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Publication numberUS3660900 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 9, 1972
Filing dateNov 10, 1969
Priority dateNov 10, 1969
Publication numberUS 3660900 A, US 3660900A, US-A-3660900, US3660900 A, US3660900A
InventorsLawrence F Andrews
Original AssigneeLawrence F Andrews
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique
US 3660900 A
Abstract
The method and apparatus for improving orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique where the individual brackets have an inner radius for attachment to a tooth band which conforms to the outer contour of the tooth both vertically and horizontally and has at least one groove therein for the reception of one or more arch wires having a radius for conforming to overall arch wire geometry and wherein the groove is cut with a torquing angle, a tipping angle, an in-out dimension and in some cases, a rotation compensation angle for cooperation with an unbent arch wire in which the various angles built into the bracket result in desired force vectors for movement of individual teeth to a desired position, and in the alternative the variations in dimensions and angles are built into the tooth band.
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lUited States Patent Andrews ay 9, 1972 [54] METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR [56] References Cited IMPROVED ORTHODONTIC BRACKET AND ARCH WIRE TECHNIQUE UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,908,974 10/1959 Stifter ..32/l4 3,345,745 10/1967 Muller ..32/l4 [72] Inventor: Lawrence F. Andrews, 1808 Cable St., San

g Calif- 92107 Primary Examiner-Robert Peshock [22] Filed 10 1969 Attorney-Richard K. MacNeill {21] Appl. No.: 875,086 [57] ABSTRACT The method and apparatus for improving orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique where the individual brackets have an Related Application Data inner radius for attachment to a tooth band which conforms to the outer contour of the tooth both vertically and horizontally [63] Continuatiomimpan of sen 69 Sept 22, and has at least one groove therein for the reception of one or 967 Pat. 3 477 128' more arch wires having a radius for conforming to overall arch wire geometry and wherein the groove is cut with a torquing angle, a tipping angle, an in-out dimension and in some cases, a rotation compensation angle for cooperation with an unbent [2%] (S1. ..32/14A arch wire in which the various angles built into the bracke! result in desired force vectors for movement of individual teeth to a desired position, and in the alternative the variations in dimensions and angles are built into the tooth band.

30 Claims, 28 Drawing Figures P'A'TENTEDMA 91912 8,660,900

' SHEET 1 [IF 4 (PRIOR ART) INVENTOR. LAWRENCE E ANDREWS PATENTEB 9 I972 SHEET 2 0F 4 INVENTOR.

LAWRENCE E ANDREWS PATENTEDMAY 91972 sum 3 UF 4 INVENTOR. LAWRENCE E' ANDREWS P'AT'E'NTEDMAY 91912 3. 660, 900

SHEET u 0? 4 INVENTOR.

LAWRENCE E ANDREWS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR IMPROVED ORTHODONTIC BRACKET AND ARCH WIRE TECnNr uE RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending application filed Sept. 22, 1967, Ser. No. 669,919, and now U.S. Pat. No. 3,477,128 issued Nov. 11, 1969, for Method and Apparatus for Improved Orthodontic Bracket and Arch Wire Technique.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique and more particularly to a method and apparatus for an improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique in which force vectors are built into the individual orthodontic brackets or tooth bands for obviating the necessity of placing bends in the arch wire to produce the desired force vectors and, hence, the desired tooth movement.

