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Publication numberUS3659127 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 25, 1972
Filing dateSep 25, 1970
Priority dateOct 1, 1969
Publication numberUS 3659127 A, US 3659127A, US-A-3659127, US3659127 A, US3659127A
InventorsKumon Osamu
Original AssigneeSumitomo Electric Industries
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Piezoelectric ceramic transformer with specific width to length ratios
US 3659127 A
Abstract
A piezoelectric ceramic transformer of the plate type having a total length 2L and width W is driven into fundamental mode, longitudinal vibration by an A.C. input, the wave length of which is lambda , that is, 2L = lambda /2. When the ratio W/L falls within the range of 0.2 to 1.2 a high voltage output and a high input-to-output power efficiency are attained.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

D United States Patent [151 3,659,127

Kumon [45] Apr. 25, 1972 [54] PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC [56] References Cited TRANSFORMER WITH SPECIFIC UNITED STATES PATENTS WIDTH TO LENGTH RATIOS 2,830,274 4/1958 Rosen et al. ,.3l0/9.8 X Inventor: 05am Kumon, Itami-shi. Japan 2,974,296 3/1961 Rosen ..3l0/9.8 x [73] Assigneez sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd Osaka, 3,562,792 2/1971 Berllncourt ..3l0/8.l X

Japan Primary Examiner-J. D. Miller [22] Filed: Sept. 25, 1970 Assistant ExaminerMark O. Budd PP No: 75,598 Attorney-Kurt Kelman [57] ABSTRACT [30] Foreign Application Priority Dam A piezoelectric ceramic transformer of the plate type having a Oct. 1 1969 Japan ..44/78855 ma] length 2L and width w is driven fundamemal "mde, Nov 1969 Japan i I H longitudinal vibration by an AC. input, the wave length of 1969 Japan 44/108809 which is A, that is, 2L )\/2. When the ratio W/L falls within the range of 0.2 to 1.2 a high voltage output and a high input- [52] U S Cl 310/9 5 310/8 1 310/9 8 to-output power efficiency are attained.

[51] Int. Cl. ..HOlv 7/00 Alternatively, the piezoelectric ceramic transformer referred [58] Field of Search ..3 10/8, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8; to above is driven into second, higher harmonic mode longitu- 333/72 dinal vibrations where 2L A. When the ratio W/L falls within the range of 0.05 to 0.85 the high performance referred to above is also attained.

4 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PATENTEDAPRZS 1972 3. 659, 1 27 SHEET l U? 3 INVENTOR OS Amok KKLM all e KM HGEA/T PATENTEDAPR 25 m2 SHEET 2 OF 3 FUNDAMENTAL MODE WIDTH TO LENGTH RATIO ole wmwmm INVENTOR 9M. KLLM o/v HGENT PATENTEDAPR 2 5 m2 SHEET 30F 3 SECOND HIGHER HARMONIC MODE WIDTH TO- LENGTH RATIO (W/L) INVENTOR HM a. K uJvmN AM -INT PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC TRANSFORMER WITII SPECIFIC WIDTH TO LENGTH RATIOS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an improved piezoelectric ceramic transformer for high voltage generation and, more particularly, to a structure for the above type transformer which gives a large voltage step-up ratio, hitherto unattained in such transformers.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a piezoelectric ceramic transformer having a width-to-length ratio such that, when driven into fundamental mode longitudinal vibration, the transformer gives a high voltage output and power efficiency.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a piezoelectric ceramic transformer having a width-to-length ratio such that, when driven into second harmonic mode longitudinal vibration, the transformer gives a high voltage output and power efficiency.

It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a novel connection for a piezoelectric ceramic transformer, which relates to the direction of polarization and the ground side of an output circuit of the transformer and gives a higher voltage output than the other connections give.

SUMMARY or THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, a piezoelectric ceramic transformer of the plate type having a width W and a total length 2L is driven into a fundamental mode, longitudinal vibration under the condition that the width-to-length ratio W/L falls within the range of 0.2 to 1.2.

