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Publication numberUS3665182 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 23, 1972
Filing dateAug 18, 1969
Priority dateAug 18, 1969
Also published asCA925631A1, DE2041422A1
Publication numberUS 3665182 A, US 3665182A, US-A-3665182, US3665182 A, US3665182A
InventorsRobert F Goff, David P Smith
Original AssigneeMinnesota Mining & Mfg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Elemental analyzing apparatus
US 3665182 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Goff et al.

ELEMENTAL ANALYZING APPARATUS Robert F. Golf, White Bear Lake, Minn.; David P. Smith, North Hudson, Wis.

inventors:

Assignee: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minn.

Filed: Aug. 18, 1969 Appl. No.: 850,810

US. Cl ..250/49.5 Pl, 250/419 SB, 250/419 SR,

313/63 Int. Cl. ..H0lj 37/26 Field of Search ..250/49.5 Pl, 41.9 SA, 41.9 SB,

250/419 SR, 41.9 SE, 41.9 D; 313/63 51 May 23, 1972 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,480,774 11/1969 Smith 250/49.5 Pl

Primary Examiner-James W. Lawrence Assistant Examiner-D. C. Nelms Anomey-Kinney, Alexander, Sell, Steldt & Delahunt ABSTRACT Acompact instrument for solid surface analysis comprising a compact ion generator, a movable target support, an energy analyzer and an ion detector mounted together on a flange adapted to form the end wall of a vacuum chamber.

15 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 [/VVENTOAS Rosa/er F Corr Y DAV/0 P SM/TH 222:? I

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EQEQQQEEQK EQWSQ Jo M A r TORNE KS Patented May 23, 1972 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i L; I m2 80 l N VEN roles ROBE'RT F GOFF ATTORNEYS ELEMENTAL ANALYZING APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The science of analyzing the elemental composition of a solid surface for elemental analysis, impurity detection or to determine the cleanliness of the surface has generated the need for a concept and apparatus to non-destructively analyze such a surface.

it is known to scatter high-energy ions, derived from a noble gas, from a target surface and at a relatively large angle therefrom to determine the charge state and scattered energy of a primary ion resulting from such a collision. The energy of the scattered primary ion was interpreted in terms of a binaryelastic collision model. This high-energy ion scattering technique, wherein the ion energy is in the order of 40 keV to 80 keV, is disclosed by Sheldon Datz and Comelis Snoek, in an article entitled Large-Angle, Single-Collision Scattering of Argon Ions (40-80 keV) from Metals, Physical Review, Volume [34, Nos. 2A, Apr. 20, 1964. i

Analyzing theatoms of a solid by elastically scattering ions off the target surface described in the article by Datz and Snoek has serious disadvantages. The primary ion beam directed at the target is required to have a kinetic energy value in the order of 40-80 keV. Such a relatively high-energy ion beam exhibits multiple charge stripping" during scattering, has a relatively deep penetration capability and causes considerable removal of surface atoms. A large percentage of the primary ions exhibit multiple charge stripping" whereby such ions have a plurality of electrons stripped therefrom. Therefore, an energy spectrum derived from scattered high-energy ions from a single element exhibits several distinct peaks. The many peaks for a single target atom due to multiple charge stripping" makes analysis of the energy spectrum ambiguous and inaccurate. Also, when it is desired to examine isotopes of a specific element, besides the necessary high resolution of the examining apparatus, the concept and apparatus of Datz and- Snoek also requires that the single crystals be precisely oriented with respect to the incident ion beam to avoid multiple collisions within a crystal.

Another apparatus and method for analyzing the composition of elements forming a solid surface has been'disclosed and taught by the D. P. Smith patent application Ser. No. 641,582, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,480,774. The low-energy ion beam analyzing technique utilized in the Smith invention results in substantial improvement in accuracy of surface analysis relative to the technique or method described in the article by Datz and Snoek. The ion beam utilized by Smith has such a-low energy level that multiple charge stripping effects are negligible whereby extra peaks in the energy spectrum due to multiple charge stripping are eliminated.

Further, the use of a low-energy ion beam has the advantage of minimizing the damage to the surface being analyzed.

