US 3666516 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1972 R. E. DUNNING 3,666,516
HOT STAMP TAPE Filed Oct. 12, 1971 -|o HEAT.
ACARRIER SHEET /BPRIMER COAT C-TICK COAT 0- RELEASE COAT E-REPLICATING COAT F-ABRASION COAT G-ABRASION COAT H- COLOR COAT \I-COLOR COAT J-ADHERENCE COAT r "1 II PRESSURE *Xiki'kfiQ? |4 SUBSTRATE Fi K Fig. 2.
q HEAT F, 3 PRESSURE ,-A CARRIER SHEET c- TICK COAT EI-REPLICATINIG, RELEASE, COLOR,
LM-SUBSTRATE AND ADHERENCE COMBINATION COAT United States Patent 3,666,516 HOT STAMP TAPE Richard E. Dunning, 650 W. 67th Place, Hammond, Ind. 46375 Filed Oct. 12, 1971, Ser. No. 188,423 Int. Cl. B41m 3/12; B44c 1/16 U.S. Cl. 1173.4 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A web of indeterminate length carrying thermally transferable material, usually referred to as hot stamp tape, is structured to provide an improved simulated wood grain pattern on a substrate after transfer to the substrate of transferable portions of the tape. The web or tape may be provided in sheet form. The structure comprises ticks or discrete linearly oriented spots of material having low specular reflectivity coated on a matte carrier sheet, as by printing and a layer coated thereon to provide the top layer of the transferred material, which replicates the surface of the carrier sheet and the coated ticks or dots.
FIELD This invention relates to hot stamp tapes and more particularly to webs comprising heat transferable coatings.
PRIOR ART The instant invention represents an improvement on the disclosures of the following patents:
SUMMARY Simulated woodgrain patterns have been provided on many surfaces in recent years. Examples include countertops, wall panels, cupboard doors, radio cabinets and the like. Many of these have been provided by printing a woodgrain pattern on paper, laminating the paper to a substrate and covering the paper with a layer of synthetic resinous material. This has been particularly true in the case of countertops and Wall panels.
In other instances, a woodgrain pattern has been provided in a transferable layer of hot stamp tape (or web) and then, by hot stamp transfer, the transferable portion including the woodgrain patterned layer has been transferred to and adhered to a substrate.
More recently, in order to better simulate the grain of wood, it has become common to emboss linearly oriented spaced-apart depressions into the surface during or after transfer, the embossed portions being referred to in the art as ticks. Alternatively it has been well-known to provide the substrate with such ticks by molding or embossment prior to applying a coating thereto and then forcing the coating down into the ticks.
Ticks which have been provided in this manner have aided in providing a realistic simulation of a woodgrain but have not been considered to provide optimum simulation.
In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that a highly non-specularly reflective surface portion of a coated surface more nearly simulates to the eye the natural tick appearing in actual woodgrain than does a mere depression. The actual ticks in actual wood 3,666,516 Patented May 30, 1972 appear to be partially depressed as is the case with embossment. However, they also differ very markedly; that is, to an extremely high degree, in specular reflectivity with respect to the portions of wood immediately adjacent the ticks. This latter property appears to be far more important in providing optimum simulation of the grain patterns of actual wood than does providing a depression as in the case of either embossment or molding of depressions in the substrate.
Thus, both the discovery involved in recognizing this fact and also the structure and method for providing improved simulated woodgrain patterns constitute parts of the instant invention. Prior to the instant invention, it had not been possible to provide simulation of such non-specular reflectivity characteristics.
Accordingly, I shall describe a preferred embodiment of my invention to provide ticks which are substantially or nearly non-specularly reflective; that is, have a specular reflectance below a value of 25% at 60.
I first provide a carrier sheet or web which may be any carrier sheet or web of the prior art; for example, a polyester film such as Mylar (trademark of Du Pont), Melinex (trademark of Imperial Chemical Industries), or a web of cellophane or cellulose acetate or paper. I prefer to utilize a polyester film, particularly Mylar and I have found that to provide optimum results, I may provide this film as matte surfaced Mylar. A mattesurfaced Mylar may be provided by incorporating an inert particulate substance in the formulation during early stages of manufacture which affects the surface during later biaxial orientation or by embossment or sandblasting or chemical coating.
