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Publication numberUS3668650 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 6, 1972
Filing dateJul 23, 1970
Priority dateJul 23, 1970
Also published asCA943259A1, DE2136210A1
Publication numberUS 3668650 A, US 3668650A, US-A-3668650, US3668650 A, US3668650A
InventorsWang Fuh-Lin
Original AssigneeContrologic Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Single package basic processor unit with synchronous and asynchronous timing control
US 3668650 A
Abstract
A basic processor unit for use in a data processing system is disclosed. The unit comprises in combination, a data storage unit including a plurality of registers, input and output buses, a data processing unit, a timing control including a timing element adapted to operate in a synchronous or an asynchronous mode, means for controlling the asynchronous operation of the timing element, decoding means and suitable interconnections between the various components. The present processor unit is so designed as to enable it to be connected to another similar unit, in series and/or in parallel whereby to increase either the number of bits per facility or the number of facilities or both. An improved data processing system utilizing the present processor is also disclosed.
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United States Patent W ng 1 1 June 6, 1972 541 SINGLE PACKAGE BASIC PROCESSOR 3,419,849 12/1968 Anderson et a1 340/1725 UNIT WITH SYNCHRONOUS AND 3,496,551 2/1970 Driscoll et al ..340/l 72.5

ASYNCHRONOUS TIMING CONTROL Primary Examiner-Paul J. Henon Assistant Examiner-Melvin B. Chapnick Attorney-Kane, Dalsimer, Kane, Sullivan and Kurucz [57] ABSTRACT A basic processor unit for use in a data processing system is disclosed. The unit comprises in combination, a data storage unit including a plurality of registers, input and output buses, a data processing unit, a timing control including a timing element adapted to operate in a synchronous or an asynchronous mode, means for controlling the asynchronous operation of the timing element, decoding means and suitable interconnections between the various components. The present processor unit is so designed as to enable it to be connected to another similar unit, in series and/or in parallel whereby to increase either the number ofbits per facility or the number of facilities or both. An improved data processing system utilizing the present processor is also disclosed.

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PATENTEU 5 I973 SHEET 6 [IF 7 INVENTOR Fl!!! L IN W446? i M MA? fix? f rORNEY- SINGLE PACKAGE BASIC PROCESSOR UNIT WITH SYNCI-IRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS TIMING CONTROL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In US. Pat. No. 3,315,235, issued to R. J. Carnevale et al., on Apr. 18, 1967 a data processing system is disclosed which utilizes a so-called central processor unit or CPU as well as a main memory, input-output (I/o) channels and input-output devices and controls. A problem in the assembly of computers such as that shown in the referenced patent is the so-called part number problem. That is, the problem associated with using a great variety of different parts to form the whole rather than repeating the same parts several times. It should be obvious that with mass production techniques, even the most complicated component part can usually be manufactured most economically when mass produced.

It is well known that the main memory can always be built with a very low part number whether it is made by magnetic cores or solid state circuits since the memory may be built up by combining a plurality of identical units. The 1/0 devices themselves and their control logic are, in general, rather irregular and in actuality, are commercially produced by a large number of manufacturers with appropriate interfaces for their particular usage. The CPU and llo channel (which in reality is similar to a simple CPU with a lower performance and less capable arithmetic unit than the CPU) are the most difficult and complex components of the data processing system and heretofore these components have been produced utilizing a large part number.

In view of the above, it is the principal object of the present invention to provide a basic processor unit which may be used as a repetitive piece part for constructing more complex processor units for use either as a CPU or I/o channel in a data processing system such as that disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,315,235.

A further object is to provide a new and novel data processing system which may be implemented with the proposed basic processor unit.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The above and other beneficial objects and advantages are attained in accordance with the present invention by providing a basic processor unit for use in a data processing system comprising, in combination, a data storage unit including a plurality of registers and the associated input and output gating therefor; an output bus and an input bus; a data processing unit including an arithmetic unit and the gating therefor, the data processing unit having an input connected to the data storage unit through the input buses and an output connected to the output bus. The basic processor unit further comprises a timing control including a timing element adapted to operate in a synchronous or an asynchronous mode and means for controlling the asynchronous operation of the timing element. The processor unit further includes decoding means having an input connected to a control source; means for externally connecting the input and output buses; and means for connecting the output of the decoding means and the output of the timing control to the data storage unit and the data processing unit. To this end, the data storage unit includes at least one register connected to the input bus and at least one register connected to the output bus.

