US 3664213 A
A wrench for nuts, bolts or pipes which consists of a shallow housing having a throughgoing circular axial opening, an annulus adapted to rotate within the housing around the axis of said opening, at least two pins being fixed to said annulus spaced at equal angular distances and constituting pivots for a corresponding number of substantially flat jaw members whose jaw faces extend into the range of said openings. Each jaw member has a slot through which a guide pin fixed to said housing extends. When the annulus is turned, the jaw members describe a guided movement, whereby their faces approach or move away from the axis of the opening. A handle provided on the housing is apt by a ratchet-like movement to tighten or loosen the bolt, nut or pipe held by the jaws.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Anati 1 May 23, 1972  WRENCH 2,565,212 8/1951 Drazick ..81/128 X  Inventor: Reuven Anati, Mazkereth Batya, Israel Primary Exmmner hmes L Jones Jr.  Filed: Sept. 10, 1970 Attomey-Silverma.n &Cass 211 App]. NO; 71,161  ABSTRACT I30] Ford." Appucauun Moray Dan A wrench for nuts, bolts or pipes which consists of a shallow housing huvmg u thmughgomg circular axial opening, an unp l I. 3293) nulua adapted to rotate within the housing around the axis of said opening, at least two pins being fixed to said annulus  US. Cl. ..81/91 R, 8 l/ l 28 spaced at equal angular distanCes and constituting pivots for a  lnLCl. ..BZSb 13/28, B25b 13/18 corresponding number of substantially fla jaw members  Field of Search 81/91, $718,914 whose jaw faces extend into the range of said openings. Each 81/109 jaw member has a slot through which a guide pin fixed to said housing extends. When the annulus is turned, the jaw mem-  Rem-cum Cited bers describe a guided movement, whereby their faces ap- UNITED STATES PATENTS proach or move away from the axis of the opening. A handle provided on the housing is apt by a ratchet-like movement to KCiSCI' ..8 C tighten or loosen the bolt nut or th jaws 2,884,826 5/1959 Bruhn...
877,773 1/1908 Holm ..81/128 6Clains,7DrawingFigures PATEHTEDMAY 2 3 1972 3,664,213
sum 1 BF 2 INVENTOR Ma ma ATTORNEY PATEMTEDMAY 23 I872 3,664,213
SHEET 2 OF 2 aa/Q INVENTOR ATTORNEY WRENCH BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention concerns wrenches for tightening and loosening bolts, nuts, pipe threads or the like.
The known wrenches which are adjustable for use with various sizes of bolts or nuts comprise two parallel jaws which are applied against two diametrically opposed faces of a bolt or nut and are tightened thereon through the intermediary of a screw thread or worm wheel. One of the jaws is generally part of the handle of the wrench and by turning said handle the nut or bolt is tightened or loosened by being held between the jaws, as the case may be.
These known wrenches are apt to wear off the plating and the corners of the nuts or bolts and are therefore not generally allowed to be used in the aircraft or military industries.
Other wrenches are known which are adapted for use with one size of nut or bolt only. These wrenches are either of one piece or are provided with exchangeable rings each of which is of one particular size. Thus a workshop must carry a great number of wrenches in order to satisfy the requirements for bolts of both metric and inch measurements.
It is the object of the present invention to provide a wrench for nuts, bolts and pipes, which does not damage the part being turned and which is adjustable to any size bolt.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A wrench for use in tightening nuts, bolts and the like having an annular member rotatable in an annular housing and a plurality of jaws pivotably mounted on the annular member. The jaws are provided with slots through which guiding pins of the housing extend. Face surfaces of the jaws are caused by guided motions of the jaws to approach or move away from a nut or bolt in planes parallel to the faces of the nut.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a plan view, partly broken away, of a wrench according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a section thereof online 11-11 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a partial plan view of one half of the housing, the internal face being seen;
FIG. 4 is a section thereof taken on line IVIV of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a plan view of the retaining ring;
FIG. 6 is a section thereof taken on line VIVI of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a jaw member according to the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The wrench here illustrated comprises a housing constituted by two identical circular disks 1 merging into handle halves 2 which are attached to each other by means of a screw 3 to form the solid handle of the wrench. Each disk 1 has an annular internal groove Ia near its periphery and an axial opening lb surrounded by an annular rim 1c of a shorter height than the thickness of disk 1. Three bores Id are provided in rim 1c at equal angular spaces.
A retaining annulus 8 of U-shaped cross-section is rotatable by its legs 8a within the groove la around the central axis of disks 1, the open space of the U facing the axis. The ring 8 is provided with holes 8b at three angularly equidistant positions extending through legs 8a. Three pins 12 are accommodated in holes 8b and provide a pivot around which three jaw members 9, partially housed within ring 8, are turnable. The jaw members 9 are flat plates of a suitable shape, one comer of which is mounted on pivot pin 12, and having a flat inner enlarged face constituting the jaws 9a which extend into opening lb of disks 1. An arcuate slot 9b is provided in members 9 in such a position that a guide pin 10, fixedly mounted between the annular rims lb of disks 1 and fastened therein by means of screws 11, extends into the slot and guides the movement of jaw members 9 as will become clear hereinafter.
