US 3658575 A
A process for applying water-soluble chemicals to flexible substrates, e.g., textile fibers, yarns, non-woven, loomed, tufted woven and knit materials, paper and the like, which employs a readily removable carrier formulation at lower temperatures under ambient pressures consisting of preparing an aqueous-oil emulsion of the chemical and its attendant assistants, catalysts or reactive or non-reactive co-chemicals, surface active agent(s) in 1 to 35 percent by weight water and 98 to 40 percent by weight of a halogenated hydrocarbon solvent boiling between about 40 DEG to about 165 DEG C., applying the emulsion to a flexible substrate by dipping, immersing, flooding, doctoring, spraying or the like, introducing the so-wetted substrate into a zone filled with the vapors of the halogenated solvent which is at a temperature at or above the boiling point of the solvent of the emulsion, maintaining the substrate in said vapors for a time sufficient to remove the water and solvent from the substrate, and removing the substrate from said zone in a dry condition retaining the chemical(s) thereon or in.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[4 1 Apr. 25, 1972 [54-] METHOD AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING FLEXIBLE SUBSTRATES  Inventors: Theodore E. Tabor; Hugh A. Farber;
Thomas A. Vivian, all of Midland, Mich.
The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich.
221 Filed: Sept. 29, 1969 211 Appl.No.: 862,031
Reibnitz et al. ...1 17/161 X Hersh et al ..l 17/139.4
Primary Examiner-Murray Katz Assistant Examiner-Theodore G. Davis Atrorney-Griswold & Burdick, Glwynn R. Baker and C. E. Rehberg  ABSTRACT A process for applying water-soluble chemicals to flexible substrates, e.g., textile fibers, yarns, non-woven, loomed, tufted woven and knit materials, paper and the like, which employs a readily removable carrier formulation at lower temperatures under ambient pressures consisting of preparing an aqueousoil emulsion of the chemical and its attendant assistants, catalysts or reactive or non-reactive co-chemicals, surface active agent(s) in 1 to 35 percent by weight water and 98 to 40 percent by weight of a halogenated hydrocarbon solvent boiling between about 40 to about 165 C., applying the emulsion to a flexible substrate by dipping, immersing, flooding, doctoring, spraying or the like, introducing the so-wetted substrate into a zone filled with the vapors of the halogenated solvent which is at a temperature at or above the boiling point of the solvent of the emulsion, maintaining the substrate in said vapors for a time sufficient to remove the water and solvent from the substrate, and removing the substrate from said zone in a dry condition retaining the chemical( s) thereon or in.
5 Claims, No Drawings METHOD AND COMPOSITIONSFOR TREATING FLEXIBLE SUBSTRATES BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION wetted substrate into a zone filled with the vapors of a halogenated solvent boiling between about 40 and about 165 C. whichzone is maintained at or above the boiling point of the solvent employed in the emulsion; maintaining the substrate in said zone until the solvent has been removed; and finally withdrawing the substrate from the zone in a dry condition retaining the treating chemical.
The nature of the substrate is not critical and may be derived from natural or synthetic fibers and may be in the form of yarns, threads, films, sheets, woven, unwoven,;
loomed, or the like. The commonly employed fibers are or derived from flax, cotton, wood, jute, polyamide, polyester, polyacrylate and polyarylonitrile and mixtures thereof. These fibers may be chemically treated as in the case of cellulose to enable their reforming as fibers, strands, threads or films Mixtures of two or more fibers from each class may becombined.
The halogenated hydrocarbon solvents useful in accordance with the present invention are those having a boiling point and resins, fire retardants and the like. Representativeof such chemicals are the methylol or alkyl ethers of methylol compounds (dimethylol dihydroxyethylene ureas), the silicones, the fluorocarbon stain and water repellents, fluorocarbon stabilization and wrinkle resistant resins, polyethylenes, polyglycols and the inorganic salts used for five retardance.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION EXAMPLE 1 A 100 percent cotton 80 X 80 .print cloth was treated by spraying one of the compositions as set forth in the following tables, the solvent and water removed by passing the wetted fabric through a zone of vapors of stabilized 1,1,1- trichloroethane while simultaneously passing the fabric over two heated cans (internal steam pressure ca 60 psi). The
fabric was passed through the vapor zone at ca 10 yards per minute, residence time about 12 seconds. The fabric was dry, neither wet with moisture of solvent upon being withdrawn from the vapor zone.
