US 3665549 A
A hydraulic door closer cylinder having a closed end and an opposite open end, a piston slidably mounted in the cylinder, a cooperating piston rod projecting axially outwardly through the open end, and mounting means for disposing the cylinder at an oblique angle to the horizontal and sloping upwardly from its closed end to its opposite end. Structure in the cylinder supports a wiper element in encompassing sliding engagement with the piston rod, and disposable means engages the cylinder and piston to prevent leakage of liquid from the cylinder during shipment or storage.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1151 3,665,549 Quinn 1 1 May 30, 1972 [541 DOOR CLOSER 3,182,349 5/1965 Sogoian ..16/52 72 Inventor: Bert A. Quinn, 2419 North Pascal, $1. $2 ,926; 31321 gjg gi Paul 551 3,268,945 8/1966 Sogoian ..16/52  Filed: Mar. 23, 1970 App]. No.: 21,578
 US. Cl. ..16/52, 16/66, 188/100 S  Int. Cl. ..E05f 3/10  Field oiSearch ..16/51,52,57, 58,66; 188/100 S  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,307,502 6/1919 Knudson ..16/57 1,529,235 3/1925 Bechereau ..16/51 1,818,250 8/1931 Harrah et a1. 16/52 X 2,992,864 7/1961 De Carbon 188/100 S 3,129,453 4/1964 Turner ..16/52 Primary Examiner-Bobby R. Gay Assistant ExaminerPetcr A. Aschenbrenner Attorney-Merchant & Gould [5 7] ABSTRACT A hydraulic door closer cylinder having a closed end and an opposite open end, a piston slidably mounted in the cylinder, a cooperating piston rod projecting axially outwardly through the open end, and mounting means for disposing the cylinder at an oblique angle to the horizontal and sloping upwardly from its closed end to its opposite end. Structure in the cylinder supports a wiper element in encompassing sliding engagement with the piston rod, and disposable means engages the cylinder and piston to prevent leakage of liquid from the cylinder during shipment or storage.
5 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTEDMAY 30 I972 & INVENTOR. .Bsnr
A0 Gum/w zM AT TORNEYS noon CLOSER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION otherwise provide a highly smooth even surface on the gland engaging portion of the piston rod. Even a slight scratch, which may occur on the piston rod during assembly or installation of the closer, is sufflcient to cause undue wear on the gland or packing, and early leakage of liquid from the cylinder. This problem was solved to some extent in my prior patent, above-identified, and also in the structure disclosed in US. Pat. No. 2,227,656, both of these patents disclosing door closer cylinders disposed at oblique angles to the horizontal. In the closure of these patents, the normal liquid level in the cylinders is below that of the packing gland or piston rod wiper element at the upper end of the cylinder. Even these structures have not been entirely leak or drip proof over extended use, and still require that the piston rods be made extremely smooth and even.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The primary object of this invention is the provision of a hydraulic door closer which can be produced at low cost and which will not leak hydraulic liquid even after extensive use over a substantial period of time. To this end, I provide, in a sloping hydraulic door closer of the above-mentioned type, an annular wiper element slidably encompassing the piston rod, andstructure mounting the wiper element in the cylinder axi ally inwardly of the axial opening at the upper end of the cylinder, and dividing the cylinder into an elongatedlower primary fluid chamber containing the piston, and an upper overflow chamber adjacent the axial opening in the cylinder and above the normal level of liquid in the primary chamber. The structure defines passage means for free flow of liquid from the overflow chamber to the primary chamber. Further, a disposable seal is provided for closing the axialopening in the cylinder during shipment or storage, the seal being easily removable when the closer is installed on a door and door frame.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGS. 3 and 4 are enlarged transverse sections taken on the lines 33 and 4-4 respectively of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary section corresponding to a'portion of FIG. 2 but showing a modified arrangement.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION In the drawings, a door frame is shown fragmentarily at 1, a conventional door 2 of the screen or storm variety being hingedly mounted in the door frame, a indicated at 3. The door 2 is shown as being provided with a framed screen element 4 mounted therein.
The embodiment of the improved door closer of this invention illustrated in FIGS. [-4 comprises an elongated cylinder 5 having rigidly mounted at one end thereof a closure member 6, the opposite end of the cylinder 5 being inturned to define an enlarged axial opening 7 and an annular shoulder 8 adjacent to the opening 7. A piston 9, comprising a pair of piston elements 10 and I1 and a valve acting ring 12 movably mounted therebetween, is rigidly secured to one end of a piston rod 13 that extends axially of the cylinder 5 and axially outwardly through the axial opening 7. As shown in FIG. 2, the piston elements 10 and 11 are of somewhat smaller diameter than the inner diameter of the cylinder 5, to provide a clearance therebetween. The piston element 10 has a relatively small transverse opening 14 therethrough, and the piston element 11 has a relatively larger diameter transverse opening 15 therethrough, the valve acting ring 12 having an outer diameter substantially equal to the inner diameter of the cylinder 5, so as to have snug sliding engagement therewith. The arrangement is such that, when the piston 9 moves toward the axial opening 7, the piston element 10 moves into engagement with the ring 12 and hydraulic liquid, indicated at 16, flows freely from one side of the piston 9 between the piston element 10 and the wall of the cylinder 5, and through the relatively large opening 11 toward the closed end 6 of the cylinder 5. When the piston 9 is moved toward the closure member 6, the piston element 10 engages the valve acting ring 12 to prevent liquid 16 from passing between the piston element l0 and the cylindrical wall of the cylinder 5. The liquid 16 then passes from the closed end of the cylinder around the piston element 11 and through the larger opening 15 therethrough, and through the relatively smaller opening 14 in the piston element 10 to retard movement of the piston 9 and piston rod 13 toward the closed end or closure member 6.