The timing control which comprises the heart of the basic processor unit includes a delay line oscillator having a feedback path; a multi-phase time signal generator comprising a plurality of bistable elements; and a counter adapted to advance with each oscillation of the oscillator. The oscillator includes a first delay line having an output connected to the counter and an input connected to a multiple input logic gate having at least one input for each phase. Each input of the gate is connected to a second logic gate and each of the second logic gates has a first input connected to the feedback path of the oscillator, a second input connected to the means for controlling the asynchronous mode of the timing control and a third input connected to the corresponding phase of the multiphase time signal generator. The timing control further includes a second delay line having an input connected to the output of the first delay line and an output connected to the multi-phase time signal generator.

The present invention also contemplates a data processing system including processor units formed from basic processor units of the type described above. To this end, the system utilizes a main storage memory and first and second processor units, each of which is connected directly to the main storage memory. A separate control memory including storage elements, data registers, address registers and control logic is provided for each processor and is interconnected with both the main memory and its associated processor. Suitable inputoutput controls are connected to one of the processors and there is no connection between the two processors.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED DRAW'IN GS In the accompanying drawings:

FIG. I is a block diagram of the basic processor unit (BPU) of the present invention;

FIG. 2 including subfigures 2a, 2b and 24: comprise schematic representations of typical logic components for the arithmetic logic and shift ALS) unit of the BPU;

FIG. 3 is a simplified schematic of the control flip flops of the BPU;

FIG. 4 is a simplified schematic of a delay line oscillator such as that utilized in the timing control of the BPU;

FIGS. 4a and 4b are wave forms of the signals generated by the delay line feedback oscillator of FIG. 4;

FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of the synchronousasynchronous timing control utilized by the present BPU;

FIGS. 60 and 6b are block diagram illustrations of the method of connecting two BPUs to increase respectively, the word length and number to facilities available over a single BPU; and

FIGS. 7a and 7b are block diagrams, respectively, of a t ypical, presently available data processing system and the proposed data processing system of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In the following discussion and the associated drawings, NOR logic has been used throughout for simplicity except where, in the interest of clarity, different symbols are used for the same technology. Similarly, the customary circles indicating inversion have been omitted, again in the interest of simplification and clarity.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION UNIT The basic processor unit (BPU) 10 of the present invention is illustrated in schematic form in FIG. 1 Accordingly. the BPU 10 includes two facility blocks and three control blocks. The first facility block 12 is a data storage block and comprises a plurality of registers each of which is designated by the reference numeral 14. The number of registers 14 is determined by the performance required, and in most cases, will include at least on register for each of the following functions: location of program operand; address; accumulator; and address modification. It should be apparent that additional registers may be added for increased performance or certain of the registers may be eliminated as required. The number of bits required for each register is determined by the address length and the operand length of the computer formed from the BPU.

In addition to the data storage block 12, the facility section of the present BPU further comprises a data processing block 16. The data processing block 16 includes two operand registers l8 and 20 and an arithmetic-logic-shift (ALS) unit 22 as well as control flip flops 24. The operand registers 18 and 20 serve as a buffer between the ALS 22 and the general pur- OF BASIC PROCESSOR pose registers 14 of the data storage block 12. Operand registers l8 and may thus be eliminated at the cost of simplicity of control.

The ALS unit 22 performs addition and logic operations and its output can be shifted one bit either to the left or right. Subtraction can be obtained by reading the complement of the second operand into the operand register 20. Although certain details of the ALS will be discussed in more detail forthwith, it should be noted that the ALS unit 22 is basically a combination of well known and well defined components such as those discussed in more detail in US. Pat. No. 3,315,235.

The control flip flops 24 of the data processing block 16 are used to store system conditions such as overflow, sign and non-zero. If desired, other conditions can be added to the data processor 16 by adding additional flip flops.