The fabric was after-cured for 5 minutes at 150 C. and the I wrinkle recovery angle measured according to AATCC 66- 1968 Monsanto Wrinkle Recovery Test. Durable press was measured by AATCC 124-1967. Tensile change and elongation change were both measured on an Instron Tensile Instrument, five samples run each direction and averaged. AATCC 88C 1 964 was employed to obtain crease retention values.
The control runs using only water as the formulation carrier were made in the same equipment but without the vapor zone.
TABLE I Formulation percent by weight based on. total weight of formulation Dimethylol I Percent resin Wrinkle dihydroxy- Commercial solids added on recovery ethylene Zn(NOa)2 polyethylene after drying solids ang Durable catalyst softener Surfactant Solvent wtJiabric wt.) degrees press 0. 6 1. 0 1. 0 81.4 6.1 279 3.3 0.6 1.0 1.0 85.4 6.4 230 3.0 0.45 1.0 1.0 87.8 5.5 265 3.2 0.75 1.25 1.25 0 4.6 262 3.3 Untreated control 169 1.0
Dioctyl sodium sult'o succinate. V
The tensile change in percent and elongation change in percent are set forth in thejollowing table V 7 between about 40 and 165 C., single species of halogen or TABLE 1(a) mixtures of halogen, saturated or ethylenically unsaturated. 5O Tensile change, Elongation change, Thus, the chlorinated methanes, chlorinated ethanes, the Percent percent fluorinated ethanes, the mixed fluorochloro and fluorobromo warp Fm warp Fm ethanes and the like. Representative of the preferred classes of --47 -50 49 26 halogenated hydrocarbons falling within these classes are methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1- 5 :g- :g fig :22 trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene; dibromotetrachloroethane, tetrachlorodifluoroethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane and the EXAMPLE 2 In another series of experiments, a /35 polyester cotton broadcloth shirting fabric was treated in the same manner as set forth in Example 1 using the formulations set forth in Table II. The durable press rating and crease resistance were measured and are set forth in the Table.
TABLE II Percent by weight Catalyst (15% based Durable on resin Percent press Crease S D.P. resin Water solids) Softener Surfactant Solvent added on rating resistance DP+CR 11 0. 9 1. 0 1. 0 Balance 5. 0 3. 5 4. 2 717 14 1. 2 1. 0 1. 0 Balance. 8. 2 3. 3 3. 8 7. 1 16 1. 5 1. 0 1. 0 Balance.-. 10. 3 3. 5 4. 4 7. 9 Del. 1.125 1.0 4.9 3.4 4.1 7.5 Bal. 1.47 1. 0 6. 0 3. 6 4. 4 7. 4 Bal. 1. 8 1. 7. 6 3. 6 3. 8 7. 4 Control, untreated 2.5 2. 6 5. 1
A durable press resin (dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea) and either a silicone water repellent resin or a fluorocarbon water and stain repellent resin were applied from a formulation within the teaching of the present invention to a 50/50 polyester-cotton poplin fabric. The fabric was wetted with formulation to about 50% wet pick-up in a Butterworth 15 inch Laboratory Padder, 1 dip l nip. The results of these operations are set forth below.
The formulations employed were:
A. 10% by weight dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU), 1.5% Zn(NO 1% polyethylene, 2% DC TABLE V 1' Removed Resin by Solvent Application Wash Cotton Aqueous Emulsion 3 Polyester Aqueous 68 Emulsion 61 Polyester-Cotton Aqueous 16 Emulsion 25 Hand of the washed fabric was softer than non-solvent washed controls.