The carrier may then be coated on one surface with discrete spaced apart portions or ticks of a layer of synthetic resinous material in such fashion as to provide on the surface of each tick, a surface having very low specular reflectance. If desired, a primer coat may first be applied in the pattern of the ticks and the tick coat applied on top of and in register with the primer coat. Coating may be accomplished by any suitable means such as by silk screening or spraying through a mask or by gravure printing or printing from the surfaces of characters. The composition is one which shrinks during drying to provide a sufficiently crinkled or otherwise irregular and non-glossy surface to provide the desired low degree of specular reflectivity. The discrete spaced apart portions or ticks are non-heat-transferably adherently attached to said carrier sheet, so that they will not transfer from the carrier sheet when subjected to the heat and pressure of the transfer operation.
A release coating may then be applied which may be of conventional form and may thus be based on paraflin wax or the like. The normal characteristics of a release coating are that it melts or softens at a temperature below that of other layers in the sheet so that neither the carrier portion which remains behind or the transferred portion (which may be one layer or may be as many as eight or ten layers) is melted or softened, except that the surface of the layer adjacent the substrate is sufliciently softened or made sufl'iciently tacky to provide adherence to the substrate.
Extreme thinness of the release coating is absolutely essential if not entirely critical. Thus, the release coating must be relatively thin relative to the size of the bumps in the nearly non-specularly reflective surface of the coated ticks, to permit subsequent replication of these bumps.
A layer of replicating synthetic resinous material is then coated relatively thickly over the release coating so that the thickness of each heretofore coated tick is either somewhat less or at least not much greater than the thickness of this newly coated layer, the newly coated layer being of syinthetic resinous material suited to replicate the surface of the carrier sheet and the surfaces of the heretofore coated ticks. This layer may carry coloring material or may be transparent and may be adapted to be adhered directly to a substrate or may be provided with additional layers which may comprise coloring material and/or tackiness characteristics for providing adherence to a substrate.
For example, it is normal to provide a simulated woodgrain pattern as a plurality of printings of different colors overlying each other and a coating is necesary for each such color. Coatings embodying all these colors may be placed over the replicating coating and the last of such color-containing coatings or an additional coating may be of a composition that provides the desired degree of tackiness during heat transfer to provide adhesion to the substrate.
Although carrier sheets either having a high degree of specular reflectivity, that is, being highly glossy or having a matte surface, that is, having a lower degree of specular reflectivity, have been described, the carrier sheet surface may have any suitable degree of specular reflectivity desired for any particular purpose.
This invention is not limited to providing simulated woodgrain patterns but may be utilized to provide any desired pattern having coated surface portions which vary greatly in specular reflectivity. Thus, on a carrier sheet having high, medium or low specular reflectivity, there may be coated not only one group of ticks" having a particular set of surface characteristics, but there may also be coated additional groups of ticks to provide any desired number of groups, each group having a particular surface characteristic or characteristics which need not be the same as that of any other group coated thereon.
The replicatory coat then replicates all charatceristics of all the surfaces presented by all such ticks or other coating portions coated thereon, plus the uncoated exposed portions of the carrier sheet.
OBJECTS It is, therefore, an object to provide a hot stamp tape or web suitable for providing an improved simulated woodgrain pattern on a substrate.
Another object is such a web comprising coating ticks having low specular reflectivity and a replicating coating adapted to provide portions having corresponding low specular reflectivity after transfer.
Another object is to provide such a replicatory coat with two different degrees of reduced specular reflectivity.
Further objects will become apparent from the description.
DRAWINGS In the drawings like reference numerals refer to like parts and:
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional schematic view of one embodiment of the method and article of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional schematic view of the embodiment of FIG. 1 after completion of the process;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional schematic view of another embodiment of the process and article;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional schematic view of the embodiment of FIG. 3 after completion of the process.
DESCRIPTION Referring now to MG. 1, a carrier sheet A may be provided with primer coat portions B which may be provided thereover with tick coat portions C. A release coat D may then be provided and overlying the release coat there may be provided respectively a replicating layer B, an abrasion resistant layer F, a second abrasion resistant layer G, a color coat H, another color coat I, and an adherence promoting coat J.