PRIOR ART The prior art method of installing orthodontic brackets and arch wires comprise basically the placement of brackets on bands which are placed on the patients teeth, each bracket having a groove built therein for the reception of the arch wire. The orthodontist would then mount the arch wire in the individual bracket grooves and place bends in the arch wire which would result in various force vectors for moving the individual teeth to their desired positions. These force vectors are required for tipping the teeth toward or away from the adjacent teeth. Torquing the teeth, i.e., angulating them toward or away from the center of the mouth was accomplished by placing a twist in the arch wire along its longitudinal axis and moving the teeth in and out parallel to themselves toward the center or away from the center of the mouth and forward and back in dental arch. Other required or desired force vectors would be, as in the case of extractions, compensation for tooth rotation resulting in an attempt to move the tooth toward or away from another tooth and tip compensation to avoid the tooth tipping as it is moved toward or away from adjacent teeth. Other considerations involved in making these complex bends in the arch wire would be the compensations for the haphazard mounting of the brackets due to the outer contour of the tooth in two directions, i.e., horizontally and vertically, and general arch wire geometry. As can be appreciated, these complex vectors resulted at best in an approximation of the proper bends to be placed in the wire and depended a great deal on the individual orthodontic skill, dexterity and experience of the operator. This problem is magnified in the case of a partnership practice since few operators have sufficiently identical techniques to maintain a continuity of movement where succeeding arch wires are installed by different operators. This, of course caused considerable jiggling of teeth, i.e., partial retracing of previous movement together with the disadvantages attendant therewith, such as root resorption.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION According to the invention, the bracket or tooth band for each individual tooth has a plurality of dimensions built in which, when Coupled to an unbent arch wire, result in the desired force vectors being applied to the tooth. 'At the present time, there are a total of eight dimensions being taken into consideration. The first two to be considered is the curvature on the band side of the bracket which consists of two radii at right angles to each other, taking into consideration the outer contour of the individual tooth since this varies from tooth to tooth, e.g., from the central incisor to a molar. This contour consideration gives meaning to the other built-in force vectors since it supplies a consistent starting point. The prior art haphazard mounting of the bracket to the band results in the absence of this consideration.

The next dimension takes into consideration the arch wire geometry, i.e., the radius of curvature of the arch wire at the point of Contact with the individual bracket. The other angles are built into the groove which receives the arch wire or to the tooth band. These angles result in torquing, and tipping forces, and an in-out force. In the extraction case, tip compensation and rotation compensation angles are also built into the arch wire grooves or tooth band. Relative thickness of the bracket from the tooth to the inner face of the groove determines the in-out force.

It has been found that at least percent of the malocclusions fall into three basic types which can be accommodated by nine basic sets of appliances. These can be subdivided into finer sets taking into consideration extraction and non-extraction cases. With these basic sets, a saving of from 15 to 75 minutes for each arch wire installation is made by each orthodontist, as well as an improved result by removing the guess work from the installation of the brackets and bands because the built-in angles in the brackets or bands predetermine their final arrangement.

An object of the present invention is the provision of a method and apparatus for an improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique.

Another object is to provide a method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique for providing uniform results regardless of individual skill.

A further object of the invention is the provision of the method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique which is faster and more uniform in results.

Still another object is to provide a method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique having desired force vectors built into the orthodontic bracket or tooth band.

Yet another object is to provide a method and apparatus for an improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique which obviates or minimizes the necessity of placing bends in the arch wire.

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when con sidered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals designate like parts throughout the figures thereof and wherein:

FIG. 1 is a front elevation view of a typical prior art orthodontic bracket and arch wire installation;

FIG. 2 is a front elevation view of a typical installation of the orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a top view of a typical prior art orthodontic bracket and arch wire installation;

FIG. 4 is a top view of a typical installation of the orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the preferred embodiment of a typical orthodontic bracket according to the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a top view showing a schematic representation of a typical orthodontic bracket and arch wire installation according to the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a top view showing a schematic representation of the present invention as applied to an extraction case; and,

FIGS. 8-19 show various views of orthodontic brackets according to the present invention having various corrective force vectors built in as applied to different teeth in a typical case;

FIGS. 20-28 illustrate various views of tooth bands according to the present invention, having various corrective force vectors built in as applied to different teeth in a typical case.

Referring to FIGS. I and 3,'a plurality of teeth is shown each having a tooth band 22 mounted thereon to which an orthodontic bracket 23 is attached. Each orthodontic bracket 23 has a groove which receives arch wire 25. Arch wire 25 has a plurality of bends 26.

Referring to FIGS. 2 and 4, a plurality of teeth 21 is again shown each carrying a tooth band 22. An orthodontic bracket 24 is attached to each tooth band. Each orthodontic bracket 24 has grooves with built-in angles substantially parallel to effect passage of an unbent arch wires 25, 25B and 25C therein.

