US 3662507 A
A building wall construction having preformed panels preferably of plastic material for use particularly as basement walls and also as room walls above the basement level. The panels are keyed to each other and to supporting structures and secured by a suitable bonding agent. There are special panel sections with preformed window units and also preformed support areas for heavy beams. There is a selection of preformed corners to accommodate varying situations. The panels include preset bolts for the base plates and in one embodiment are provided on their exterior side with preformed brick ledges to support brick facing.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Espeland 1 May 16, 1972 54] PREFORMED BUILDING WALL 3,474,584 10/1969 Lynch ..52/309 CONSTRUCTION 2,915,150 12 1959 Weidler .....52/269 3,203,145 8/1965 Raynes ..52/22  Inventor: Arthur J. Espeland, Jewell, Iowa 50130 [22 Filed; Man 11 1970 Primary ExaminerPrice C. Faw, Jr.
Attorney-Morton S. Adler  Appl. No.: 18,493
 ABSTRACT  US. Cl ..52/270, 52/289, 52/293, A building Wall construction having preformed panels 52/300 preferably of plastic material for use particularly as basement III]!- walls and also as room walls above the basement level The [.58] held of Search 3 G3 Z panels are keyed to each other and to supporting structures and secured by a suitable bonding agent. There are special panel sections with preformed window units and also [561 References cued preformed support areas for heavy beams. There is a selection UNITED STATES PATENTS of preformed comers to accommodate varying situations. The
Y panels include preset bolts for the base plates and in one em- 2,85l,873 9/1958 Wheeler-Nicholson ..52/262 bodimem are provided on their exterior Side with preformed 3,466,821 9/1969 0 Shaughnessy et a1. brick [edges to Support brick f i 2,184,464 12/1939 Myers ..52/293 X 2,078,069 4/1937 Elie] ..52/293 6 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures PATENTEDMAY 15 I972 SHEET 2 BF 2 /N VE'N 70/? ARI HUI? J. ESPELA/VD 14 TTOP/Vf).
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to preformed building wall construction utilizing separate panel sections with various of the panels being selectively designed to accommodate special features such as window wells, comer sections and beam supports.
The increasing rise in the cost of labor and materials together with the high cost of financing has motivated the building industry to seek new and improved construction techniques calculated to reduce cost and expenses. Heretofore, considerable skilled labor has been required for on the site construction techniques and one means for reducing such cost and other material cost has been to utilize prefabricated components which can be economically produced at factory installations by mass production techniques. The trend in this direction is illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 3,203,145 and particularly in regard to prefabricated basement structural units, one form is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 2,915,150. While the present invention may be utilized in general wall construction, it has particular utility in basement wall construction and as presently practiced, such basement walls in homes, for example, are usually of either poured concrete or concrete blocks which is somewhat time consuming and requires skilled personnel. In addition, the construction of basement walls is seriously affected and sometimes delayed because of extremes in weather where such conditions occur.
Accordingly, it is one of the principal objects of the present invention to provide a preformed wall construction, preferably of plastic panel components, which can be mass produced and installed by unskilled labor in a relatively short time and without regard to temperature conditions.
A further object herein is to provide a wall construction of the above class where the panel components are interconnected by a keyed joint made adequately rigid by an appropriate bonding agent adaptable to the plastic composition.
Still another object herein is to provide a preformed wall construction as characterized in which selective panels include special features to accommodate window wells, supporting beams and a variety of corner section requirements.
A further feature of this invention includes a wall panel component having a preformed brick supporting ledge on the exterior side to support any brick facing which may be applied to the exterior of the building.
It is also an object herein to provide a prefabricated wall construction that is relatively inexpensive to manufacture, is simple in construction so it can be quickly and easily assembled by unskilled labor and which is of adequate structural strength to serve its intended purpose.
SUMMARY The basic unit of this invention comprises a preformed wall panel which is made in several predetermined sizes with each panel of each size having spaced sides connected by suitable stiffeners. Respective male and female side edges are provided for interlocking keyed connection to adjacent panels and suitable bolts for retaining base plates are preset and mounted in spaced stiffeners. Preformed corner sections are provided of various sizes in which some sections extend equally from the corner point and other sections have different lengths relative to each other and the corner point so that varying conditions and layouts can be easily accommodated.
The bottom of the panels are provided with a special shaped edge for an appropriate keyed engagement with a supporting structure which in the case of basement foundations will be a cement footing. The panels are provided with appropriate window wells where needed and certain of the panels are designed with appropriate recesses and adequate interior strength for supporting heavy beams. In addition, where brick facing may be in the plans, the wall panels are provided on the exterior side with preformed brick supporting ledges.
The various panels are attached to each other by an appropriate bonding agent and are similarly attached to the supporting base.