Heat as indicated by arrows and pressure as indicated by arrows 11 may be applied to force the laminar assembly 13, consisting of layers A thru J as described,
4 against substrate 14. After thus applying heat and pressure, the carrier sheet and layers B and C and D attached thereto, may be removed to provide the article of FIG. 2, wherein areas of low specular reflectance are indicated at 15 and areas of specular reflectance diifering therefrom are indicated at 16.
In FIG. 3 is shown an embodiment corresponding to that of FIG. 1 wherein many layers are omitted, layer B provides a combination replicating, release, color, and adherence coat. In FIG. 4 is shown the article which remains after completing the process of FIG. 3 and removing sheet A having coating C attached thereto.
Coatings B and C are preferably applied by gravure printing but may be applied by silk screen printing, letter press printing, or the like. All other coats or layers may be applied by any suitable coating means such as by Meyer rod or reverse roller coater.
Below are given specific examples of suitable formulations for ecah coating layer together with particular characteristics thereof.
The carrier sheet which is preferably in web or tape form may be, as described above, a polyester film such as Mylar or a web of cellophane or cellulose acetate or paper. Mylar having a thickness of from /2 mil to 2 mils is preferred. For a preferred embodiment, it is desired to provide matte Mylar having a specular reflectance at 60 degrees to the horizontal in accordance with ASTM standard D523 of 35% to 60% but in certain embodiments glossy or non matte Mylar which has a specular reflectance determined in like manner of on the order of above and generally on the order of or above may be used.
In Table I are shown the layers present in the various examples. Since the following three layers: carriage sheet, tick coat, replicating coat are present in all examples, these are not included in the table so that Table I only re lates to nine examples although thirteen examples are presented; in the Examples 10, ll, 12, and 13, the only layers present are carrier, tick coat, and replicating coat.
The primer coat as provided serves the purpose of providing for improved adherence between the tick coat and the carrier sheet and it may be omitted if adherence of the tic'k coat to the carrier sheet is adequate without the presence of the primer coat.
The release coat is generally preferably a material such as a wax or the like; either natural max, parafiin wax, or a mixture of thereof, or a mixture of wax with other substances, may be used; but it is generally a waxy substance characterized by having a softening range rather than a clear softening point. The softening range or softening point of the release coat is generally preferably lower than the melting or softening points of the carrier sheet and all other layers in the laminar assembly so that when subjected to heat the softness of the release coat when heated permits the replicating coat to be released therefrom.
The replicating coat may in suitable instances be provided with release properties so that when subjected to suitable heat and pressure during hot stamping it is suitably released from the carrier sheet without the presence of a separate and a distinct release coat.
Abrasion resisting coats have the obvious function of providing enhanced abrasion resistance and either or both may be omitted if the replicating layer provides sufiicient abrasion resistance in and of itself. Color coats are generally printed on. Generally at least two color coats are necessary if a suitable wood grain or simulated wood grain pattern is to be provided and often three color coats may suitably be utilized for the purpose of providing an attractive and suitable simulated wood grain pattern; however, for providing other patterns which are not simulated wood grain patterns, it may in many instances be suitable to provide only a single color coat or to provide sufficient coloring material in the replicating layer so that no individual color coat is necessary. In some in-v stances, in fact, if no color is desired in the surface finish, no coloring material at all need be incorporated. The purpose of the adherence layer is to promote or improve adherence of the laminar assembly to a substrate,
and an adherence coat need be provided only if the adherence is otherwise unsatisfactory.
In Table I, the presence of an X in a column indicates that a coating or layer is present in the example heading the column, and the absence of an X indicates the absence of a corresponding layer.
COAT B--P RIMER COAT Parts by weight Example 1 2 3 4: 5 6
Dimethyl formamide 45 4 Goodyear V itel soluble polyester resin, PE 200 10..-. 5 Union Carbide VAGH vinyl resin 5 Union Carbide VMCH vinyl resin- Dioxane Chloroform 1O Tetrahydro furan Curetemp.,F 250 250 275 250 250 275 Curetime,seconds 7 7 7 7 7 7 Thickness or wt., wet, lbs. per ream. 4 3 6 8 9 6 COAT C-TICK COAT [Dry thickness 5 to microns] Parts by weight Farm'nnle 1 2 3 Ingredient or condition:
American Cyanannd "Beetle urea formaldehyde resin, 212-9- 20 American Cyanannd Beetle urea formaldehyde resin, 220-8.