Referring to FIG. 5 an orthodontic bracket 24 has arch wire grooves 51, 52, and 53 with a back portion 28 adapted to conform to the contour ofa tooth band.

Referring to FIG. 6, a typical patients mouth is shown having central incisors 31, lateral incisors 32, cuspids 33, first bicuspids 34, second bicuspids 35, first molars 36 and second molars 37. Each of these teeth has an orthodontic bracket 24 attached thereto (by a tooth band not shown). Each of said orthodontic brackets 24 has grooves for receiving arch wires 25 and 25B therein.

Referring to FIG. 7, an extraction case is illustrated wherein a space generally shown at 41 is to be filled by tooth 42 by moving it parallel to itself toward tooth 43. Here bracket 24 has an angle E built in which compensates for rotation in the direction of arrow 44 and accomplishes a movement of the tooth 42 linearly in the direction of arrow 46. A tipping compensation angle B or B (FIGS. l0, 16, 12 and 18) would also be utilized.

Referring to FIGS. 8-13, typical angles, radii and dimensions are shown on brackets 24 for a patients right upper teeth. These angles are shown as A, A, B, B and D. The radii are shown as R, R and R" and one critical dimension is shown at C (FIG. 11).

Referring to FIGS. 1419, a group of orthodontic brackets 24 are shown for the left upper teeth complementing the set shown and described with reference to FIGS. 6-11. Again, angles A, A, B, B, and D are shown together with radii R, R, R" and dimension C (FIG. 17).

Angles A and A represent torquing angles, B and B represent tipping angles and dimension C results in an in-out force vector. Radii R and R" correspond to the outer contour of the tooth and are at right angles to each other. Radius R conforms to the radius of curvature of the arch wire geometry at that point. The following chart tabulates typical dimensions and angles for a set of these brackets, where dimensions C, R, R and R" are in inches and angles A, A, B, B and D are in degrees. The dimensions and angles shown cover right uppers and left lowers in this exemplary set. The left uppers and right lowers would have the same figures but would constitute a mirror image of the right uppers and left lowers.

The angles shown would apply to all of the grooves in the brackets, i.e., front grooves 51, top grooves 52, and bottom grooves 53. It is pointed out that in orthodontic arch wire techniques as set out in this application, it is contemplated that top or bottom grooves 52 or 53 would be utilized either alone or in conjunction with front groove 51. Where front groove 51 is not utilized, the in-out dimension and resulting force is determined by the distance from the inner side of the top and/or bottom groove 52 or 53 and the tooth. It will be seen below this can be varied by varying the dimensions of the bracket and/or modifications to the tooth band.

A A B 13' C R R R I) Right uppers:

Central 7.0 5.0 5.0 .050 1.00 .50 1.0 Lateral 0 0 0.0 0.0 .068 .500 .50 .80 0 Cuspirl 7.2 10.8 16.8 .033 .150 1.0 .75 0 1stl)icuspid 5.0 4.0 0 .037 .156 1.0 .75 0 2nd bicuspidh 0.0 2.3 -3.7 .033 .156 1.0 .40 0 1st1nolnr 0.0 4.7 1.3 .015 .500 1.5 .50 7 2nd incl-.111. 12. 0 4. 7 -1. 3 023 500 1. 50 0 Loft lowers:

( tlli.l't\i.. 5.0 2.4 5.0 .074 .187 .50 1.5 0 lntlmztl. 5. 0 2. 4 5. 0 074 218 50 1. 5 0 (llispitl l0.5 5. 3 10.5 .045 .187 1.0 .75 0 ls'l. hit-.Hsliiil l7. 0 2.0 0 .025 .156 1. 0 50 0 2m! hit-.lls'pitl 22. 0 3. ti 2. 2 .020 .140 1.0 25 0 Isl. nmlgir 30.0 3.0 .2 4 015 500 1.5 .25 7 35.0 3.0 2 4 023 500 L5 .25 0

Referring to FIG. 20, tooth band 54 is shown in spatial relationship with wedge members 56 and 57. Through the utilization of wedge members 56 and 57, a laminate structure is added to tooth band 54 which effects the same torquing angle as shown in FIG. 7.