Both facility blocks, that is, data storage block 12 and data processing block 16, are fed by input buses at least one of which is able to receive information externally. Accordingly, as shown, an external input bus 26 is provided along with an internal input bus 28. The number of bits of the input buses 26 and 28 is determined by the number of bits of each register 14 used in a BPU. As shown schematically, each register 14 has one connection 30 to the external input bus 26 and a second connection 32 to the internal input bus 28. The connections between the registers 14 and input buses 26 and 28 are made to the corresponding bit positions. That is, the first bit of the first register is connected to the same bus bit as the first bit of the second, third, fourth registers; the second bit of the first register is connected to the same bus bit as the second bit of the second, third, fourth register; and so on. The external input bus 26 is also connected to the control flip flops 24 through connection 34 as will be described in more detail forthwith and each bit of the operand register 20 is connected to the external input bus 26 through connection 36. Each bit of the operand register 18 is connected to the internal input bus through connection 38. The outputs of each bit of the operand registers 18 and 20 are connected to the ALS unit 22 through connections 40 and 42, respectively.

A first output 44 of the ALS 22 comprises a connection to an external output bus 46. In fact, each bit of the ALS 22 is connected to three bits of the output data bus to account for left and right shifting. This feature is described in more detail in conjunction with the discussion of FIG. 20 which will be described forthwith. Each bit of the ALS 22 is also connected to a synchronizing bus 48 through connection 50. As will be explained in more detail in connection with FIG. 2a, the output 44 will be gated onto the external output bus 46 to indicate when carry propagation is completed.

An additional connection 52 is provided between the ALS 22 and control flip flops 24. As will be described in connection with FIG. 3, connection 52 is used to set the control flip flops 24 according to the results of the operation in the ALS 22. As will also be discussed in more detail in connection with FIG. 3, the output of the control flip flops 24 is connected to the output bus 46 through connection 54. The external output bus 46 is also connected to the input of operand register 20 through connection 56. Connection 56 serves to provide complements to operand register 20 for subtraction in the ALS.

Referring briefly to the data storage block 12 once again, it will be noted that each of the registers 14 has a connection 58 to the external output bus 46 as well as a connection 60 to the internal output bus 62. A third connection 64 is provided between the output of each register 14 and an address bus 66. The address bus 66 has a pad 68 adapted to be connected to the main memory and control memory with which the processor formed from the BPU of the present invention is to be associated. Similarly, the output bus 46 has associated therewith pad 70 for external connection. With the illustrated embodiment, address information is transmitted from the registers through address bus 66 and pad 68. At the sacrifice of performance, the address bus could be tied into the output bus 46.

Buffers 72 and 74 are provided interposed between the external output and input buses 46 and 26 and the internal output and input buses 62 and 28, respectively. In the illustrated embodiment, the buffers 72 and 74 are shown as inverters. Actually, the butter may take the form of any device capable of providing power and/or correcting polarities to generate a distinction between input and output signals. Thus, in place of inverters, the buffers may be in the font: of amplifiers, special drivers, etc.

In addition to the data storage block I2 and data processing block 16 which provide the facilities for the BPU of the present invention, there are also three control function blocks including a control word decoder 76, timing control logic 78 and command generator 80.

The control word decoder 76 comprises a set of decoders the number of which is determined by the control word to be utilized which, in turn, is controlled by the number and operations of the general purpose registers 14, the number and operations of the operand registers (in the present case two, operand register 18 and operand register 20), the type of operations to be performed in the ALS 22 and the selection of the sensing of control flip flops 24. In other words, the longer the control word, the more operations available The control word decoder 76 may, for example, take the form of that shown in FIG. 42 of US. Pat. No. 3,315,235 to Carnevale et al. Such decoders are well known and defined in the art.