The relatively non-destructive method of surface analysis taught by the Smith U.S. Pat. No. 3,480,774 includes, inter known mass and energy values, directing the beam of primary ions toward a surface to be analyzed, analyzing the energy of the primary ions scattered from elements forming the solid surface wherein the energy lost by the scattered primary ions as a result of the collision with the elements is measured to identify the atomic mass of the various elements. Analysis of a solid surface, as taught by the Smith U.S. Pat. No. 3,480,774 is based on a binary-elastic collision theory and formulation based on the following assumptions. First, it is assumed that the target atoms are essentially unbound from their neighboring atoms. Thus, during collision the target atoms behave as independently as though they were gas atoms. Second, it is assumed that the target atoms are substantially stationary before collision with the primary ions. Third, the energy losses of the primary ions during collision with the target atoms are assumed to be completely kinetic. Based on these three assumptions and the principles of conservation of energy and momenturn, a prediction of the postcollision energies of the primary alia, the steps of producing a beam of primary ions having 'i/ o=%i provided M M when solved for M yields:

where M, mass of primary ion M mass of target atom E kinetic energy of primary ion prior to collision E kinetic energy of primary ion after collision. Some of the main components preferred for performing ion scattering surface analysis are: a monoenergetic ion source with good focusing properties at low energies, an energy analyzer capable of defining a percise scattering angle together with good energy resolution, an ion detector, and an advancement means for advancing and positioning successive samples in a predetermined position without necessitating the loss of vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. To increase the resolution at a given electrical signal level with a low energy scattering instrument it becomes critical to l. minimize the ion energy spread within the ion beam,

2. to optimize the collimation and focusing of the ion beam prior to bombardment of the sample, and

3. to optimize the energy analyzer resolving power at a known scattering angle.

In obtaining the compromise between the desired high instrument resolution and an adequate electrical signal level it becomes advantageous to locate the ion generating means and the energy analyzer in close proximity to the sample being analyzed.

SUMMARY OF THE lNVENTlON The present invention relates to a low energy elemental analyzing apparatus for achieving greater resolution while maintaining a sufficient signal, withacompact apparatus that permits closer positioning of the components to improve the resolution and includes a compact ion generating means for producing a beam of substantially monoenergetic ions wherein the energy variation is 0.5 percent or less of the primary ion beam value at full width half maximum and wherein the ions are well collimated and focused prior to bombardment of the sample, with the generating means close to the sample to reduce ion-ambient gas collisions, and

a compact energy analyzer closely positioned adjacent to the sample for maximizing the number of scatteredions received by said energy analyzer to optimize the number of ions received by the ion detector and utilizing an entrance diaphragm having a narrow slit width therein to minimize the divergence of the ions passing through the entrance slit, resulting in improved resolution.

Thus, a primary advantage of the apparatus of the present invention is that the resolution of the system, which definitively and unequivocally determines the atomic mass of the target element, has been improved with a compact apparatus.

A further advantage of the apparatus of the present invention is that greater ion beam stability throughout the ion beam operating range has been obtained with a relatively compact and simplified apparatus.

Yet another advantage of the present invention is that the ion beam generating means has a stable operability range below eV.

Still another advantage of the present invention is that the apparatus can be operated under a static gas condition, to enhance stability and simplicity of operation, and eliminates the need for dynamic pumping of the noble gases during operation. The present invention also provides a structure where the several parts are disposed in a single chamber and are in open communication with each other, thus avoiding the need for multiple chambers, connecting valves and pumps.

These and other advantages of the present invention become apparent and can be best understood from reading the following detailed description which refers to the accompanying drawing wherein:

FIG. 1 is a side elevational view illustrating an apparatus constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram, a partial pictorial and schematic diagram illustrating the electrical components of the apparatus of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating analysis of a solid surface and the improved resolution and definition resulting from biasing of the entry and exit diaphragms; and

FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating the analysis of a copper sample showing scattering from the individual isotopes Cu and Cu.

In the accompanying drawing and description of the present invention, and referring in particular to FIG. 1, there is shown a compact elemental analyzing apparatus comprising a flange 12 adapted to fit onto a standard size vacuum chamber (not shown) as is commercially available, a support frame 16 secured to the flange, a multipositionable target support 60 secured to the frame, an ion generating means 26, an energy analyzer 45, an ion detector 70, and indicating apparatus 80.