American Cyanemid Melmac, Melamine resin 243-3 HCl Union Carbide VMOH vinyl res1n Rohm and Haas AT-50 thermosetting acrylic J ohnih Manville Celite diatomaceous ear Monsanto Santocel FRC, fumed silica- 2 Union Carbide VAGD vinyl resinL Union Carbide VA GH vinyl resin t Aluminum silicate p-Toluepe sulfonic acid 2 Methyl isobutyl ketone- Zylol. 70 59 Butanol Dow Corning 704 silicone resin Benzene.
Bakelite 2774 ERL catalyst Polyurethane, prepolymer Cure time l 1 mm. min. min. Cure temp., F 850 350 250 min.
2 2 1. 5 24 4 1 2O 20 min. min. hr. hr. min. sec. sec. sec. sec.
1 Copolymer of 85 to 88% vinyl chloride, 10.8 to 14.2% vinyl acetate and .8 to 1.2% maleic acid. 9 Copolymer of 89.5 to 91.5% vinyl chloride, 2.0 to 5.3% vinyl acetate and 5.3 to 6.5% vinyl alcohol.
8 Same as VA GD vinyl resin except higher molecular weight.
TABLE I Example 5 COAT DRELEASE COAT l t 4 1; coat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 i 0 pounds per ream we 1 P t B Primer n X X X X er s by weight D Release-.- X X X X Example ....2' 1 2 3 4 5 6 F Abrasion" X G X Petroleum wax, 0431135- H X X X Petroleum Wax, CfiHBi X X X Montan wax Ethyl hydroxyethyi cell! 4 Benxene 95 96 50 48 (3 Cl, 93 45 Methyl ethyl ketrme 48 Trlchloroethylene 99. 5
COAT E-REPLICATING COAT Parts by weight Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Union Carbide VYHH vinyl resin 3 l2 4 15 4 Nitrocellulose sec. R.S 18 13 5 3 Methyl methacrylate, medium molecular Wt 20 15 14 12 13 14 20 10 TlO-x 17 Iron oxide red 15 10 Butannl 55 28 Benzene 50 88 29 34 80 80 Acetone 33 27 58 85 41 55 34 Cure, time, seconds 40 40 30 30 27 25 30 10 10 5 7 10 1O Cure tem 180 200 200 205 200 200 225 230 240 220 215 215 Coating weights, wet pounds] ream 30 40 30 45 10 12 15 30 20 20 20 40 45 l Silngle umi' one color.
I 0 er. 9 Copolymer of about 13% vinyl acetate and about 87% vinyl chloride, medium molecular weight.
7 COAT F.-AB1RASION COAT Example 1, parts by Weight Polyethylene, micronized 7 Union Carbide vinyl resin VYNS medium-high mo lecular weight copolymer of 9.5% to 11.5% vinyl COAT H-FIRST COLOR COAT [Cure at 180 F. to 220 F. for 4. to seconds] Parts by weight I Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Methyl methacrylate- 10 2O Vinyl chloride resin 10 Nitrocellulose, sec RS 9 12 Me methacrylate Bu methacrylate copolymer Methanol:
Coating weights, wet,
lbs/ream 1 Single color. 3 Depends on pattern.
