|Publication number||US3660634 A|
|Publication date||May 2, 1972|
|Filing date||Aug 14, 1970|
|Priority date||Aug 14, 1970|
|Publication number||US 3660634 A, US 3660634A, US-A-3660634, US3660634 A, US3660634A|
|Inventors||Scott Howard L|
|Original Assignee||Fidelity Bank|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (23), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
I Umted States Patent 1151 3,660,634 Scott a 1451 May 2, 1972  APPARATUS FOR TREATING 2,545,885 3/1951 Jackson ..132/11s NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC HAIR 2,762,382 9/1956 -Morgan ..l32/148  Inventor: Howard L. Scott, Philadelphia, Pa. primary Examiner A Bartis 73 Assignee: The Fidelity Bank  Filed: Aug. 14, 1970 57 ABSTRACT [2 PP 63,337 A tool for straightening or otherwise setting natural or I synthetic hair in a selected condition, said tool comprising a cylindrical heating means surrounded by a heat-conducting CL z bushing and having radially extended, spaced-apart, heat-insu- 51 1m. 01. ..H05b 3/00, A45d 1/18, A45d 24/10 laing discs Pmjecfing The discs are ranged 1n spaced parallellsm w1th each other to accommodate  Fleld of Search ..2l9/222226, 221,
. 1nd1v1dual port1ons of strands of hair so that these portlons are l32/ll7,ll8,l44,l45,l22,123,124, 148,151,
153 159 7 9 31 37 39 40 separatedfrom each other by said dlscs and retalned 1n tull contact w1th the heat-conducting bush1ng. A smusoidal sprmg  References-Cited retainer strip is pivotally connected to thetool that it is g I v p votally movable from a clampmg pos1t1on ad acent the l D STATES PATENTS I I parallel edges of the discs to a release position remote I g i therefrom. The spring retainer strip is preferably plvotally 2,474,106 6/1949 Jackson et a1. ..'.....132/1 18 connected to a guard means positioned between the i i. 1,770,943 7/1930 Newton 132/12 X cal heating means and'a heatinsulating handle connected to I X 7 heatin mean aid guard meanszcomprising a sleeve suf- 3324354 12/ 1965 Qumlo et 9- 132/1 18 X 1 rounding the cylindrical heating means between the handle 2,460,548 2/1949 Stewart 132/159 X and t plurality 0fdi5s 1,663,468 3/1928 Vaughan..... ....l32/124 I 3,459,199 8/1969 Connell 132/1 1 R 3 Claims,,3 Drawing Figures PATENTEBMM 2 1912 INVENTOR I HOWARD L. scorr F7613 APPARATUS FOR TREA'I'I G NATURAL AND SYNTHETICHAIR This invention relates to a method and apparatus for treating natural or synthetic hair to either straighten the hair or maintain a substantially permanent set, and it particularly relates to a method and apparatus which utilizes a heat-curable composition and a heated device for holding the hair strands in predetermined arrangement during heat-curing.
In accordance with the present method, a treating composition is first applied as a" coating onthe hair, after which the hair is wrapped around the tool herein disclosed and held'in wrapped position while heat is applied from the tool to the hair fibers until the coating composition is cured and fixed to the hair. in order to maintain a constant thermal action on all parts of the treated hair so that inadvertent curls or kinks do not develop, it is necessarythat the tool have a specific construction whereby all operative parts thereof contact the scalp or other surface to which the hair is attached with a uniform pressure. It is also preferably that the tool be a fully-contained unit which requires no other e'lernent's'to make it operative.
It is, therefore, one object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus fortreating natural or synthetic hair which utilizes a heat-curable coating composition and a heated setting and curing tool whereby the entire process may be carried out in a-simple manner by merely applying the coating to the hair and then wrapping the coated hair strands on the tool which inherently providesuniform pressure and heat to cure'the'coatingon the hair.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a method andm'eans of the aforesaidtype that is easy to use and that is relatively inexpensive incost.
Other objectsa'nd many of the attendant advantages of this invention" will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following description when: readin conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG; 1 is a perspective'view of a tool embodying the appara tus utiliz'ed'in the present invention; Y Y
FIG. 2 is anenlarged-longitudinal sectional view ofthe operable portion ofthe tool of FIG; I.
FIG. 3 isa sectional view of the tool of FIG. 2, but also showing strands ofhairwrapped aboutthe tool.