The flange 12 is a standard 8-inch ultra-high vacuum flange including a plurality of apertures about is periphery utilized to secure the flange to a housing shown in phantom in FIG. 1 which in combination defines the ultra-high vacuum chamber. After the flange is secured to the housing, wherein the frame, target support, ion generating means and other apparatus shown in FIG. 1 is located within the same vacuum chamber, a vacuum pump (not shown) evacuates the chamber to a pressure of less than about 10' Torr. A getter (not shown) is positioned within the chamber to further purify the active elements remaining in the chamber. The pumping is discontinued by shutting off the vacuum pump. A noble gas is released by suitable valves into the chamber, until the static pressure is increased to approximately X Torr, as measured on Bayard-Alpert type pressure gauges, and all openings to the chamber are closed. Thus, no additional noble gas is directed into the chamber. The noble gas atmosphere within the chamber is utilized to analyze the elements forming the solid surface of the sample. The noble gas used herein may be any noble gas, however, Helium (He) and Argon (Ar) are commonly used. Insulated electrical feed throughs or connectors 14 project through the flange to provide the necessary electrical connections between the components within the chamber and the electrical apparatus located outside of the chamber.

The support frame 16, which is secured to the flange 12, includes a base 18, a base support 20 to provide clearance between the electrical connectors 14 and the base, anda vertical column 22 secured to the base to support the target support 60.

The multipositionable target support 60 includes a rotatable octagonal target wheel 61, side arms 62 for rotatably mounting the wheel relative to the vertical column 22, and for insulating the wheel from the column 22, and wheel advancement means including tooth ratchet wheel 63 to sequentially advance the target wheel one-sixteenth of a revolution per actuation of the solenoid. On each planar spaced peripheral surface or face 66 of the octagonal wheel may be placed a sample which is to be elementally analyzed. The sample is held on each face by any suitable temporary fastening such as screw or spring fasteners. It should be apparent that the target wheel may be constructed with a different number of faces, e. g., hexagonal, and the ratchet wheel may have a different number of teeth numerically corresponding to the number of faces on the target wheel. The target support includes a sliding contact arm insulated from said frame 16 and engageable with indents to electrically connect the'wheel 61 and the sample being bombarded with a current measuring device 81 (see FIG. 2) for monitoring the level of ion beam current. The solenoid 64, which is a standard vacuum solenoid, is electrically connected to a target selector power supply 82 which is independently actuated for advancing and positioning successive samples into the predetermined target location (as shown in FIG. 1

The ion generating means comprises a grounded tubular housing 25 essentially 2 X 3 X 4 inches adapted to support the operative components of the compact ion generator. The compact ion generator structure, essentially l X l X 3 inches includes a heated filament 27 for producing electrons, a highly transparent grid 28, having greater than percent open area and defining within extractor plate 31 an ionization region 29, a repeller 30 encircling the filament 27, a first 33, second 35, third 37,.and fourth 39, anode plates, and a feed-back stabilization loop 41.

A filament power supply 84 powers the filament to produce electrons and a grid power supply 83 biases the grid with respect to the filament. The produced electrons from the filament are accelerated, by the relatively transparent grid 28, to a potential sufficient to ionize the noble gas atoms. For example, the electrons would have from to electron volts of energy which is sufficient to ionize helium which has an ionization potential of about 24 electron volts. The repeller 30 is at filament potential and repels or deflects any approaching electrons to result in a long electron path whichincreases the probability of the electrons striking an atom of the gas to ionize the gas atom.

If the static pressure of the noble gas within the evacuatable chamber is increased then the ion beam current is increased. Therefore, by regulating the electron current at a constant gas pressure the ion beam current is regulated. In the plasma source of the prior art, many adjustments could be made to regulate ion beam current but none of the adjustments could be easily related to the ion beam current. With such a plasma source it is extremely difficult to build a beam current regulating feed-back circuit. The feed-back stabilization loop 41, of the present embodiment, has been established between the filament power supply and the grid power supply. This stabilization loop maintains a stable electron grid current which controls the ion beam current throughout pressure changes within the evacuatable chamber.