Referring to FIG. 21, tooth band 54 is shown in spatial relationship with wedge 58. It is contemplated that wedge 58 would be supplied separately to the orthodontist and would be attached to the tooth band in place of the laminate structure shown in FIG. 20.

Referring to FIGS. 22, tooth band 54 has a stamped protrusion 59 which efiects the same angulation or torque as the structure of FIGS. 20 and 21.

Referring to FIG. 23, wedges 61 and 62 are shown in spatial relationship with tooth band 54 and are angulated for effecting a torquing force vector.

Referring to FIG. 24 a single wedge member 63 is shown in spatial relationship with tooth band 54. Wedge member 63 takes the place of laminates 61 and 62 of FIG. 23.

Referring to FIG. 25, a stamped-out raised portion 64 is shown on tooth band 54 which effects the same torquing force vector as in FIGS. 23 and 24.

Referring to FIG. 26, laminates 66 and 67 are shown in spatial relationship with tooth band 54 for effecting an in-out force which would substitute for varying the thickness of the bracket itself.

Referring to FIG. 27, laminates 66 and 67 are replaced with a single build-up member 68, also for effecting the in-out force vector.

Referring to FIG. 28, stamped raised portion 69 is shown on tooth band 54 also for effecting an in-out force vector.

It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing disclosure relates to only a preferred embodiment of the invention and that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examples of the invention herein chosen for the purposes of the disclosure which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

a plurality of brackets having front faces and back sides;

each of said back sides being adapted for mounting to a predetermined tooth having a specific contour, said back sides being specifically contoured for cooperation therewith; and

said front sides having a groove recessed therein for the reception of an arch wire, said grooves having predetermined depth and angulation for creating force vectors operable for straightening teeth of a patient upon installation of unbent arch wire therein.

2. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

each of said grooves has a radius of curvature substantially equal to a predetermined radius of curvature of an unbent arch wire after the complete installation thereof.

3. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

the distance from said back sides to the outer faces of said brackets conforms to overall curvature of an installed but unbent arch wire geometry. 4. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein: at least one of said grooves has a vertical angle with respect to an axis of a predetermined tooth for creating a predetermined force vector for tipping said predetermined tooth a predetermined amount upon installation of an unbent arch wire. 5. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein: the distance from said back sides to the inner faces of said grooves is predetermined to create a predetermined inout force vector from an installed but unbent arch wire on a predetermined tooth.

6. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

the outer face of at least one of said brackets and the back side of said at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a vertical plane for creating a predetermined torquing angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from an installed but unbent arch wire.

7. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

the outer face of at least one of said brackets and the back side of said at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a horizontal plane for creating a rotating angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from an installed but unbent arch wire.

8. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

a plurality of brackets each having a front face and a back side;

said front face having a groove recessed therein for the reception of an arch wire, said grooves having predetermined depth and angulation for creating force vectors operable for straightening teeth of a patient upon installation of an unbent arch wire thereon; and

said back side being adapted for mounting to a predetermined tooth, the distance from said back side to the outer face of said bracket conforming to overall curvature of an installed but unbent arch wire geometry.

9. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth.

10. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

said groove has a radius of curvature substantially equal to a predetermined radius of curvature of an unbent arch wire after the complete installation thereof.

11. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

at least one of said grooves has a vertical angle with respect to an axis of a predetermined tooth for creating a predetermined force vector for tipping said predetermined tooth a predetermined amount after the installation of an unbent arch wire.

12. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

the distance from said back side to the inner face of at least one of said grooves is predetermined to create a predetermined in-out force vector from completely installed but unbent arch wire on a predetermined tooth.

13. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

the outer face of at least one of said brackets and the back side of said at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a vertical plane for creating a predetermined torquing angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from a completely installed but unbent arch wire.

14. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

the outer face of at least one of said brackets and the back side of said at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a horizontal plane for creating a rotating angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from a completely installed but unbent arch wire.

15. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

a plurality of brackets having a front face and a back side and top and bottom sides;

said back side being adapted for mounting to a predetermined tooth having a specific contour, said back side being specifically contoured for cooperation therewith;

one of said top and bottom sides having a groove recessed therein for the reception of an arch wire, said grooves having predetermined depth and angulation for creating force vectors operable for straightening teeth of a patient upon installation of an unbent arch wire thereon; and

the distance from said back side to the outer face of said bracket conforms to overall curvature of an installed nut unbent arch wire geometry.

16. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

each of said grooves has a radius of curvature substantially equal to a predetermined radius of curvature of an unbent arch wire after the complete installation thereof.

17. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

at least one of said grooves has a vertical angle with respect to an axis of a predetermined tooth for creating a predetermined force vector for tipping said predetermined tooth a predetermined amount upon installation of an unbent arch wire.

18. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

the distance from said back side to the inner face of at least one of said groove is predetermined to create a predetermined in-out force vector from an installed but unbent arch wire on a predetermined tooth.

19. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

the inner face of at least one of said grooves and the back side of at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined torquing angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from an installed but unbent arch wire.

20. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

the inner face of at least one of said grooves and the back side of at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a horizontal plane for creating a rotating angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from an installed but unbent arch wire.

21. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

a plurality of brackets having a front face and a back side and top bottom sides;

one of said top and bottom side having a groove recessed therein for the reception of an arch wire, said grooves having predetermined depth and angulation for creating force vectors operable for straightening teeth of a patient upon installation of an unbent arch wire thereon; and

said back side being adapted for mounting to a predetermined tooth, the distance from said back side of the bracket to the inner face of said groove conforming to overall curvature of an installed but unbent arch wire geometry.

22. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

each of said back sides is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

said grooves have a radius of curvature substantially equal to a predetermined radius of curvature of an unbent arch wire after the complete installation thereof.

23. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

said back side is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

at least one of said grooves has a vertical angle with respect to an axis of a predetermined tooth for creating a predetermined force vector for tipping said predetermined tooth a predetermined amount after the installation of an unbent arch wire.

24. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

said back side is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

the distance from said back side to the inner face of at least one of said grooves is predetermined to create a predetermined in-out force vector from a completely installed but unbent arch wire on a predetermined tooth.

25. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 19 wherein:

said back side is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

the inner face of at least one of said grooves and the back side of at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a vertical plane for creating a predetermined torquing angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from a completely installed but unbent arch wire.

26. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

said back side is specifically contoured for cooperation with a predetermined tooth having a specific contour; and

the inner face of at least one of said grooves and the back side of at least one of said brackets are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a horizontal plane for creating a rotating angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from a completely installed but unbent arch wire.

27. An orthodontic bracket and tooth band combination comprising:

a tooth band adapted for attachment to a tooth;

a bracket adapted for attachment to said tooth band and having a groove recessed therein for the reception of an arch wire;

said tooth band including means for varying the distance from said tooth to the inner face of said groove to confonn to overall curvature of an installed but unbent arch wire geometry.

28. The orthodontic bracket of claim 27 wherein:

said means has a vertical angle with respect to an axis of a predetermined tooth for creating a predetermined force vector for tipping said predetermined tooth a predetermined amount after the installation of an unbent arch wire.

29. The orthodontic bracket ofclaim 27 wherein;

the outer face of said means and the axis of said tooth are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a vertical plane for creating a predetermined torquing angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from a completely installed but unbent arch wire.

30. The orthodontic bracket of claim 27 wherein:

the outer face of said means and the axis of said tooth are angularly displaced a predetermined amount in a horizontal plane for creating a rotating angle force vector on a predetermined tooth from a completely installed but unbent arch wire.

Disclaimer 3,660,900.La/w1'ence F. Andmws, La Jolla, Calif. METHOD AND AP- PARATUS FOR IMPROVED ORTHODONTIC BRACKET AND ARCH IRE TECHNIQUE. Patent dated May 9, 1972. Disclaimer filed Oct. 27, 1976, by the assignee, A-00mp0my, Inc. The term of this patent subsequent to- Nov. 11, 1986, has been disclaimed.

[Ofiicz'al Gazette January 11, 1977.]

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Classifications
U.S. Classification433/16, 433/24
International ClassificationA61C7/12, A61C7/14
Cooperative ClassificationA61C7/12, A61C7/143
European ClassificationA61C7/14G, A61C7/12