Referring now in. greater detail to Y the drawings wherein similar. reference characters refer to similar parts, there is shown a tool, generally designated. 10, having'a handle portion LZand an operating portion' l4'. The handle 12 'is constructed of heat-insulatingmaterialsuch'as wood, plastic, or the like, and is providedwith a hub l6'enclosed by a press-fitted metal cap 18. Thehandle 12 is also provided with acentral longitudinal bore 20 through which extends a, cable 22'liavingelectrical wires 24 adapted to'be connectedto asource of electrical energy (not shown).
A counterbOreZiS" mates with 'a bore 20, and extending into this counterbore isahollow-metal rod2 8i The rod 28 is held in position by a rivetorthe'like indicated at 30." Mounted on the 'rod 28, adjacent the hub 16 of the handle, is a collarfiz which' forms 'a cylindrical guard, and which is constructed ofpolyetliylene or the like. This collar 32 is held in position on the rod 28 by a' rivet'or'the like indicated at 34. Th'ecollar32 ispr'ovided with a flange36 at one end and with a recess 38' at the-opposite end; Adjacent the recess 38"is an aperture 40,and-wit-hin this'aperture .40 is pivotally'positioned ahooked end 42 of a. metal spring retainer strip 44, the hooked end 42 being mounted ona pin held in theaperture 40. The retainer strip is provided with a curvetureand with a wave. form to correspond 'with the arrangement to be hereinafter described.-- That portion oftheretainer'strip which is adjacent the aper'ture 40 is seated in the recess 38 to prevent lateral movement thereof. A- sleeve 4 8 is slidable on theouter periphery of the collar 32 Whenthe sleeve 48is pushed back toward the handle, itleaves the retainer'strip 44"free to pivot upwardly, but when the sleeve= 48"overliesthe aperture-40, it acts'to lockth'e retainer strip against pivotal movement;
The rod 28 encloses an electrical heating element, here shown as a hollow ceramic rod 50. The wires 24 are connected to a resistance coil 52 within the rod 50 whereby electrical energy provides the required amount of heat.
Mounted on the rod 28 are a series of cylindrical bushings 54 constructed of heat-conducting material such as copper or brass. These bushings 54 are press-fitted on the rod 28 and between each pair thereof is frictionally held an annular disc 56. In eflect, the bushings 54 form what is essentially a cylindricalsleeve with the extending radially therefrom. At the free end of the rod 28 is provided a 58 having a hub 60 which is frictionally engaged the hollow end of the rod 28. Both the discs 56 and the disc 58 are constructed of heat-insulating material such as Teflon or the like. I
A preferable feature of the present invention is that the discs 56 progressively vary in diameter from a greater diameter at the ends to a'smaller diameter at the middle of the device, so that the actual contact surface is generally concave. This permits the device to conform to the shape of the scalp, as in the case of natural hair, or to conform to the shape of a convex form, as in the case of a wig or the like. Such confor-' mation, on the one hand, prevents any undue looseness of the hair which might result in undesirable kinks or, on the other hand, any undue tightness which might injure the scalp or tear the hair. The retainer strip 44 is also constructed with a curveture to follow the concave contour of the disc assembly.
An important feature of the present invention is the fact that the discs 56 and 58 extend around the entire periphery of the device. This permits the device to be fully rotated on the scalp or other convex supporting surface, whereby'the hair strandsmay be rolled onto the tool while maintaining a constant pressure and contact of the heated cylinder 54 with the scalp or other surface. In this same respect, it is essential that access to the heated cylinder 54 beprovided throughout the entire 360 are so that all the rolled up hair strands have contact throughout their length with the heating element. Atthe same time, it is important that the hair strands be kept from screw-threading around the device since such screw-threading results in undesirable lateral tension on the hair. This is avoidedin the present invention by making the discs 56 and 58extend in a straight radial direction from the cylinder 54 and by keeping them in parallelism with each other.
The above-described tool is utilized with a heat-curable composition. A composition which is especially adapted for use with this tool is one which consists essentially of a substantive hardening and adhesive agent in aqueous media. The hardening agent may also be combined with one or more of a substantive water-repellent agent, a flame-retardant agent, a softening agent, a slipping agent, and an emolient.
Among the hardening agents which may be used are: p,pmethylenedianiline and various acrylic, acrylonitrile and methacrylic copolymers. One such copolymer which is particularly adapted to this invention is a copolymer obtained by polymerizing a mixture of about 05-25 percent by weight of itaconic acid, 3-4 percent by weight of at least one member of the group consisting of acrylonitrile, alkyl esters of acrylic and methacrylic'acids having from one to 18 carbon atoms'in the alkyl group, phenyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, pcyclohexylphenyl methacrylate, methacrylonitrile, methyl vinyl ketone and vinyl chloride, and 35-965 percent by weight of vinylidene chloride. Such products are disclosed and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,570,478, and will hereinafter referred to as acrylic-modified vinylidene chloride polymer.