An ion gun voltage divider network 85 biases the extractor plate 31 to a potential to extract positive ions from the ionization region 29. The network 85 includes nine R fixed resistors each having a resistance of 470 kohms, three R, 10 turn linear potentiometers of 500 kohms arranged in a series and parallel circuit to selectively bias the extractor plate 31 and the anode plates 33, 35, and 37, except the fourth anode plate 39 which is grounded. v

The extractor plate 31 includes an extractor aperture 32 of about one-quarter inch (0.6 centimeters), located about the beam axis 42, to extract the positive ions and the ions are then directed into a beam by the anode plates. Each anode plate has a potentialapplied thereto from the network 85. The first anode plate 33 is primarily used to control, modulate and initially focus the extracted ions into a collimated beam. The second anode plate 35,- which is spaced from the first plate 33 a distance greater than the spacing between the other plates, is the primary beam collimating and focusing anode. The third anode plate 37 is run at a substantially fixed potential from the voltage divider network 85 and the fourth plate 39 is at ground potential or could be connected to one side of a high voltage power supply 86 and biased with respect to ground. The anode plates are each formed with a small aperture and of very thin conductive material to control the ion flow and to maintain a monoenergetic beam. The plates are, for example, 0.010 inch thick to minimize the wall surface defining the apertures for minimizing of the interaction of the passed ions with the wall surface and loss of energy in the ions passing therethrough.

The beam passing out of the tubular housing 25 is now directed through the noble gas atmosphere a distance of less than cm toward a face supporting a sample to be analyzed. Beam perturbing collisions are estimated to limit the mean free path of ions at this pressure range to about 30 cm. A pair of deflector plates 57, positioned near the end of the housing 25 and on opposite sides of the beam, serve to deflect the beam slightly to scan the sample. The plates 57 are charged by an ion deflector power supply 87 controlled either manually or programmed. The deflector plates 57 also help in optimizing the the scattering angle or aligning the beam on the surface of the sample so the axis of the scattered ions is aligned with the entrance diaphragm of the energy analyzer for electrical signal optimization.

The ion beam strikes or bombards the sample on the preselected target face and the impinging primary ions are scattered therefrom. The current to the sample by the impinging beam is measured by the current measuring device 81 and such measured current is used to determine the current density striking the surface of the sample.

The energy analyzer 45 comprises an entrance diaphragm 46, having a rectangular entrance slit 47 (long and narrow), an exit diaphragm 49, having a rectangular exit slit 50, and two curved electrostatic analyzer plates 48. The entrance diaphragm 46 and exit diaphragm 49 are charged by a diaphragm biasing power supply 88. The diaphragms may be separately or simultaneously grounded or biased to similar or different positive potentials. The slits in the diaphragms have a preferred width of .005 inch and the entrance diaphragm is spaced about one centimeter from the surface of the sample being analyzed. 7

By charging the entrance diaphragm 46 and exit diaphragm 49 some scattered ions are repelled from entering the energy analyzer to effectively reduce the detected electrical background signal. As shown in FIG. 3 the effect of positive biasing of the entrance and exit diaphragms is shown. In the graph the energy ratio (E /E of the positive scattered ions collected is plotted against the ion current of 1,500 eV Helium ions scattered from an aluminum surface having alight aluminum oxidelayer thereon. The first plotting 92 shows the typical spectrum of the sample with the diaphragms at 0 potential and the plotting 93 indicates the spectrum with the diaphragms with a positive bias. The peaks in the plots 92 and 93 indicate the presence of aluminum and oxygen at the energy ratios of about 0.55 and 0.7 respectively. Thus the graph clearly represents the increased resolution and elimination of background signals with the bias placed on the diaphragms to suppress the background ion spectrum occurring from the sputtered ions.

The analyzer plates 48 are charged by the output from an analyzer plate sweeping power supply 90 receiving power from a dual power supply 89. The analyzer plate sweeping I power supply 90 permits a suitable charge to be applied to the plates to direct ions having a predetermined mass and energy through the slit in the exit diaphragm. The analyzer plates 48 have a mean radius of 2 inches. The illustrated analyzer 45 is a standard 127 analyzer.