polyester-cotton batiste. The washing was conducted for 20 minutes in 1,1 ,l,-trichloroethane containing 0.0045 percent by weight dioctylsodiumsulfosuecinate, rinsed twice for 10 minutes in 1,1, l-trichloroethane and air dried. The amount of resin lost is recorded below:
l 109 silicone, 15.8% water and 69.7% 1,1,1- 1 5 EXAMPLE 6 trichloroethane. B. 10% (DMDl-lEU) A paste was made by mechanically mixing 25 percent of a 1.5% Zn(NOah commercial carpet backsi'zing compound and 75 percent 1% Polyethylene l,l,l-trichloroethane. The carpet backsizing compound used 2% DC 1172 silicone was 65 percent solids in water. The solids portion consists of 0.1% DC catalyst XY-168 100 parts styrene-butadiene latex and 350 parts calcium car- 15.1% 11 0 bonate. An even coat of the above paste was applied to a piece 703% 1,1 ,l-Trichloroethane of carpeting 4 inches by 3 inches using a brush. ln commercial C. 10% DMDHEU applications, such materials are generally applied by roll coat 1.5% Zn( N0 followed by a doctor blade. The initial weight increase on the 1% Polyethylene carpet sample was approximately 140 percent. The treated 0.63% Fluorocarbon PC 208 carpet sample was then dried by laying it on a hot metal surl5.8% Water face at 250F. with the pile side contacting the metal surface. 71.1% 1,1 ,l-Trichloroethane The sample dried quite rapidly and was weighed periodically TABLE III Percent add-on Spray rating Oil rating resin wt./ Formulatlon fabrlc wt. WRA Inltlal 1 Wash 6 Washes Initial 1 Wash 7.9 298 100 90 1 1 7.1 311 100 100 80 0 7.7 300 100 80 5 4 Untreated 217 O 0 1 1 EXAMPLE 4 40 during the drying process. The sample was dry after approximately 25 minutes as there was little additional weight loss In another Series Of experiments. the efkct of conditioning after this period. The sample weight at this point indicated a of the fabric with Steam after curing was determinedbacksizing add-on of approximately 25 percent on the initial 100 Percent 80 X 80 cotton Print cloth was Sprayed with a weight of the sample. This technique gave a good uniform formulation consisting of: coating on the carpet sample.
8% N,N'-bis methox meth luron LN znclz Y y We claim. 7 32g; ffrj'fg l. A process for the application of water-solubledurable press resins, water repellent resins and chemicals, stain repel- The vetted fabfic'was The fabric, found to have lent chemicals, fiber stabilization chemicals, dyes, softeners, about a P add'Oh of resin was Steamed at lubricants, soil release chemicals, finishing chemicals and mosphel'ic Pressure, Cured at for 5 minutes- The resins on fire retardant, or mixtures thereof to a flexible sub- "sults of the are set frth below: strate of natural and synthetic fibers and yarns, threads, films sheets thereof woven, unwoven or loomed which comprises: TABLE IV applying the chemicals to the flexible substrate from an aqueous emulsion carrier which contains 1 to 35 percent by weight Steaming Time (Min.) WRA water based on the total weight of the emulsion, 98 to 40 per- 3-3 :2; cent by weight of a halogenated hydrocarbon solvent having a 263 boiling point between about 40 and 165 C., the treating 3 0 no chemicals being present in from 0.2 to 15 percent by weight; 157 introducing the wetted substrate into a zone filled with vapors of a halogenated solvent having a boiling point between about 40 and 165 C. which is at or above the boiling point of the EXAMPLE 5 55 halogenated hydrocarbon solvent employed in the emulsion; maintaining the substrate in said zone until the halogenated In another series of experiments, the effect of solvent washhydrocarbon solvent and water are removed f o h b- S Prior to cure was determihed' The nature of the treating strate; and, withdrawing the substrate from the zone free of formulation and treatment technique was as set forth in Examwater and halogenated hydrocarbon solverm P 1 g cotton P cloth, Polyttstef Plain Weave and 2. The process of claim 1 wherein said flexible substrate is a textile fabric, said chemicals are a durable press resin of the class methylol and alkyl ethers of methylol compounds, a catalyst for said resin and said halogenated hydrocarbon is the same solvent as that employed to fill the vapor zone.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the substrate is steamed at atmospheric pressure for from 0.5 to 4 minutes, then heated dihydroxyethylene urea and the catalyst is Zn(NO at from 150 160 C. to cure the resin. 5. The process of claim 2 wherein said resin is N,N'-
4. The process of claim 2 wherein said resin is dimethylol bis(methoxymethyl)uron and the catalyst is zinc chloride.