A second control function block of the BPU 10 is the timing control logic 78 which generates a series of pulses which are combined with the output of the control word decoder 76 to form inputs to the command generator 80. The outputs 82 and 84 of the command generator are connected, respectively, to each of the components of the data storage block 12 and the data processing block 16. The command generator 80 also has an output 86 to the synchronizing bus 48. As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, the synchronizing bus 48 is used for inter-unit connection between BPUs in a multi- BPU processor and for connecting the BPU with the main memory, the control memory, and the U0 controls of data processing system with which the BPU is to be associated. A connection 90 is provided between the timing control 78 and synchronizing bus 48 for purposes which will also be described forthwith.

To complete the general description of the BPU I0, atten tion is called to the control bus 92 which extends between an external interconnection 94 and the control word decoder 76. The pad 94 is adapted for interconnection with a control memory or control word generator of an associated data processing system. The control bus 92 receives the control word and transmits the same to the control word decoder 76 where the control word is interpreted and the result is used along with the output of the timing control logic 78 in generating the commands from the command generator 80. The format of the control word will determine the logic structure of the control word decoder 76 and command generator 80. To save connections at pad 94, the control word is preferably binary coded.

In the following paragraphs, a more detailed description of the various blocks of FIG. 1 will be provided with reference being made to FIGS. 2-6.

Data Storage Block 12 As was previously mentioned, the data storage block comprises a plurality of registers 14. The registers 14 comprise conventional arrangements of components which are well known and, accordingly, the details of this unit may be omitted from the present description.

Data Processing Block 16 As in the case of the data storage registers I4, the operand registers I8 and 20 comprise conventional arrangements of components and need not be discussed herein.

The details of the ALS unit are set forth in FIG. 2 and the associated subfigures 2a, 2b and 2c.

Adder pp In FIG. 2 a typical adder 96 is illustrated. One bit, 98 and 100, of operand registers 18 and 20, respectively, is

shown. One (IN") output 102 is connected to one input terminal of logic gates 104 and 106. The other output (ON") 108 is connected to one ten-ninal of gates 1 and 112. Similarly, the IN" output 114 of bit 100 is connected to the other terminal of gates 1 12 and 104, and the ON output 1 16 of bit 100 is connected to the other terminal of gates 106 and 110. The outputs of gates 104 and 1 10 are tied to one input of gate 118 and, similarly, the outputs of gates 106 and 112 are tied to one output of gate 120. The other terminals 122 and 124 of gates 118 and 120, respectively, are connected to the output carry signal of the next lower stage (as will be explained in connection with FIG. 2a). The outputs of gates 1 l8 and 120 are tied together and represent the sum of bits 98 and 100 of the two operands.

For completeness, the symbols N" and P" are inserted in the various associated figures to show the proper polarization of the various signals under true conditions when positive NOR logic gates are used exclusively.

Carry Generation Carry generation, that is, the inputs I22 and 124 to gates 118 and 120, are obtained with a so-called double-track arrangement, as shown in FIG. 2a. A CARRY OUT (P) is automatically propagated on line 122 if both o rands are one. If both operands are zero, no carry [CARRY OUT (1')] is automatically generated on line 124. These signals are inverted and sent to the next higher stage under the names CARRY IN (N) and CARRY IN (N), respectively. If one operand is one and the other operand is zero, then a CARRY OUT (P) is generated only ifa CARRY IN (N) from the next lowest stage is present. This is represented schematically in FIG. 2a which can be considered temporarily as the next lower stage to FIG. 2. Each stage of the carry utilizes six gates 126 (a-f). The terminals of the various gates are connected as follows:

Gate

Operand 98 Operand 100 126A [265 126C [26D 126E I26F I In addition, a CARRY IN (N) 128 from the next lower stage is provided as inputs to gates 126b and 1260, and a NO CARRY IN [CARRY IN (N is provided as additional inputs to gates [26c and 126 The outputs of gates 126a, 126b, and 1266 are tied together and similarily, the outputs of gates 126d, 126e and 126]" are tied together and fed to an OR logic gate 132 as well as carries 122 and 124 which, as was previously stated, are inverted and go to the next highest stage of the adder. The output 134 of gate 132 is connected to the synchronizing bus 48 to indicate the carry completion.