The scattered ions are thus received from the sample by the energy analyzer and the ions having a predetermined energy value are passed therethrough. The number of ions being passed are detected and converted into electrons by the ion detector 70, to be received by the electron collector 68. The electron collector 68 converts the collected electrons into an electronic signal received by a pulse counting circuit 100 of an indicating apparatus 80. The data from the circuit 100 may then be permanently recorded as a graph on an XY recorder 102, as shown by the graph of FIG. 3, and/or visually indicated on an oscilliscope 101.

The ion detector 70, within enclosure 69, is a continuous channel electron multiplier 71, powered by a high voltage power supply 99, having an 8 millimeter diameter cone entrance which encompasses the entire exit slit in the exit diaphragm of the 127 energy analyzer. The electron multiplier may be a commercially available device such as Model No. GEM-4028 manufactured by Bendix Corporation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

What is claimed is: I

l. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus adapted to fit within an evacuable chamber containing a noble gas and having particular utility in determining the elemental composition of a solid surface by measuring the energy and the quantity of primary ions scattered from elements forming said solid surface and received by an energy analyzer positioned adjacent to said surface to thereby selectively identify said elements and determine the quantity of each said element respectively, said apparatusincluding in combination a target support for supporting in a predetermined location a sample to be elementally analyzed, an ion generating means for producing a beam of primary ions having known mass and substantially the same known kinetic energy and for directing said primary ions along a beam axis toward said sample, an energy analyzer for transmitting scattered primary ions which have a second known kinetic energy value less than the original kinetic energy of said primary ions to measure the energy lost as a result of collision with said surface to identify the atomic mass of the element scattering said primary ions, and ion detector means to receive the transmitted primary ions for converting the received ions into an electrical signal, wherein said ion generating means comprises:

a compact ion generator including,

a filament for producing electrons,

a highly transparent grid adjacent to said filament and defining therewith an ionization region, said grid hav ing an electrical potential for accelerating said electrons to a kinetic energy sufficient to ionize noble gas atoms within said ionization region,

a repeller encircling said filament and said ionization region having an electrical potential for diverting electrons into said ionization region,

an extractor plate including an extractor aperture therein located adjacent to said ionization region and about said beam axis, said extractor plate being electrically biased to attract ions from said ionization region and direct said ions toward said sample, and

a first anode plate including a first aperture therein located adjacent to said extractor aperture and about a said beam axis, said first anode plate being electrically biased for collimating, modulating and focusing the extracted primary ions into a collimated beam of primary ions directed toward said sample.

2. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 1 wherein said energy analyzer comprises,

an entrance diaphragm located adjacent to said target support and having an entrance slit therein, said entrance slit positioned to receive primary ions scattered from a said sample at a predetermined angle relative to the beam of primary ions prior to bombarding said sample,

curved electrostatic analyzer plates having an electrical potential thereon to transmit scattered primary ions having a predetermined energy value,

an exit diaphragm located adjacent to said analyzer plates, and having an exit slit therein, said exit slit positioned to receive ions transmitted by said analyzer plates,

biasing means operatively connected to said entrance diaphragm and to said exit diaphragm for biasing said entrance diaphragm to a first predetermined potential and for biasing said exit diaphragm to a second predetermined potential.

3. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 2 wherein the ion generator means further comprises,

deflection plates located adjacent to said ion generating means and positioned on opposing sides of a said primary ion beam,

deflector power supply means operatively connected to said deflection plates for charging said plates and affording deflection of the path of said primary ion beam to control the location on said sample being bombarded by said primary ion beam.

4. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 3 wherein said target support comprises,

rotatable means having spaced surface portions for supporting a plurality of individual samples thereon, said rotatable means located to position a sample in a predetermined location to intercept a said ion beam, and

advancement means operatively connected to said rotatable means for advancing and positioning successive samples in said predetermined location.

5. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 4 wherein said compact ion generator further comprises,

a second anode plate including a second aperture therein, said second anode plate located adjacent to said first anode plate wherein said second aperture is located adjacent to said first aperture and about said beam axis, said second anode plate electrically biased to additionally collimate and focus the beam of primary ions directed toward said sample.

6. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus adapted to fit within an evacuable chamber containing a noble gas and having particular utility in determining the elemental composition of a solid surface by measuring the energy and the quantity of primary ions scattered from elements forming said solid surface and received by an energy analyzer positioned adjacent to said surface to thereby selectively identify said elements and determine the quantity of each said element respectively, said apparatus including in combination a target support for supporting in a predetermined location a sample to be elementally analyzed, an ion generating means for producing a beam of primary ions having known mass and substantially the same known kinetic energy and for directing said primary ions along a beam axis toward said sample, an energy analyzer for transmitting scattered primary ions which havea second known kinetic energy value less than the original kinetic energy of said primary ions to measure the energy lost as a result of collisionv with said surface to identify the atomic mass of the element scattering said primary ions, and ion detector means to receive the transmitted primary ions for converting the received ions into an electrical signal, wherein said energy analyzer comprises,

an entrance diaphragm located adjacent to said target support and having an entrance slit therein, said entrance slit being positioned to receive primary ions scattered from a said sample at a predetermined angle relative to the beam of primary ions prior to bombarding said sample,

curved electrostatic analyzer plates having an electrical potential thereon to transmit scattered primary ions hav ing a predetermined energy value,

an exit diaphragm located adjacent to said analyzer plates and having an exit slit therein, said exit slit positioned to receive ions transmitted by said analyzer plates,

biasing means operatively connected to said entrance diaphragm and to said exit diaphragm for biasing said entrance diaphragm to a first predetermined potential and for biasing said exit diaphragm to a second predetermined potential.

7. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 6 wherein the ion generator means further comprises,

deflection plates located adjacent to said ion generating means and positioned on opposing sides of a said primary ion beam,

deflector power supply means operatively connected to said deflection plates for charging said plates affording deflection of the path of said primary ion beam to control the location on said sample being bombarded by said primary ion beam.

8. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 7 wherein said target support comprises,

rotatable meanshaving spaced surface portions for supporting a plurality of individual samples thereon, said rotatable means being located to position a sample in a predetermined location to intercept a said ion beam, and

advancement means operatively connected to said rotatable means for advancing and positioning successive samples in said predetermined location.

9. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 8 wherein said ion generating means comprises,

a compact ion generator including,

a filament for producing electrons,

a highly transparent gn'd adjacent to said filament and defining therewith an ionization region, said grid having an electrical potential for accelerating said electrons to a kinetic energy sufficient to ionize noble gas atoms within said ionization region,

a repeller encircling said filament and said ionization region having an electrical potential for diverting electrons into said ionization region,

an extractor plate including an extractor aperture therein located adjacent to said ionization region and about said beam axis, said extractor plate being electrically biased to attract ions from said ionization region and direct said ions toward said sample, and

a first anode plate including a first aperture therein located adjacent to said extractor aperture and about a said beam axis, said first anode plate being electrically biased for collimating, modulating and focusing the extracted primary ions into a collimated beam of primary ions directed toward said sample.

10. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus of claim 9 wherein said compact ion generator further comprises,

a second anode plate including a second aperture therein, said second anode plate located adjacent to said first anode plate wherein said second aperture is located adjacent to said first aperture and about said beam axis, said second anode plate electrically biased to additionally collimate and focus the beam of primary ions directed toward said sample.

11. A compact elemental analyzing apparatus adapted to fit within an evacuable chamber containing a noble gas and having particular utility in determining the elemental composition of a solid surface by measuring the energy and the quantity of primary ions scattered from elements forming said solid surface and received by an energy analyzer positioned adjacent to said surface to thereby selectively identify said elements and determine the quantity of each said element respectively, said apparatus including in combination a target support for supporting in a predetermined location a sample to be elementally analyzed, an ion generating means for producing a beam of primary ions having known mass and substantially the same known kinetic energy and for directing said primary ions along a beam axis toward said sample, an energy analyzer for transmitting scattered primary ions which have a second known kinetic energy value less than the original kinetic energy of said primary ions to measure the energy lost as a result of collision with said surface to identify the atomic mass of the element scattering said primary ions, and ion detector means to receive the transmitted primary ions for converting the received ions into an electrical signal, wherein the improvement comprises,

1. a flange adapted to form an end wall of the evacuable chamber,

2. a support frame secured to said flange,

3. a tubular housing supported by said frame and adapted to support a compact ion generator,