As shown, the door closer is adapted to be mounted at an oblique angle to the horizontal, with the cylinder 5 and piston rod 13 sloping upwardly from the closed end or closure member 6 of the cylinder 5. The closure member 6 is provided with a mounting lug 17 that is pivotally mounted to a bracket member 18 by means of a pivot pin or the like 19 extending transversely of the axis of the cylinder 5. The bracket member 18 is pivotally mounted to a base plate 20, by means of a second pivot pin 21, the base plate 20 being screwed or otherwise rigidly secured to the door 2. The axis of the pivot pin 21 is generally normal to the axis of the pivot pin 19, so that the cylinder 5 is capable of limited universal swinging movements relative to the door 2. Outwardly of the axial opening 7, the piston rod 13 is formed to provide a flattened end portion 22 that is angularly displaced with respect to the longitudinal dimension of the piston rod 13 and which is pivotally mounted to a bracket 23 by means of a vertically disposed pivot pin 24, the bracket 23 being rigidly secured to the door frame 1 by mounting screws or the like 25. As shown in FIG. 2, with the angularly displaced relationship between the main portion of the piston rod 13 and its flattened outer end portion 22, the cylinder 5 is mounted on the door and door frame in such manner that the cylinder 5 and piston rod 13 slope upwardly from the closure member 6 toward the bracket 23. A conventional holding plate 26 is normally held out of engagement with the adjacent upper end of the cylinder 5 by lugs 27 formed on the piston rod 13 adjacent the end portion 22 thereof. The holding plate 26 is provided with a notched opening 28 whereby the holding plate may be slipped over the flattened end portion 22 for mounting on the piston rod 13. The notches of the opening 28 may be moved into alignment with the lugs 27 when it is desired to move the holding plate 26 into engagement with the adjacent end of the cylinder 5 to hold the door open in the usual manner.
A wiper ring 29, of felt or other suitable material, is slidably mounted on the piston rod 13 in axially inwardly spaced relation to the opening 7, and is held in place by a structure including a washer 30 and a cup-shaped spacer 31 having a generally flat bottom wall 32. As shown in FIG. 2, the washer 30 is axially inwardly dished, and defines an annular surface 33 that faces the piston 9. The cup-shaped spacer 31 is formed to provide a marginal edge or lip 34 that is disposed to engage the annular shoulder 8 of the cylinder 5 adjacent the axial opening 7 therein, the spacer 31 and washer 30 cooperating to divide the interior of the cylinder 5 into an elongated primary chamber 35 containing the piston 9, and an overflow chamber 36 adjacent the opening 7. The washer 30 and cup-shaped member 31 are provided with transverse openings 37 and 38 respectively, through which hydraulic liquid may flow from the overflow chamber 36 to the primary chamber 35. With reference particularly to HO. 2 it will be seen that the openings 37 and 38 provide passage means disposed above the normal level of the hydraulic liquid 16 in the primary chamber 35. A coil compression spring 39 has one end engaging the annular surface 33 of the washer 30 and its opposite end in abutting engagement with the piston element to yieldingly urge the piston 9 in a door closing direction relative to the cylinder 5, or in a direction toward the end closure member 6. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the washer 30 and bottom wall 32 of the spacer 31 are provided with notched axial openings 40 and 41 respectively which loosely receive the piston rod 13, the notches in the openings 40 and 4l enabling the flattened end portion 22 and lugs 27 of the piston rod 13 to pass through the openings 40 and 41 in the same manner as it does through the notched opening 28 in the holding plate 26.
