US 3667186 A
An outwardly bent engaging projection and an engaging depression are formed at each end of a substantially flat-shaped concrete block. The engaging depression receives an engaging projection of another concrete block, while the engaging projection of the first concrete block is received by an engaging depression of still another concrete block. Thus engaged with one another so as to be horizontally inseparable, a plurality of such concrete blocks form a honeycomblike framework which, supplemented with appropriately shaped other concrete blocks of the invention, is rendered into a desired substructure.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Kato [ June6, 1972  CONCRETE BLOCKS  Inventor: Shoji Kato, 1 Kitahata, Kobata, Uji, Japan  Filed: Aug. 17, 1970  Appl. No.: 64,263
 Foreign Application Priority Data Aug. 16, 1969 Japan ..44/64910  U.S. Cl ..52/594, 52/429, 52/570, 52/D1G. 2, 61/4  Int. Cl. ..E04b 2/18, 1504b 2/26  Field of Search ..52/591, 594, 570, 571, DIG. 2, 52/429; 61/4, 59, 60, 61, 37
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,320,690 6/1943 Willis ..52/438 1,056,810 3/1913 McDonald ..52/D1G. 2 2,290,369 7/1942 Fleischmann ..52/574 1,300,765 4/1919 Paulson F ORElGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 537,950 5/1955 Belgium ..52/591 508,987 7/1939 Great Britain ..52/436 Latham ..61 [59 Stevens. Bignell Primary Examiner-Alfred C. Perham Attorney-Waters, Roditi, Schwartz & Nissen  ABSTRACT An outwardly bent engaging projection and an engaging depression are formed at each end of a substantially flatshaped concrete block. The engaging depression receives an engaging projection of another concrete block, while the engaging projection of the first concrete block is received by an engaging depression of still another concrete block. Thus engaged with one another so as to be horizontally inseparable, a plurality of such concrete blocks form a honeycomblike framework which, supplemented with appropriately shaped other concrete blocks of the invention, is rendered into a desired substructure.
10 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJUH 6 I972 sum 01 ur 10 FIG.2
PATENTEDJUM 6 I972- sum 02 [IF 10 PATENTEDJUH s 1972 sum 03 or 10 PATENTEDJUH sum 3.661186 saw on HF 10 PATENTEDJUH 6|972 3.667.186
sum 07 0F 10 FIG.I2 FIG.I3
PATENTED UM 6191? 3,667,186
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BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to concrete blocks for use as structural units, and more particularly to novel concrete blocks whose ends are formed into definite shape so as to be engageable with one another in a horizontally inseparable manner for construction especially of substructures.
I-Ieretofore, the construction of roadbeds, embankments,
building foundations and other substructures involving the compacting operation of stone, gravel, sand or earth, has generally required huge quantities of such materials in addition to prodigious labor and time. In some instances, where the inadequate nature of existing soil forbids the immediate construction of such substructures, complete soil replacement has been a prerequisite.
Moreover, adequately inclined side faces or protective slopes have been needed for'the substructures constructed higher or lower than the ground surface, reducing the effective area of each substructure even to one half of the ground space actually occupied thereby. Such slopes not only hamper the economical use of ground spaces available, but they require an additional step of slope protection. Furthermore, no matter how carefully protected they may be, the slopes are not completely immune from rainwash and other weathering effects and tend to start crumbling down from their tops or from their so-called shoulder portions.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a primary object of the present invention to provide novel concrete blocks which can be readily engaged with one another and, once engaged, are never horizontally separable.
Another object of the invention is to provide novel concrete blocks which make possible the rapid construction of roadbeds, embankments, building foundations and other substructures.
Still another object of the invention is to provide novel concrete blocks which can be assembled together with various reinforcing materials so that structures built thereby will be highly durable and unyielding.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide novel concrete blocks which, when employed especially for the construction of elevated roads, make possible the maximum possible use of ground spaces available.
All these and the various ancillary objects are accomplished by the present invention, which is described in detail hereinbelow according to several preferred embodiments thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings:
FIG. I is a perspective view of a prototypal concrete block of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary top view of three such concrete blocks engaged with one another;
FIGS. 3 to 9, inclusive, are perspective views of some of the possible modifications of the prototypal concrete block of FIG. 1;
FIGS. and 11 are top views of other modifications;
FIGS. 12 and 13 are fragmentary top views of still other modifications engaged with one another;
FIG 14 is a fragmentary perspective view of the concrete blocks of FIGS. 3, 4 and 6 engaged with one another, together with reinforcing steel bars;
FIG. 15 is a fragmentary top view of the concrete blocks of FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 engaged with one another and filled with concrete;
FIG. 16 is a vertical sectional view taken along the plane of line XVI-XVI in FIG. 15; and
FIGS. 17 (a), (b) and (0) illustrate the cross sections of elevated roads by way of comparison, FIG. 17(a) showing a conventional mounded road and FIGS. 17(b) and (0) showing roads constructed with use of the concrete blocks of the present invention.