4. a multi-positionable target support secured to said frame and located adjacent to said tubular housing to position successive samples within a predetermined target location, including a. rotatable means having spaced surface portions for supporting a plurality of individual samples thereon, said rotatable means located to position a sample in a predetermined location to intercept a said ion beam,

b. advancement means operatively connected to said rotatable means for advancing and positioning successive samples in said predetermined location,

5. an energy analyzer supported by said frame and having an entrance positioned adjacent to said target support and extending adjacently along said tubular housing for transmitting ions therethrough which have a predetermined energy, and

6. ion detector means supported by said frame and positioned adjacent to said tubular housing and said energy analyzer for converting the transmitted ions into an electrical signal, wherein the primary ions from said compact ion generator are directed to bombard a first sample from b. evacuating the active gases in said chamber to a predetermined active gas pressure of less than about 10* Torr,

c. discontinuing the evacuation of said chamber,

d. back-filling said chamber with a noble gas to a partial pressure sufficient to support generation of an ion beam of a predetermined purity of said noble gas, and

e. generating an ion beam of said noble gas by means of said ion generating means to analyze a said surface.

13. The method of claim 12 further including the step of gettering the interior of a said chamber after it has been evacuated to said predetermined active gas pressure to chemically adsorb substantially all active gases in said chamber.

14. The method of claim 12 wherein the evacuating of said chamber comprises the step of cryogenically pumping said chamber.

15. The method of claim 12 wherein said energy analyzer inserted within said chamber has conductive entrance and exit diaphragms formed with slits and wherein said method further comprises the step of positively biasing said diaphragms to restrict the noise level afforded by sputtered and extraneous scattered ions.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3916190 *Mar 1, 1974Oct 28, 1975Minnesota Mining & MfgDepth profile analysis apparatus
US3916191 *Mar 1, 1974Oct 28, 1975Minnesota Mining & MfgImaging apparatus and method for use with ion scattering spectrometer
US3920989 *Sep 20, 1974Nov 18, 1975Minnesota Mining & MfgIon scattering spectrometer utilizing charge exchange processes
US3930155 *Jan 17, 1974Dec 30, 1975Hitachi LtdIon microprobe analyser
US4058724 *Jun 27, 1975Nov 15, 1977Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyIon Scattering spectrometer with two analyzers preferably in tandem
US4363774 *May 14, 1980Dec 14, 1982Bennett Willard HProduction and utilization of ion cluster acceleration
US4657722 *Nov 21, 1984Apr 14, 1987Bennett Willard HIon cluster acceleration
US5111042 *Oct 28, 1988May 5, 1992National Research Development Corp.Method and apparatus for generating particle beams
US5302827 *May 11, 1993Apr 12, 1994Mks Instruments, Inc.Quadrupole mass spectrometer
US5671045 *Oct 6, 1995Sep 23, 1997Masachusetts Institute Of TechnologyMicrowave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams
US6081329 *Oct 19, 1998Jun 27, 2000Cohn; Daniel R.Compact trace element sensor which utilizes microwave generated plasma and which is portable by an individual
USRE35701 *Mar 29, 1996Dec 30, 1997Mks Instruments, Inc.Quadrupole mass spectrometer
WO1989004586A2 *Oct 28, 1988May 18, 1989Nat Res DevMethod and apparatus for generating particle beams
Classifications
U.S. Classification850/43, 250/397, 250/289, 250/309, 250/305, 313/362.1
International ClassificationH01J49/00, H01J49/14, H01J49/26, G01N23/225, H01J49/28, G01N23/22, H01J49/10, H01J49/48, G01Q60/44
Cooperative ClassificationH01J49/48, H01J49/142, H01J49/282, H01J49/14
European ClassificationH01J49/28B, H01J49/48, H01J49/14, H01J49/14A
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 7, 1987AS01Change of name
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Owner name: KRATOS, INC., 3333 TORREY PINES COURT, LA JOLLA, C
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. SUBJECT TO LICENSE RECITED.;ASSIGNOR:MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004322/0191
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Oct 29, 1984AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: KRATOS, INC., 3333 TORREY PINES COURT, LA JOLLA, C
Effective date: 19800825
Owner name: MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY A DE CO