In accordance with a second feature of the present invention, the above transformer is driven into a second, higher harmonic mode of longitudinal vibration, under the condition that the width-to-length ratio W/L falls within the range of 0.05 to 0.85.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a piezoelectric, ceramic transformer with electrical connections thereto;

FIG. 2 is a view showing schematically two vibration modes of the ceramic transformer wherein a solid curve a depicts the magnitude of displacement of the lengthwise vibration in the fundamental mode (it/2 mode) and a dotted curve b depicts the magnitude of displacement in a second, higher harmonic mode (kmode);

FIG. 3 is a graph showing a voltage step-up ratio versus the ratio between the width and the length of the ceramic transformer, in fundamental mode vibration;

FIG. 4 is a graph showing the voltage step-up ratio versus the ratio between the width and the length of the ceramic transformer in a second, higher harmonic mode vibration; FIGS. 5A and 5B are diagrammatic side views diagrammatic of the ceramic transformer showing the relationship between the polarization direction and the electrode connection where F IG. 5A relates to a conventional connection system and FIG. 5B to the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, showing the general structure of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer PCT, it is well known in the art that a transformer function can be produced by plating electrodes E E and E on a plate of ferro-dielectric material and by effecting a polarization process in two directions, perpendicular to each other, as shown by the arrows P. Such ceramic transformers, manufactured as above described, have a high degree of frequency selectivity, and may seem to be a constant voltage source for a high resistance load and a constant current source for a low resistance load.

When operated .as a constant voltage source, the voltage step-up ratio G of the ceramic transformer with no load across output terminals may be given by:

Q,, is indicative of the degrees of mechanical vibration, K K are electro-mechanical coupling factors in the direction perpendicular to the polarization direction and in the same direction, respectively,

L is the length of the sample,

and Tis the thickness of the sample.

It is known in the art that the dimension of a ceramic plate transformer affects its step-up ratio and that the step-up ratio is proportional to the length, and inversely proportional to the thickness, of the plate, as seen from the above equation (I), but heretofore qualitative information relative to the width of the plate was not known.

In driving a ceramic transformer, there are principally two modes of lengthwise vibration, as shown schematically in FIG. 2, which provide useful voltage step-up ratios. In this drawing the curve a illustrates the magnitude of displacement in fundamental mode vibration, in which the length 2L of the transformer is equal to M2, )t" being the wave length of the A.C. input voltage, and the curve b illustrates the magnitude of displacement in second, higher harmonic mode vibrations in which 2L A.

The data plotted in FIG. 3 was obtained by connecting, as shown in FIG. 1, an A.C. voltage source OSC across electrodes E E and an output circuit, consisting of a voltage doubler rectifier, comprising diodes D and D and a load resistor R across the output electrode E and the ground electrode E The frequency of the input voltage was selected so as to drive the transformer into fundamental mode longitudinal vibrations.

In FIG. 3, the ordinate represents the voltage step-up ratio (V /V between the input voltage V, (r.m.s. volts) and the output voltage V (r.m.s. volts) after rectification, and the abscissa represents the width-to-length ratio (W/L) between the width W and half of the total length 2L of the test piezoelectric ceramic transformer PCT.

As will be seen from the graph of FIG. 3, the step-up ratio, without load, is as high as 300, or more, for a W/L range of 0.2 to 1.2, but with a W/L ratio falling without the above range, no substantial amount of lengthwise vibration in the longitudinal direction is produced and the step-ratio is small, due to the influence of other mode vibrations.

Accordingly, when driven in fundamental mode with a W /L range of 0.2 to 1.2, the step-up ratio, with no load at the output, becomes 300 or more, and the step-up ratio with'a load resistor of 100 M9. for example, becomes 100, or more. It will be noted that with L 5 mm and T/L 0.02 0.4, the maximum output voltage was 30 KV.

Similarly, FIG. 4 illustrates the relationship between the voltage step-up ratio and the width-to-length ratio when the ceramic transformer was driven in a second higher harmonic mode. As will be seen from the graph of FIG. 4, the step-up ratio with no load is as high as 300 or more for a W/L range of from 0.05 to 0.85.

Accordingly, when driven in second, higher harmonic mode, with a W/L range of 0.05 to 0.85, the step-up ratio, with no load, is 300 or more, and the step-up ratio with a load resistor of M0, for example, is 100, or more. It will be noted that with L 5 80 mm, and T/L 0.02 0.4, the maximum output voltage is 30 KV.

It is also found that within the foregoing W/L ranges, in either vibration mode, the input-to-output power efficiency is also high.

Piezo-ceramic material develops an effective piezoelectric performance only when a high DC. voltage (about 2 KV/mm) is applied thereto. The polarization appears in the directions shown by the arrows in FIGS. 5A and 53 where, in FIG. 5A which shows a conventional connection, the downward short arrow on the left represents the fact that a positive potential was applied to theupper electrode E when the polarization process took place. Thus, the lower electrode E,,,-' which was supplied with a negative potential at the time of polarization is connected to the ground side of the output circuitry.