Other copolymers include the water-insoluble copolymers obtained by emulsion copolymerization of N-methylolacrylamide or N-methylolmethacrylamide or mixtures thereof with acrylamide or methacrylamide. Copolymers of this type are disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,157,562, and in U.S. Pat. No. 2,754,280.
Also utilizable are the copolymers of acrylonitrile and styrene'produced by Pennsylvania Industrial Chemical Corp., under the trade names Piccoflex" and .Arolon 363" (Archer Daniels Midland Co.), a solutionof a water-soluble, oxidizing resin containing about 50 percent by weight solids, having a viscosity of SX (Gardner-Holdt at 25 C.), and a pH of between 6.9 and 7.3 at 25 C.
The hardening agent is utilized in a proportion of about 10-80 percent by volume of the total aqueous composition.
The preferable flame-proofmg agent is sodium bicarbonate, and is used in a proportion of about 1-20 percent by volume, preferably about 1-6 percent of the total composition.
The preferable water-repellent agent, which is preferably used in a proportion of about l-50 percent by volume, consists of (a) a wax-polymer emulsion wherein the ratio of wax to polymer is about 3:1, the polymer being a copolymer which consists of (1) about 15-90 percent by weight of an amino group containing comonomer having the structure:
where R and R are selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl and cycloalkyl that include R R and R is selected from the group consisting of H and CH and (2) l -85 percent by weight of a comonomer having the structure:
where X is a member of the group selected from H and CH and Y is a member selected from the polar group consisting of nitrile, aliphatic acyloxy having from l-l8 carbon atoms and alkoxycarbonyl having from l-l8 carbon atoms, said copolymer having an intrinsic viscosity in benzene at 30 C. of from 0.04-0.5.
Other products that may be used as the water-proofing or water-repellent agent are such commercially available products as Zonyl RP (DuPont), which is an anionic fluoro compound having a density at 77 F. of 8.85 lb/gal., a viscosity at 77 F. of 10 centipoises, a pH of 7.0 and complete solubility in water. Also Nalan RF and Nalan RD (DuPont), Zelcon SL (DuPont), Zepel (DuPont) and other similar water-dispersible products, as for example, Scotchgard.
(Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co.
The most preferable softening agent is an aqueous dispersion of N-methylol stearamide wherein the compound is present in a concentration of about -45 percent by weight, and preferably about -30 percent by weight.
The softening agent, which in many instances, serves as a water-repellent function as well, is used in a preferable proportion of about 0.1-0.5 percent by volume.
Another softening agent, which also functions as a waterrepellent is an aluminum complex (commercially available as DuPonts Aluminum Complex 101), which is a coordination of complex aluminum and myristic acid and which has the following structure:
In this complex, the aluminum groups anchor to the treated surfaces while the myristic group orients outward.
Yet another softening agent is a Werner type chromium complex having the structure:
H Cr-(i-Cr groups. On drying, hydrolysis and condensation occur to the point where the polymer is condensed through -O- bridges with the surface as follows:
l i III The slipping agent, utilized in a proportion of about 01-10 percent by volume may be any one of a number of fluoro resins. Among these resins is a product produced by DuPont under the name of Teflon P-TFE." This product, as used herein, is a polytetrafluoroethylene having a molecular weight of between about 1,000,000 to 10,000,000, and a viscosity greater than l0 poises at 380 C. Also utilizableis a vinylidene fluoride resin, produced by Pennsalt Chemicals Corporation under the name Kynar. This is a high molecular weight polymer having a molecular weight of between about 300,000 and 600,000 and having the structure:
CH -CF CH CF +-CH CF The emollient, which may be used in a proportion of about 25.60 percent by volume, may be lanolin or any equivalent substance.
All ofthe compositions embodying the present invention may be prepared by mixing the desired proportions of all the components together at room temperature and pressure until a homogeneous, viscous, grease-like cream is obtained.
In the operation of the present process, the hair strands are coated with the composition, either by spraying, dipping, rubbing, etc., and the coated hair is wrapped around the device with the discs 56 and 58 acting like a comb to disentangle the hair and separate the strands into a multiplicity of hanks or groups, whereby the individual strands in each hank are more easily accessible to the heated cylindrical surface.
A suflicient amount of heat is supplied to cure the composition, effecting a crystallization thereof. This forms a relatively permanent set. The heat required for this purpose is between about l20-250 F. depending on the type of hair or fiber being processed and on the type of composition used.
The process is repeated with each portion of they hair until the entire head of hair, wig, or the like has been treated.