Logic The logic portion of the ALS 22 is illustrated in FIG. 2b. In it, each stage of the logic unit comprises five gates 136 (a-e). Gate 136a is connected to the one output of the corresponding bits 98 and 100 of operands 18 and 20, respectively. Gate 1360 performs AND operations. Gates 1361: and 1360 are connected, respectively, to the one and zero outputs of the corresponding bits 98 and 100 of operand registers 18 and 20, and zero and one outputs of the same bits as shown. Their outputs are tied together and provide the exclusive OR (EXO) function. Gate 136d and inverter 136e are connected to the zero outputs of bits 98 and 100 and provide the OR logic. The outputs of the various logic gates are tied together and connected to the output bus 46.

Shift The shift function of ALS 22, which in the present illustrated embodiment is a single bit shifi in either direction, is illustrated in FIG. where the (r')th stage of the unit is shown. Three identical sets of gates 138 (a and b), 140 (a and b), and 142 (a and b) are utilized. The inputs to the gates are the carries 122 and 124 and the combined outputs 144 of gates 104 and (see FIG. 2) and 146 ofgates 106 and 112. The output 148 of gates 138 is connected to the (i-l )th bit position of the output bus; the output 150 of gates 140 is connected to the (r')th bit; and the output 152 of gates 142 is connected to the (1+1 )th bit. Thus, lefi, right or no shifl may be accomplished by providing the proper inputs to the sets of gates 138, 140 and 142. It should be apparent that for greater than one bit shifting, a gate matrix may be employed in place of the simple logic circuitry illustrated in FIG. 20.

Control Flip Flops 24 The control flip flops 24 are used for overflow check, nonzero check and sign check in accordance with standard practice. The logic circuitry for the flip flops is shown in FIG. 3. Referring briefly to FIG. 1, it may be noted that the inputs 34 and outputs 54 of the control flip flops 24 are tied, respective ly, to the input bus 26 and output bus 46 for the storing and restoring of their settings. This arrangement is desirable in that it allows program interrupt.

Referring to FIG. 3, three flip flops 154, 156 and 158 are provided labeled, respectively, non-zero, overflow and sign. The non-zero flip flop 154 is connected to the various bits of the output bus 46 through gates 160 and 162. The overflow flip flop 156 is fed from the input bus 26 through gate 164, the output bus 46 through inverter 166 and gate 168, and the FINAL CARRY [CARRY IN (N) 1 124 from the most significant stage of the carry (see FIG. 2a) through gate 170. The sign flip flop 158 is fed from the input bus through gates 172 and 174.

The setting and resetting of the three flip flops 154, 156 and 158 are done by three signals, SET FF, RESTORE FF and RESET FF, which are generated by the command generator 80.

Control Word Decoder 76 As was previously mentioned, the control word decoders 76 of the present BPU may take the form, for example, of that shown in FIG. 4z of US. Pat. No. 3,315,235 to Carnevale et al. and thus no detailed explanation is required.

Timing Control Logic 78 The timing control logic 78 of the BPU utilizes a feedback oscillator using a delay line. A simplified schematic representation of a delay line oscillator of the type utilized is illustrated in FIG. 4. The oscillator 178 includes a first logic gate 180 connected in series with an inverter 182 which in turn is connected in series with a first delay line 184 and a second inverter 186. Logic gate 180 and the output of inverter 186. Logic gate 180 and the output of inverter 186 are connected to a second delay line 188 which is connected in series with another inverter 190. The wave forms of the outputs a, b and c of oscillator 178 are set forth in FIG. 40. Referring to FIG. 40, it may be noted that when a low going start signal is applied to gate 180, the output (a) of gate 180 is high. The signal is inverted by inverter 182 so that the output (b) of delay line 184 is a low signal 192 displaced by the delay imposed by delay line 184. The low signal 192 is again inverted by inverter 186 and presents a high signal for the second input of gate 180 causing the output (a) of gate 180 to go low. The output of inverter 186 is also re-inverted by inverter 190 after the time delay imposed by the second delay line 188. Thus, the output of inverter 186 will recycle the oscillator 178 unless the start signal has been switched to high.