With the above arrangement including a variety of specialized panel sections, a complete wall enclosure can be quickly assembled by unskilled labor with specialized panels placed in the appropriate and required positions for their necessary purposes.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a building wall construction using the wall panels of the present invention,
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary exploded perspective view showing portions of two joinable panels which are foreshortened for convenience of illustration,
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of FIG. 1,
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary enlarged perspective view of one of my new panels designed for supporting a beam taken from the line 44 of FIG. 1 with the beam being omitted,
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view taken on the line 5-5 of FIG. 4,
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of the lower portion of the panels in FIG. 1 showing the mounting thereof on a concrete footing,
FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6 but showing a second embodiment of the bottom structure of the panel and its mounting arrangement on a concrete footing,
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view of the upper portion of this panel to illustrate an integral brick supporting ledge with the showing of the bricks and the sill being for illustration only, and v FIG. 9 is a fragmentary perspective view of the upper portion of a panel to illustrate a second embodiment of the internal construction thereof.
DE SCRIPTIONOF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings, a portion of a wall construction designated generally by the numeral l0'is shown to illustrate the several panel units included within this invention. For this purpose, there is a basic panel section or component 12, and special adaptations of the basic panel to provide the window panel component 14 and the beam supporting panel component 16. In addition, various arrangements of prefabricated comer sections are utilized as indicated by the respective comer sections 18, 20 and 22. Sections 18 and 20 both have equal side portions extending from their corner point and as can be seen in FIG. I, the side portions of comer section 20 which extend at right angles to each other are approximately twice as long as the comparable side portions of corner section 18 to provide appropriate comer sizes so that different wall dimension lengths can be accommodated at the corner points. Corner section 22 has the right angle panels 24 and 26 wherein panel 24 extends approximately twice the distance from the comer point as does panel 26 and this, too, is for the purpose of accommodating different dimensional requirements of wall lengths.
The various panel components identified are prefabricated and preferably of plastic material. The basic panel component 12 as best seen in FIG. 2 is formed of spaced wall surfaces defining the interior surface 28 and the exterior surface 30 which are secured together by a plurality of integral stiffeners 32 suitably spaced and extending throughout the vertical height of the panel. While the width of this panel may be varied, it can be pointed out that the approximate dimension between the interior wall 28 and the exterior wall 30 is 4 inches. The top of the exterior wall 30 is somewhat higher than the top of the interior wall 28 and thus the top of wall 28 together with the top of the various stiffeners 32 which are planar with the top of wall 28 serve as a support for a plate member identified by the numeral 34 and shown only for purpose of illustration. An L-shaped bolt 36 has its horizontal arm suitably fixed and mounted near the top of stiffener 32 when panel 12 is fabricated so that the other arm of bolt 36 extends vertically upwardly as shown. The upper portion of said bolt is externally threaded as at 38 and a plurality of such bolts 36 will be secured to stiffeners 32 in a predetermined spaced relationship to provide a means for securing plate 34 and for which there will be suitable holes in such plate. A nut 40 and suitable washers if necessary are used on bolt 36 in an obvious manner.
One side edge of panel'l2 is provided witha tongue-like projection 42 to define a male end and the opposite edge is provided with the channel-shaped recess 44 to define the female end with such recess 44 being complementary in shape to tongue 42 so that opposing male and female edges can be abutted in an interlocking relationship as best seen in FIG. 1. The bottom of panel 12 is constructed for suitable mounting on a concrete footing 46 and for this purpose, the inside wall 28. extends to a lower level than does the exterior wall 30 so as to provide the stepped configuration 48. To accommodate the stepped arrangement 48, a concrete footing 46 is provided with a complementary recess as seen in FIG. 6. The concrete portion 50 represents a floor slab in a well known arrangement and is shown only for purposes of illustration.
A modified bottom structure of panel 12 is provided, if desired, as illustrated in FIG. 7 where like parts in FIG. 6 are given like numerals primed. In the embodiment of FIG. 7, walls 28 and 30' are substantially planar at the bottom with the concrete footing 46 being of solid structure in a conventional manner. 'Between the bottom of the exterior wall 30' and the footing 46' I have inserted a suitable rubber gasket 52 to serve as a water seal and which is suitably bonded to both the footing and the panel. The bottom portion of stiffeners 32' is notched as shown at 54 to provide the central channel 56 and for a keying engagement within the notch structure 54 I provide an elongated plastic strip 58 of a shape complementary to notch 54 and channel 56'which, as will later be referred to in more detail, is suitably secured to the top of footing 46' and also secured to panel 12'.
The window panel section 14 is prefabricated substantially as described for panel 12 but is provided in its upper portion with a suitable cut-out 60 to accommodate a framed window unit 62 whereby the top of such window unit is preferably planar with the top of the stiffeners 32.
With reference to FIGS. 4 and 5, panel 16, like panel 14, is basically of like construction as panel 12 but is provided in the interior wall 28 with a relatively deep recess or notch 64 communicating with its top edge and which is designed to receive the end of a beam 66 as shown in FIG. 1. Notch 64 is defined by the side walls 68 and 70 (which are in effect portions of stiffeners 32) and a horizontal supporting surface 72 extending between the bottoms of side walls 68 and 70. As' seen in FIG. 5, the area of panel 16 between the vertical plane of sidewalls 68 and 70 and below surface 72 is of solid construction to the bottom of the panel as identified by numeral 74 in FIG. 5. Since beam 66 will be required to support considerable weight as can be appreciated, the solid portion 74 in panel 16 below such beam support provides the necessary rigidity in the panel structure for this purpose. Suitable bolts 36 as previously described are preset and mounted so as to extend within notch 64 as seen in FIG. 4 for the purpose of securing the end of beam 66 to panel 16.