The disks 1 are provided with arcuate slots 1e near handles 2. Pins 6, extending through slots le and annulus 8 and held by screws, permit the rotation in either direction of said annulus within the limits of slot Ie, the heads 7 of pins 6 and said screws being knurled for more convenient handling.
When, as best seen in FIG. 1, heads 7 and thus pins 6 and with it rim 8 are turned in the direction of the arrow from the position shown, pins 12 will pull jaw members 9 in the same direction. However, the latter will be forced by the slots 9b moving along the fixed guide pins 10 to make a swinging movement in a clockwise direction, whereby the jaws 9a are moved toward the axis of opening lb at the same rate. A movement of heads 7 in opposite direction will cause jaws 9a to move counter-clockwise, i.e. away from said axis until they abut the inner walls of rims 1c of disks 1. A coil spring 5 lodged in a space 2a provided in handles 2 is fixed with one end to a pin 4 mounted in said handles and with the other to annulus 8 and is biased in such a manner that it urges ring 8 in the direction of the arrow, i.e. in the direction to make jaws 9a approach the axis.
When the wrench above described is placed on a bolt to be tightened, indicated in dash-dotted lines in FIG. 1, the spreading of jaws 9a is effected by means of pins 6 against the action of spring 5 as has been explained, and the spring is then permitted to apply the jaws onto the three alternate faces of the bolt. Handles are now turned clockwise, the plates 9 and jaws 9a holding the bolt tightly and permitting its turning owing to the forces acting on jaws 9a and pin 10. A counterclockwise motion of the handles, however, will cause the faces of the bolt to retract the jaws against the action of spring 5 which, however, will again apply the jaws to the bolt, when it is to be tightened further. Thus the jaws operate in a ratchet-like manner during the use of the wrench. When the bolt is to be loosened, the wrench is turned upside-down and placed onto the bolt, so that a counter-clockwise motion of the handles will hold it tightly to loosen it.
In the process of unscrewing and screwing of nuts and bolts, the faces of the heads are not damaged since the jaws 9a are applied to said faces in a movement parallel thereto.
The design of the wrench according to the invention may be other than that above described without deviating from the scope thereof. Thus it is possible to provide two, or more than three, jaw members, the corresponding number of pivot pins 12 or guide pins 10 being provided. Instead of coil spring 5, a leaf spring may be lodged in a suitable space provided in the handle. The ring 8 may be a flat, solid annulus, in which case the jaw members 9 could be pivotally fixed to one surface thereof. The slot 1e and pin 6 may be provided on the peripheral edge of the housing or at any other suitable position. The housing of the wrench may be constituted by two parts which are not identical, e.g. a part similar to the one illustrated and a flat part attached thereto in any suitable manner. The handle may be integral or fixed thereto as a separate pan.
The wrench according to the invention may also be used as a clamping tool for pipes. In this case, the faces of jaws 9a are preferably knurled.
If it is desired to eliminate spring 5, the wrench can be operated as well, moving the jaw members against the nut or bolt by means of heads 7.
Other constructional details should be obvious from the drawings and, likewise, it is obvious that variations of a wide range may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
What it is claimed and desired to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A wrench for nuts, bolts and pipes comprising a shallow housing having a throughgoing circular axial opening, an annulus rotatable within the housing around the axis of said opening, at least two first pins fastened to said annulus and spaced at equal angular distances, a plurality of substantially flat jaw members corresponding in number to the number of said first pins, each jaw member pivotally supported by one of said first pins, each jaw member having a face extending into the area of said opening, each jaw member being provided with a first slot, a plurality of guide pins mounted to the housing and corresponding in number to the number of said jaw members, each of said guide pins extending through one of 5 said first slots, means for turning the annulus relative the hous' ing, wherein the turning of the annulus causes guided movements of said jaw members such that the jaw faces approach or move away from said axis, and a handle associated with said housing for turning the latter in the required direction for tightening or loosening a bolt, nut or pipe held by said jaws.
2. A wrench as claimed in claim 1, wherein three first pivot pins are provided in the annulus at equal angular distances.
3. A wrench as claimed in claim 1, wherein an internal annular groove is provided in the housing for guiding the rotating movement of said annulus.
4. A wrench as claimed in claim 3, wherein the annulus is of U-shaped cross-section, the open space thereof facing the axis, said first pins being mounted onto the legs of the U" and extending therethrough, the jaw members extending partially between said legs.
5. A wrench as claimed in claim 4, wherein a spring is provided fixed between the housing and said annulus and is adapted to move the latter into a position in which the jaw faces approach said axis.
6. A wrench as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for turning the annulus comprises a second slot in the housing, a second pin being fastened to said annulus extending through said second slot, said second pin being provided at each end with a head for easy handling.
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