The following examples illustrate the invention, without, however, limiting it except as claimed:
EXAMPLE 1 75 percent by volume of p,p'-methylenedianiline was mixed, at room temperature and pressure, with 3.5 percent by volume of sodium bicarbonate and with 21.5 percent water,
- the mixture taking place under agitation until a homogeneous cream-like substance was produced.
EXAMPLE 2 0.085 parts by weight of ammonium persulfate and 0.08 parts by weight of sodium hydrosulfite were added. As soon as the temperature began to rise, 2.5 parts by weight of itaconic acid, dissolved in 44 parts by weight of water, was added over a period of 8 minutes. As polymerization proceeded, the temperature rose in 17 minutes to a maximumof 56 C. The dispersion was stirred until it reached room temperature.
59 percent by volume of the above dispersion was mixed, under agitation, at room temperature and pressure, with 0.3 percent by volume Aluminum Complex 101, 2percent by volume sodium bicarbonate, 4 percent by volume of the waxpolymer emulsion described above, '1 percent by volume of Teflon P-TFE, and 16.7 percent by volume water. Agitation was continued until a heavy grease-like cream was obtained.
EXAMPLE3 To a solution of 300 parts of 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and 700 parts of octadecyl methacrylate in 1,000 parts of molten paraffin wax, maintained at 75 C., in a suitable vessel equipped with an agitator, are added parts of 2,2 azodiisobutyronitrilein small increments over a period of 6 to 10 hours. After the last addition of the polymerization initiator, the reaction mass is held at 75 C. for two hours, and the temperature is then raised to 100 C. and held at that temperature for about a hour. The charge is then diluted with 2,000 parts by weight of molten paraffin wax, to give a wax copolymer ratio of 3: 1. All parts herein are by weight. Into 100 parts by weight of the above wax-copolymer composition, melted by heating to between 65 and 70 C.,-4 parts by weight of glacial acetic acid are stirred. The waxcopolymer mass is then slowly added to 294 parts by weight of water kept under vigorous agitation with a high shear mixer, and maintained at 65 to 70 C. Agitation is then continued for a sufficient time to complete the emulsification. The resulting product is then cooled to room temperature. The product has a molecular weight of between about 20,000 and 80,000 and a viscosity of about 16 centipoises at 80 F. (Brookfield).
12 percent by volume of the above emulsion was mixed with 37.5 percent by volume of p,p'-methylenedianiline, 0.5 percent by volume Teflon P-TF E having a molecular weight of about 1,500,000, and 50 percent by volume lanolin. Three drops of perfume were then added. The mixture was thoroughly agitated at room temperature and'pressure until a homogeneous, grease-like cream was produced.
In one operation, the composition of Example 1 was applied to a human head of hair by rubbing a sufficient quantity into the hair until the hair was completely coated. Thereafter, the heated tool 10, at F., was successively applied to each increment of the hair whereby the discs 56 and 58 actedlike a comb to disentangle and separate the hair increment into a plurality of hanks, each hank being positioned in a space between the discs with the individual strands lying on the heated surface of rod 28. The heat was applied for about 5 seconds, at which time crystallization of the composition occurred. After the entire head of hair had been processed, the treated hair was styled in a desirable manner.
In the same manner, the compositions of Examples 2 and 3 were applied to other human heads of hair, the same procedure and time of heating being used.
The same procedures with the compositions of Examples 1, 2, and 3 were followed as above except that the application was made to a wig consisting of nylon strands. After treatment, each wig was styled in a manner desired.
What is claimed is:
l. A hair treating tool comprising a elongated heating means, said heating means being encompassed by heat conducting means operatively connected thereto, a heat-insulating handle connected to said heating means, a plurality of spaced-apart heat-insulating discs projecting radially straight outward from said heating means, said discs being arranged in parallelism with each other, whereby individual small portions of strands of hair may be separated from each other by said discs and retained between said discs in full contact with said heat conducting means around an arc of 360, and a spring retainer strip pivotally connected to said tool and pivotally movable from a clamping position adjacent the peripheral edges of the discs to a release position remote therefrom, said retainer strip having substantially sinusoidal wave form corresponding to the spacing between said discs.
2. The tool of claim 1 wherein said spring retainer strip is pivotally connected to a guard means positioned between said cylindrical heating means and said handle, and movable locking means on said guard means for releasably holding said retainer strip in said clamping position, said guard means comprising a heat-insulating sleeve surrounding said cylindrical
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|U.S. Classification||219/222, 132/118, 132/268, 132/223, 132/124|
|International Classification||A45D1/04, A45D1/00|