During opening movement of the door 2, relative axial movement occurs between the cylinder 5 and piston 9 with its piston rod 13, the piston 9 moving toward the wiper element 29 against yielding bias of the compression spring 39. As the piston rod 13 moves axially outwardly relative to the wiper element 29, the wiper element 29 tends to wipe off hydraulic liquid 16 which adheres to the piston rod 13. However, a thin coat of hydraulic liquid 16 does adhere to the piston rod 13 as it moves through the wiper element 29 and, during closing movements of the door, the wiper element 29 tends to remove this remaining liquid from the piston rod 13. This further removed liquid tends to accumulate in the overflow chamber 13 and flows axially inwardly through the openings 38 and 37 to the primary chamber 35. By providing primary and secondary chambers with the annular wiper element 29 thercbetween, l have found that it is not necessary to grind or otherwise polish the piston rod 13, but that the piston rod 13 may be made from rolled stock as it comes from the mill. Obviously, more of the hydraulic liquid 16 will adhere to unpolished rolled rod stock than to polished material, even as the material moves through the wiper element 29. However, any hydraulic liquid 16 which may pass through the wiper element 29 during axially outward movement of the piston rod 13, will either flow down the rod 13 to the wiper element 29 and bottom wall 32 of the spacer 31 or be wiped from the piston rod 13 during its axially inward movement, and return to the primary chamber 35 through the openings 37 and 38. Even when unpolished rolled rod stock is used as the piston rod 13, only a thin film of hydraulic liquid adheres to the rod 13 as it passes through the wiper element 29. l have found that, by dividing the cylinder into primary and overflow chambers as abovedescribed, no hydraulic liquid escapes from the cylinder 5 even after an extended period of hard usage.
In order that the hydraulic liquid 16 may be introduced to the cylinder 5 at the place and time of manufacture and assembly, to avoid the problems offilling the cylinder at the time and place of installation, 1 provide a sealing element in the nature of a flexible resilient washer 42 that encompasses the piston rod 13 immediately inwardly of the axial opening 7, and which is held against the annular shoulder 8 by pressure ofthe spring 39 and engagement by the marginal lip or edge 34 of the spacer 31. After the door closer is installed, the washer 42 may be easily removed with the help of a nail or other sharp pointed instrument, as shown by dotted lines in FIG. 1 and indicated at 43.
ln the modified arrangement illustrated in FIG. 5, the cylinder, piston rod and spring are identical to those of FIGS. l-4 and are identified by the same reference characters. In this arrangement, the structure which divides the cylinder into primary and overflow chambers comprises a pair of washers 44 that are identical in construction to the washer 30 and disposed in opposed relationship in a manner to provide an annular chamber 45 for reception of a wiper element 46 identical to the wiper element 29. As shown in FIG. 5, one of the washers 44 defines an annular surface 47 for engagement with the adjacent end of the spring 39, and a spacer 48, comprising axially abutting annular spacer sections 49, 50 and 51, is interposed between the other washer 44 and shoulder 8 of cylinder 5. The washers 44 are formed to provide transverse openings 52 therethrough, and at least one of the spacer sections 49-51, such as the spacer section 50, is provided with fluid passages 53 through which hydraulic liquid can flow from the overflow chamber 54 to the primary chamber, indicated at 55. A modified temporary seal is shown in H6. 5 as comprising a cap 56 made from oil-resistant rubber or similar material and having a flange 57 that encompasses the adjacent end portion of the cylinder 5, the cap 56 having a central opening for snug reception of the piston rod 13. Like the washer 42, the cap 56 may be easily cut away and discarded after the door closer has been installed.
While I have shown and described a preferred embodiment of improved door closer, and a modified arrangement, it will be understood that the same is capable offurther modification without departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, as defined in the claims.
1. A door closer comprising:
a. an elongated cylinder having a closed end and means at its opposite end defining an axial opening of predetermined relatively large diameter and an annular shoulder adjacent said axial opening;
b. piston means axially slidably mounted in the cylinder and including a piston and a cooperating piston rod of predetermined relatively substantially smaller diameter projecting axially outwardly through said relatively large diameter opening;
c. mounting means on the closed end of the cylinder and on the piston rod outwardly of the cylinder for connection, one to a door and the other to a door frame, and arranged to dispose said cylinder at an oblique angle to the horizontal so that the cylinder slopes upwardly from the closed end thereof;
d. an annular wiper element encompassing said piston rod for relative axial sliding movements therebetween;
e. cup-shaped means in said cylinder having a top marginal edge portion disposed to engage said annular shoulder and a bottom portion having an axial opening therethrough for free reception of said piston rod;
f. a washer encompassing said piston rod axially inwardly of said bottom portion, said wiper element being disposed between said washer and bottom portion;
g. and spring means interposed between said washer and said piston and yieldingly urging said piston toward said closed end of the cylinder;
h. said cup-shaped means and washer supporting said wiper element in axially inwardly spaced relation to annular shoulder and cooperating with the cylinder to define,
1. an elongated primary chamber containing the piston and adapted to receive liquid therein to a predetermined normal level,
. a relatively axially shorter overflow chamber adjacent said axial opening, and
. passage means above said normal fluid level for free flow of liquid from said overflow chamber to said primary chamber.
2. The door closer according to claim 1 in which said passage means comprises aligned openings in said bottom portion of the cup-shaped member and in said washer.
3. The door closer according to claim 1 in which said cupshaped means comprises a second washer defining said bottom portion and annular spacer means between said second washer and said annular shoulder in radially outwardly spaced encompassing relation to said piston rod.
4. The door closer according to claim 3 in which said passage means comprises aligned openings in said washers radially outwardly of the piston rod.
5. The door closer according to claim 3 in which said spacer means comprises a plurality of axially abutting annular sections disposed between said washers and said annular shoulder.