GOAT I-SECOND COLOR COAT [Coating welghtsdepend on pattern, cure at 180 F. to 220 F. for 4 to 2 seconds] 40 Parts by weight Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vinyl chloride resin 10 20 8 22 Me methacrylate-butyl methacrylate copolymer 1O 20 8 22 Iron oxide red Molybdate orange 5 4 9 4 4 4 4 Chrome yellow 5 10 2 a 1 3 12 3 12 T10: 1 l 2 1 3 1 3 Carbon black 1 2 1 1 1 1 Acetone 60 44 83 58 un Benzene Math anal 22 COAT J-ADHERENOE COAT Parts by weight Example 1 2 5 Methyl methacrylate-butyl methaerylate eopolymer 20 Nitrocellulose, sec. R.S 15 Tricresyl phosphate 5 6 Octyl alcohol- Pentane. Acetone 10 10 60 Cure time minutes 2 2 Cure rem t, F 120 120 Coating weight, wet, lbs/ream 15 50 attachable to a snbstrate in response to heat and pressure V said hot transfer sheet characterized by the combination said carrier sheet being a heat resistant flexible foldable sheet, l
having first and second surfaces each having a predetermined specular reflectance,
a plurality of discrete spaced apart portions of material comprising synthetic resin coated on the first surface of said carrier sheet,
said spaced apart portions being so adherently attached to said carrier sheet that they will not transfer from the carrier sheet when said heat and pressure are applied thereto, and
having a surface having a predetermined specular'reflectauce different from the specular reflectance of said first surface of the carrier sheet, and
a heat transferable replicating layer of synthetic resinous material constituting at least a portion of said transferable material and substantially replicating the surface of said portions of material adhe rcd to tlie first surface of said carrier sheet and also replicating Y the surface of the area of said first surface of vsaid carrier sheet not covered by said portions.
2. The sheet of claim 1 wherein said first surface of the carrier sheet is a matte surface. Y
3. The sheet of claim 1 wherein said heat transferable replicating layer comprises coloring material.
4. The sheet of claim 1 further characterized by primer coating layer portions between said carrier sheet and said discrete portions, in register with said discrete portions, and a thin release coating layer overlying said carrier sheet and said discrete portions and underlying said replicating layer.
5. The sheet of claim 1 wherein said heat transferable replicating layer is transparent and is coated with at least one additional layer, said additional layer comprising coloring material.
6. The sheet of claim 1 wherein said heat transferable replicating layer is tacky when heated to provide adherence of said transferable material to said substrate when transferred in response to said heat and pressure.
7. The sheet of claim 1 wherein said transferable material includes an adherence layer to provide adherence to said substrate and said adherence layer consists essentially of a layer of material which provides a surface for said transfer sheet opposite to said second surface of said carrier sheet, said adherence layer of material being tacky when heated.
8. The sheet of claim 1 wherein the specular reflectance at 60 of the first surface of said carrier sheet is from 35% to 60% and wherein the specular reflectance at 60 of the surfaces of said discrete portions is from 5% to 25%.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Peebles et a1; 2 64-226 X 2,316,143 4/1943 3,351,510 11/1967 Harris 156-23 2 2,046,954 7/1936 Verne et al. 264-245 X 2,016,416 10/1935 Dippel 117-45 3,592,722 7/ 1971 Morgan '117-45 3,467,538 9/1969 Best 117-8 3,459,626 8/1969 Morgan 161-146 2,303,395 12/ 1942 Schultz et al. 156-23 X 1,844,083 2/ 1932 Weber 117-45 3,363,956 1/ 1968 Vingren et al. 312-204 3,486,919 12/1969 Dreazy et al. 117-8 FOREIGN PATENTS 702,572 1/ 1954 Great Britain 156-232 WILLLAM D. MARTIN, Primary Examiner H. I. GWINNELL, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
PO-WBO v UNETED MATES PATENT (PFFKQE- QE'MEQATE GE QQRECTEUN Patent No. 3,666,516 Dated May 30, 1972 Inventofls) RICHARD E, DUNNING It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
C01, l, "Hammond, Indiana" should read Schererville,
line 5 Indiana I Col 4, "carriage sheet" should read carrier sheet line 34 line 45, "preferably a material" should read preferably of a material line 46, "natural max" should read natural wax line 47 "mixture of thereof" should read mixture thereof Col. 5, Under Example 9, should read X line 50,
line 34, "p-Toluepe" should read p-toluene line 41, Footnote :2 "5.3 to 6a5%"should read 5.2 to 6.5%
Col. 6, "Benxene" should read benzene line 53,
should read line 61 Coat E, example headings "l2 13 (approx) 12 13 Col. 7, Under Example 9, should read 4O line 35,
line 13$, "for 4 to 2" should read for 4 to 20 Signed and sealed this 5th day of November 1974.
MCCQY MG GZPSGN JR, C. SHALL DANN Commissioner of Patents Arresting