The above general scheme is utilized in he actual timing control of the present BPU which is illustrated in FIG. 5. Before discussing FIG. 5, however, a few general words in connection with the timing control required for the BPU may be in order. In the BPU, each control word is acted upon in four time intervals, as shown in FIG. 4b. During synchronous operation, the time intervals are equal and, by making the delays imposed by delay lines 184 and 188 equal, the intervals may be expressed in units of delay. The first time interval, T1, is used for addressing the memory. The second interval, T2, is used for reading information into a register 14 and for processing data in the ALS 22. During the third time interval, T3, the result is stored in a register for readout and during the fourth interval, T4, the data processing for that command word is accomplished and the unit is placed in condition for receiving the next control word. During asynchronous operation, the time intervals are not necessarily equal and/or may further vary between cycles.

To obtain the four time interval cycle, any binary counter may be utilized. However, in order to avoid the use of decoders for time interval generation, as would be required by a straight binary counter, a group of six flip flops, arranged as shown in FIG. 5, is utilized. Accordingly, flip flops 192 (a-d) are arranged in double deck fashion with flip flops 194 (a and b) as shown.

When an external start signal is applied to the synchronizing bus 90 through external connector 88, flip flop 192a is set through gate 196a. A suitable inverter 198 must be provided to invert the signal which is customarily present as a high signal at the interface 88 of the synchronizing bus 90. When flip flop 192a is set, a first pulse is generated to gate 198a. This signal starts the oscillator in the manner previously described if the other input 2040 of gate 1980 is low. In this connection, gates I98 correspond to gate 180 of FIG. 4; gate 200 corresponds to inverter I82 of FIG. 4; and the remaining coniponents of the oscillator of FIG. have been given he same reference numerals as the corresponding parts of the oscillator of FIG. 4.

As soon as the output of inverter 190 goes low, flip flop I92b will be set and flip flop 1920 will be reset terminating time interval TI and generating T2. In a similar fashion, T3 and T4 can be generated. Flip flops 194a and l94b serve as a counter to insure that only the next following of the upper flip flops 192 is set thereby maintaining the desired sequence. The timing pulses (T1, T2, T3 and T4) are transmitted from the timing control logic to the command generator through connection 202. As will be noted, gates 198 each have associated therewith an additional input 204 (a-d). It should be apparent that the oscillator of FIG. 5 can only operate in the manner described so long as the input signal 204 to gate 198 is a low signal. If the input 204 to a gate I98 becomes a high level signal, the time interval generated by that gate will be delayed. The inputs 204 to gates 198 are generated by that portion of the system affected during the particular time interval. That is, during the memory addressing time, permit will come from one of the memories. During the readin from the memory or other equipment, permit will come from the main memory or the other equipment; during the readout, permit will come from the ALS and during the storage and terminating intervals, permit will be issued by one ofthe memories.

Command Generator 80 The command generator 80 is a conventional unit well known and defined in the art. Such a command generator, for example, is disclosed in the Carnevale et al. patent previously referred to. The command generator 80 provides four basic commands: readin, readout, reset and commands for the ALS 22. The command generator in a piece of combinational logic which is used to generate all commands to conduct data transfer and ALS operations. The inputs to the command generator are the outputs of the control word decoder 76 and timing control logic 78, as was previously described.

Combined BPU Processor The basic processor unit which has heretofore been described has inherent limitations in that the number of registers and the number of bits available in the registers are predetermined. Because of this, the length of the associated operands are necessarily limited. However, the BPU 10 is so designed as to allow its combination with one or more additional BPUs so that the number of bits can be increased without increasing the number of facilities, merely by increasing the length of the facilities, or alternately, the number of facilities can be increased without increasing the number of bits per facility.

In both cases, the increased capacity is attained solely by coupling a first BPU to another identical BPU.

Accordingly, in FIG. 6a, a first BPU 10a is provided along with an identical second BPU 10b. Both the BPUs Wu and 10b are identical to the BPU l0 depicted in FIG. 1 and described above. In this arrangement, the capacity of the combined processor unit (PU) 206 is twice that of a single BPU 10. To achieve the increased word length, the external output data buses 46a and 46b of the BPUs (10a and 10b) are put together and treated as a single data bus 208. Similarly, the address buses (66a and 66b) of the BPUs (10a and 10b) are put together (without connections) and treated as a single address bus 210. The synchronizing buses 48a and 48b are tied together (bit position by bit position) in parallel to form a single synchronizing bus and, similarly, the control buses 92a and 92b are tied together in parallel to form a single control bus.