2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION FIG. 1 illustrates a prototypal concrete block A1 of the present invention, in which engaging projections 2, 2, bent 120 in the horizontal direction, are formed at diagonally opposite positions at both ends B1, B1 of a body part I. Formed inside these engaging projections 2, 2 are engaging depressions 3, 3 to be engaged with engaging projections 2, 2 of adjacent concrete blocks.
The engaging projection 2 is bounded by faces a, b, c and d. The above mentioned angle of 120 is formed by the faces a and b, an angle of by the faces I: and c, and a certain definite angle by the faces 0 and a.
The engaging depression 3 is formed between the aforesaid engaging projection 2 and another projection 4 that is formed by faces e, f, g, h and 1'. When engaged with another similar block, this concrete block Al has its face e in contact with a face c, its face f in contact with a face d, and its face 3 in contact with a side face la of a body part 1.
Referring now to FIG. 2, in which three such concrete blocks Al, Al and A1 are engaged with one another, the face a is in contact with the face b, the face 0 in contact with the face e, the face d in contact with the face j, and the face g in contact with the side face 1a of the body part 1. As illustrated, the three concrete blocks branch off in the horizontal directions at angles of The faces g and 1a are provided with concavities 5 and 5', respectively, which, when such concrete blocks are engaged as in FIG. 2, unite into holes to be filled with cement mortar and the like in order to prevent the disengagement of the blocks in the vertical direction. In contrast to the bar-shaped block A1 of FIG. 1, FIGS. 3 to 8, inclusive, illustrate six different plate-shaped concrete blocks A2, A3, A4, A5, A6 and A7, which are described hereinbelow.
In the concrete block A2 of FIG. 3, a slot hole 7 runs vertically through a flat-shaped body part 6 for insertion therethrough of reinforcing steel bars. Both ends B2, B2 of the body part 6 as viewed from the top are shaped the same as the ends B1, B1 of the above described concrete block Al.
The concrete block A3, of FIG. 4, has the upper and lower portions of its body part 8 cut away into recesses 9 and 9' across which reinforcing bars are to be disposed. Both ends B3, B3 of the body part 8 are shaped the same as the ends B2, B2 of the above described concrete block A2.
The concrete block A4 shown in FIG. 5, which is a modification of the foregoing block A2, is different therefrom in that a transverse window 11 is formed in a body part 10, to be filled, upon completion of a substructure with a number of such blocks A4, with sand, gravel, broken stone, cement mortar and the like to add to the solidity of that substructure.
The concrete block A5 shown in FIG. 6 is shaped particularly to form the side walls and the like of structures built by the other blocks of the invention. A front face 12a of a body part 12 is formed with a recess 13 for pleasing appearance, while a rear face 12b thereof is provided with a reinforcing protuberance 14 extending vertically in the middle of the body part. The shape of the ends B5, B5 of this block A5 is arranged slightly different from that of the ends of the above described four blocks Al, A2, A3 and A4. That is, while the fundamental shapes of the engaging projection 2 and the engaging depression 3 remain unaltered, the ends B5, B5 are arranged so as to be engaged only with the neighboring two blocks (one-to-one engagement).
The concrete block A6 shown in FIG. 7 is a combination of the foregoing concrete block A5 of FIG. 6 and concrete block A3 of FIG. 4, the latter being united to the former at its rear face protuberance so as to be at right angles therewith. The ends B6F, B6F of this block A6 are each shaped for engagement with a corresponding end of only one other similar block (one-toone engagement), while the end B6R is shaped for engagement with the ends of two other blocks (one-to-two engagement).
The concrete block A7 shown in FIG. 8, which is a modification of the above block A6 of FIG. 7, has its body part 17 curved either vertically, horizontally, or in both vertical and horizontal directions, for use in giving curved or spherical appearance t'o substructures formed by the concrete blocks of the invention. The ends 87F, 37F of this concrete block A7 are each shaped for one-to-one engagement, while the end B7R' is shaped for one-to-two engagement.
FIG. 9 illustrates a concrete block A8 which has only one engaging projection and one engaging depression at its end B8, for use as a filler when two concrete blocks, having their ends shaped for one-to-two engagement, are engaged with each other at an angle of 120.
FIG. 10 illustrates a particular example, i.e., a concrete block A9 preformed in a shape obtainable by engaging three I I blocks selected from among those illustrated in FIGS. 1, 3 and 4. Body parts 18 branch off in 120 different directions, with three similarly shaped ends B9 for one-to-two engagement. This block A9 greatly reduces the time and labor needed for the-engagement of individual blocks in construction of substructures.
FIG. 1 1 illustrates a similarly particular concrete block A10, preformed in a shape obtainable by engaging three blocks selected from among those of FIGS. 1, 3 and 4 one after the other. This also saves the time and labor needed for the engagement of individual blocks. Ends B 0, B of the block A are each shaped for one-to-two engagement, while ends BlOl, BIOI are each shaped for one-to-one engagement.