In FIG. 8, there is shown a facing brick supporting ledge 76 which is an integral part of the prefabricated panel construction relative to the exterior wall 30. Such ledge 76 includes the horizontal extending brick supporting surface 78 near the top of wall 30 together with a downwardly extending portion 80 that continues on an incline to merge with wall 30 at point 82. It will be understood that ledge 76 is provided only when building plans call for the brick facing and for illustrative purposes only, the brick arrangement is indicated by the numeral 84 and the relative position of the box header is designated by the numeral 86. The area 88 between the header and the bricks. will normally be filled by suitable sheathing (not shown).
The corner sections 18, and 22 are of prefabricated construction utilizing plastic. material similar to the construction of panel 12 and each of said comer sections has a respective male and female end as described for panel 12. The variations in size as between the several comer sections is provided as a matter of convenience and facility to accommodate different wall lengths, comer arrangements and dimensions as may be prescribed. In addition to providing the comer sections of different sizes, it is pointed out that panel sections l2, l4 and 16 are also provided in a variety of sizes as, for example, 4, 5 and 6 feet so that with this selection of difi'erent sized panels and comer sections, this prefabricated wall construction is adapted to conveniently accommodate practically any arrangement and dimensions of wall design.
In the assembly and joining of adjacent panel sections by the interlocking of the respective male and female ends, epoxy fusing material of any suitable type commercially available is applied to the abutting edges and likewise a similar material is used for bonding the bottom of the panels to the concrete footing 46 as seen in FIG. 6 and also for bonding the strip 58 to the footing 46' and the stifieners 32' as seen in FIG. 7.
In FIG. 9, the panel structure designated generally by the numeral 12a is basically similar in overall construction to panel 12 except for the fact that intermediate wall surfaces 28 and 30, the panel is formed with a plurality of vertically disposed and laterally spaced diamond-shaped openings 90 whereby the solid areas 92 intermediate such openings are substantially the same as stiifeners 32 and serve the same purposes.. Bolt members 36 are suitably preset in panel 12a as shown.
From the foregoing it will be appreciated that the above disclosure presents improved prefabricated wall construction units which can be quickly installed without the use of skilled labor and which can be accommodated to a wide range of room layout designs and dimensions. Dependence upon suitable weather'conditions is not required with this invention so that construction schedules can be met without danger of interruption. The panel units are relatively light but extremely sturdy and easy to handle and manipulate. Thus, from the disclosure given it is believed a full understanding of the construction and use of this invention will be had and its advantages appreciated.
1. A prefabricated building wall panel, comprising:
a panel having respective interior and exterior spaced wall surfaces connected by a plurality of horizontally spaced integral vertical stiffeners,
the top of the interior wall surface being on a lowerplane than the top of the exterior wall surface and the top of the stiffeners being planar with the top of the interior wall surface,
a tongue-like projection co-extensive with one side edge of said panel to define a male end and a recess co-extensive' with the opposite side edge of said panel to define a female end,
said male and female ends adapted for interlocking engagement with respective female and male ends on like adjacent panels,
the bottom edge of said panel being provided with a notched configuration for interlocking engagement with a supporting surface,
the interior wall surface being provided with a notch intermediate two stiffeners with the top of said notch planar with the top of said interior wall surface,
the bottom of said notch defined by a support surface extending between said interior and exterior wall surfaces and adapted to receive and support the end of a bearing beam,
the internal area of said panel intermediate said interior and exterior wall surfaces below said support surface to the bottom of said panel being of solid material, and
fastening means preset in said notch portion at the time of fabrication of said panel for attachment to a bearing beam.
2. A panel as defined in claim 1 including:
an elongated key member having one surface adapted for attachment to a support, and
the opposite surface of said key member having a configuration complementary to the notched configuration on the bottom of said panel for interlocking engagement therewith.
3. A panel as defined in claim 1 including:
bolt means preset in the top portion of selected stiffeners at the time of fabrication of said panel to serve as an anchoring means for a plate member.
4. A panel as defined in claim 1 including a preformed integral brick supporting ledge on the outer surface of the exterior wall panel near the top thereof and co-extensive with the horizontal length thereof.
5. A panel as defined in claim 1 including the combination therewith of a prefabricated comer section having respective male and female ends for interlocking engagement with angularly disposed panel sections and in which one side of said comer section extends a greater distance from the comer point than the other.
6 A panel as defined in claim 1 including: said panel being of a plastic material, the side edges of said panel when interlocked with adjacent panels being bonded together by a suitable plastic bonding agent, and the bottom of said panel being bonded to a supporting surface by a suitable plastic bonding agent.