It should be realized from a study of FIG. 2c that each wire of the output data bus 46 has a bit position assigned to it. In addition, there must be two extra wires to provide the shift left and shift right facility. Therefore, the total number of bit positions of two combined output data buses is equal to twice the number of bits of each BPU register plus 4. Since only two extra bit positions are required for the shifting facility, there must be an overlap of two bit positions in the combined data bus. Accordingly, two wires 212 and 214 of the data bus 46a of BPU must be mechanically tied to two wires of the data bus 46b of the other BPU 10b. When this is accomplished, the resultant combined data bus will still have the two excess wires required for shift left and shift right facility.

As shown in FIG. 6a, the control buses 92 of the BPUs are tied to one another bit position by bit position. For simplicity, only a single line was drawn to show these connections. Referring briefly to FIG. 3, one will note that the overflow flip flop I56 and sign flip flop 158 each has associated therewith an inverter (220 and 222, respectively) which provides an additional input to the associated output logic (224 and 226, respectively). The function of the inverters 220 and 222 is to enable or disable the gating out of their associated flip flops, as determined by the control word. Since overflow can only be determined by the most significant bit of the processor unit, only the most significant BPU (in this case 100) may be selected for flow sensing by the control word. Accordingly, pins 228 and 230 of BPU 10b would not be connected to the control memory to be associated with the processor and, therefore, are shown blank in FIG. 60.

Another, and possibly easier, way of looking at this problem is that overflow can only occur at the most significant BPU of a combined BPU processor. Therefore, there is no need for overflow facility in BPU 10b because any overflow would be carried into BPU 100.

Similarly, it is customary for the most significant bit of the operand to be used to represent the sign of the operand. Accordingly, there is no need for any BPU other than the most significant BPU to represent the sign of the operand or resultant which can be gated onto the output bus. Therefore, the control word selects only the most significant BPU 10a.

From the above, it should be apparent that sufficient output terminals must be provided on the BPUs so that carry information can be transmitted from the less significant BPU 10b to the most significant BPU 10a. Of course, if a third BPU were connected to BPU 10b to further increase the word length facility of the total processor unit, it, too, would have to have sufficient terminals so that its carry cold be transmitted to BPU 10b and so on. In a similar manner, where there is initial carry, all but the last significant BPU must be inhibited from receiving the initial carry signal and, accordingly, suitable terminals must be provided on the BPUs to receive the necessary biasing voltage to inhibit initial carry.

In FIG. 6b, an alternate method of joining two (or more )B- PUs is illustrated wherein increased facility is obtained without increasing the number of bits. This type of arrangement would be desirable, for example, where a floating point is required thereby necessitating the use of two adders. In this arrangement, the corresponding bits of the data buses 46a and 46b and address buses 66a and 66b are mechanically tied together. The synchronizing buses 48a and 48b and the control buses 92a and 92b, however, are maintained separately. The control word can now be twice as long as that which could be accommodated with a single BPU since the number of facilities is doubled rather than made longer, as was the case in the arrangement in FIG. 6a. The problems discussed in conjunction with FIGS. 60 relating to overflow, sign, carry, initial carry, etc., do not arise with the arrangement of FIG. 6b.

It should be obvious that neither the arrangement of FIG. 6a nor that of 6b is limited to merely two BPUs and, in fact, any desired number of BPUs may be combined in the manners shown. Further, it should also be apparent that the arrangements of FIGS. 6a and 6b can be combined with one another so that by using sufficient BPUs and PU with both increased word length and increased facility to any desired degree may be obtained.

Because the BPU of the present invention is designed to be microprogrammed through a control memory and because both conventional CPUs and channels are merely data processors, it should be readily apparent that with proper microprogramming the BPU or a suitable combination of BPUs may be adapted to replace the conventional CPU or I/o channel. Altemately, with suitable microprogramming a PU made up of sufficient BPUs may provide the heart of a unique data processing system, as will now be described.