FIGS. 12 and 13 illustrate a further type of concrete blocks All of the invention engaged with one another, together with a filler" block in FIG. 13. While the engaging projections and depressions of these blocks All are simplified in shape, they do not basically differ form those of the preceding blocks and should be understood to fall within the'scope of the present invention.
How the above described various concrete blocks of the invention are assembled for the construction of substructures will now be described with reference to FIGS. 14, 15 and 16.
. First of all, depending upon the substructure to be constructed, ground excavation over a desired area will be necessary until a bed of base rock is reached, or the ground must be readjusted into sufficient solidity. At the, site thus prepared, those selected from among the concrete blocks A1 through Al 1 are assembled, with their ends B in either one-to-one or one-totwo engagement according to their shape.
vIn FIG. 14, the blocks A5,,used to form the side wall, are joined together with the blocks A3 in one-to-two engagement (the blocks A5 here are slightly modified from the block A5 illustrated in FIG. 6). In this instance, the engaging projections 2 and engaging depressions 3 of the blocks A5 are designed in such shape and size that the front faces 12a thereof are aligned in the same vertical plane and that the blocks A3 are engaged with the blocks A5 at right angles therewith. Further inside, the blocks A3, the blocks A2 and A3 in appropriate arrangement are joined together in one to-two engagement. Hence, a
first stage of honeycomb-like framework is obtained. Second, third and further stages of blocks are successively superposed thereupon in the same way.
Vertical reinforcing bars 21 are inserted into vertically penetrating spaces formed by the mutually engaged and superposed blocks. Horizontal reinforcing bars 22 are arranged across the recesses of the blocks A3. According to the arrangement of these blocks A3, the horizontal reinforcing bars 22 can be disposed not only in orthogonally crossing directions but also obliquely in order to add to the stren rigidity, and durability of the overall structure.
Into the hollow spaces 20 of the framework thus built to a desired height, fillers 23 such as sand, gravel, broken stone and mortar are dumped, as indicated in FIGS. 15 and 16, thus turning the honeycomblike framework into a rigid roadbed, embankment, building foundation or the like.
In particular, the concrete blocks of the invention makes form downwardly taperin side faces 25, 25 as in FIG. 17(c by use of the above descri d blocks A7, thus making the e fective road width s1 greater than the width s2 of the ground space actually occupied by the road. In either case, the effective area possessed by a conventional moundedroadv given in FIG. 17(a) with its side slopes 26, 26, is increased twice or more by the roads constructed with use of the concrete blocks of the present invention.
Although the novel concrete blocks of the invention have been shown and described with reference to several preferred examples, it will be obvious that the invention is not to be limited thereby but is .considered to include obvious and reasonable equivalents. For example, while the concrete blocks of the inventionhave been described above without specific mention of reinforcement therewithin, it will be apparent that these concrete blocks can be fabricated with reinforcing steel structures such as deformed steel bars or prestressed steel wires or bars imbedded therewithin.
Iclaim: I v
l. A concrete block structure comprising angularly disposed first, second and third concrete blocks each comprising a body part and at least one end part for rigid engaging connection with the end parts of the two other blocks; the end parts of the three blocks being identical in configuration; each end part of the blocks including an engaging projection extending outwardly from the body part, a second projection extending from the body part in a substantially divergent relationship to said engaging projection, and an engaging depression formed between said engaging projection and said second projection and being of a configuration complementary to said engaging projection; the engaging projection of said first block engaging the engaging depression of said third block; the engaging depression of said first block receiving the engaging projection of said second block; the second projection of said first block cooperating with the engaging projection of said third block to tightly grip the engaging projection of the second block therebetween.
2. The structure as claimed in claim'l, wherein the body parts of the three blocks are disposed to form an angle of between adjacent blocks.
3. The structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the body parts of two blocks are disposed at an angle of and the body part of the remaining block is disposed at right angle to said body parts of said two blocks.
4. The structure as claimed in claim 3, wherein said two blocks are each formed with a reinforcing protuberance on the rear surfaces thereof.
5. The structure as claimed in claim 3, wherein said two blocks have curved front surfaces.
6. The structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein side faces of the body parts of the blocks and surfaces defining said second projections of the blocks are provided with corresponding concavities which, when the blocks are engaged with each other, are registered with each other to fonn holes adapted to be filled with solidifiable material so as to prevent disengagement of the blocks.
7. The structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein at least some of the body parts of the blocks are hollow providing for the passage of reinforcing rods.
8. The structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein upper and lower surfaces of at least some of the body parts of the blocks are recessed for the passage of reinforcing rods.
9. The structure as claimed in claim 7, wherein at least one of the body parts of the blocks has an aperture extending transversely therethrough.
10. The structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the engaging projection of each block is bent at its intermediate part in a direction away from the second projection of the same block.