emulsion having a solids content of about 40-50 percent, said solids content containing at least about 50 percent of an acrylic polymer, and while the fabric is wet with the emulsion, calendering said oneside of the fabric, the calendering characterized by at least one roll at a temperature of about 260 325 F in contact with said one side of the fabric, and calendering pressure of at least about 1,000 pounds per inch width of the fabric.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein the aqueous emulsion is comprised of a self-cross-linking polymer and has a solids content of about 46 percent and a pH of from 3.0 to 4.0.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein the fabric is comprised of acrylic fibers.
4. The process of claims 1 wherein the fabric is comprised of wool fibers.
5. The process of claim 4 wherein the temperature of said one roll is about 325 F.
6. The process of claim 1 wherein the fabric comprises a blend of acrylic fibers and cellulosic fibers.
7. The process of claim 1 wherein the temperature of said one roll is about 270 F.
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|U.S. Classification||427/366, 428/409|
|International Classification||D06Q1/00, D06Q1/08|