In accordance with the present invention, however, the lower input electrode Ely, in FIG. B, which shows the connection according to the present invention, and which was supplied with a positive potential when the polarization process took place, is connected to the ground side of the output circuitry, and the direction of polarization is upward.

Table 1 below shows the voltage step-up ratio (l /V obtained using the conventional connection shown in FIG. 5A the ratio (V /V and obtained using the present connection, as shown in FIG. 5B.

TABLE 1 Dimension: L 28 mm T 3.5 mm W 15 mm Load: 100 MO.

Step-up ratio Sample (b)/(a) 2/ 1 z'I As seen from Table l, the step-up ratio of a transformer using the electrical connection according to the present invention is higher than that of a conventional connection by from 3 to 9 percent. However, no difference between the present connection and a conventional connection was noted with respect to other characteristics, such as resonance frequency, output voltage regulation, self heating, and the like.

A piezoelectric ceramic transformer, in accordance with the present invention, has a specific width-to-length ratio (W/L), which results in a high voltage output heretofore unattainable in the art. Further, the transformer is very reliable with respect to its insulation characteristics and is noncombustible, so that the present invention is very effective for practical use in high voltage and power generation.

What is claimed is:

1. A piezo-electric ceramic transformer of generally rectangular, parallelopiped configuration, said transformer having a longitudinal length of 2L, a thickness T and a width W, which comprises: 1 a

1. a first region electrically polarized in a thickness-wise direction; 2. a second region electrically polarized in the longitudinal direction;

3. a pair of input electrodes applied to opposite surfaces of said first region for receiving an energizing A.C. voltage from an external source;

4. an output electrode applied to an end face of said second region, one of the electrodes associated with said first region functioning as a common electrode for said output electrode, wherein 5. for applications where said transformer is driven into fundamental mode longitudinal vibrations by said source, the improvement comprises adjusting the dimensions of the transformer so that the width to length ratio W/L falls within the range of from 0.2 to 1.2.

2. The piezo-electric ceramic transformer according to claim 1, wherein the one of said pair of input electrodes connected to a source of positive potential, with respect to the other one of said pair of electrodes, is connected to the ground side of the output circuitry connected to said output electrode as the common electrode therefor.

3. A piezo-electric ceramic transformer of generally rectangular, parallelopiped configuration, said transformer having a longitudinal length of 2L, a thickness T and a width W, which comprises:

1. a first region electrically polarized in a thickness-wise direction; 2. a second region electrically polarized in the longitudinal direction;

3. a pair of input electrodes applied to opposite surfaces of said first region for receiving an energizing A.C. voltage from an external source;

4. an output electrode applied to an end face of said second region, one of the electrodes associated with said first region functioning as a common electrode for said output electrode, wherein for applications where said transformer is driven into second harmonic longitudinal vibrations by said source, the improvement comprises adjusting the dimensions of the transformer such that the width to length ratio W/L falls within the range of from 0.05 to 0.85.

4. The piezoelectric ceramic transformer according to claim 3 wherein the one of said pair of input electrodes connected to a source of positive potential, with respect to the other one of said pair of electrodes, is connected to the ground side of the output circuitry connected to said output electrode as the common electrode therefor.

LII

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2830274 *Jun 29, 1954Apr 8, 1958Gen ElectricElectromechanical transducer
US2974296 *May 26, 1959Mar 7, 1961Gen ElectricElectromechanical transducer
US3562792 *Jun 4, 1968Feb 9, 1971Clevite CorpPiezoelectric transformer
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3736446 *Oct 27, 1970May 29, 1973Vernitron CorpPiezoelectric transformer
US5118982 *May 30, 1990Jun 2, 1992Nec CorporationThickness mode vibration piezoelectric transformer
US5463266 *Jan 3, 1994Oct 31, 1995Nec CorporationPiezoelectric transformer having improved electrode arrangement
US5504384 *Nov 21, 1994Apr 2, 1996Industrial Technology Research InstituteMulti-mode adjustable piezoelectric transformer
US5666144 *May 19, 1994Sep 9, 1997Brother Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaInk droplet jet device having segmented piezoelectric ink chambers with different polarization
EP0605901A1 *Dec 30, 1993Jul 13, 1994Nec CorporationA piezoelectric transformer having improved electrode arrangement
Classifications
U.S. Classification310/359, 310/368
International ClassificationH01L41/107
Cooperative ClassificationH01L41/107
European ClassificationH01L41/107