Data Processing System In order to best understand the data processing system of the present invention, a brief discussion of presently existing data processing systems may be useful. Accordingly, in FIG. 7a, a block diagram of a typical so-called third generation general purpose computer is illustrated. Such a data processing system is described in detail in U.S. Pat. No. 3,315,235.

The prior art data processing system 232 utilizes a main memory 234 as a primary storage. The contents of the main memory can be read out repeatedly without causing any change therein. When desired, the contents of the main memory can be changed by new information obtained either from the input devices 236 or the central processor unit 238, as will be described forthwith.

A central processing unit (CPU) 238 is the heart of the third generation computer since all instructions to the computer must first be decoded in the CPU and then executed in the CPU itself or in an I/o channel 240. If an instruction is to be executed in the CPU itself, the CPU will execute a series of machine cycles or micro-instruction which generate the necessary commands to conduct the data transfer and/or manipulation in the predetermined sequence designed for that instruction. The operations may or may not involve the main memory 234.

In the event a microprogram is utilized in this system, the microprogram is stored in a control memory 242. In place of the control memory 242, the CPU may be designed utilizing logic gates to perform the required operations obviating the need for the control memory and its microprogram. However, since microprogramming can compensate for irregularities in the CPU logic, it is most common and increasingly popular at the present time to utilize a separate control memory rather than rely on logic gates for executing instructions.

The various input-output (I/o) instructions used in a program are also stored in the main memory and must pass through the CPU before being sent onto the [/0 channel 240 which in turn will issue orders to the 1/0 control 244 for subsequent execution by the various I/o devices 236. The purpose of utilizing [/0 channel 240 is to prevent the CPU 238 from being bogged down awaiting the completion of operations by an l/o device. That is, the principal purpose of using I/o channels is to obtain, as much as possible concurrent or simultaneous operations between the CPU processing and the U0 processing. However, when high level [/0 languages such as FORTRAN or macro-instructions are used, the compiled or assembled results will contain a greater number of machine instructions, yet only a portion of them are the machine level 1/0 instructions and, hence, the degree of concurrency is, at best, limited.

As shown in FIG. 7a, an [/0 channel 240 may be designed to handle a single I/o device or several devices at a particular instant. To achieve concurrency, a channel has its own registers to store the vital information of 1/0 instruction. The I/o control 244 is interposed between the U0 channel 240 and the Ho devices 236 so that the interfaces between the U0 channel 240 and devices 236 and instruction formats can be greatly simplified. With the 1/0 control 244 interfacing the 1/0 devices 236 to the [/0 channel 240, as far as the I/o channels are concerned, the various devices 236 are substantially all alike.

Referring now to FIG. 7b, a block diagram for the presently proposed data processing system is illustrated. As will be noted, in accordance with the present system, the CPU and [/0 channels of the prior art system are replaced by processor units (PU). Although only two PUs 248 and 250 are shown in FIG. 7b, it will become apparent from the following description that the present system is by no means limited to two processors and the number of processors utilized will be determined by the ultimate function of the total system.

EAch of the processors 248 and 250 comprises at least one, but possibily more than one, of the previously disclosed and described BPUs. The processors thus comprise either the single BPU 10 of FIG. I or a combination of BPUs m set forth in FIGS. 60 and/or 6b. With appropriate microprogramming each of the processors is capable of executing those instructions associated with the I/o devices as well as those instructions not associated with the 1/0 devices PUs 248 and 250 are identical in logic structure and have the same capabilities although they may be micro-programed differently. That is, the PU 250 of FIG. 7b differs from the [/0 channel 240 of FIG. 7a in that PU 250 is capable of doing the so-called normal data processing as well as [/0 processing. Similarly, PU 248 which is not associated with the [/0 devices is capable of doing the socalled normal data processing of the CPU 238 of FIG. 7a as well as l/o processing.

In the disclosed system of FIG. 7b, PU 248 is provided and used to execute those instructions not associated with the 1/0 devices 252. This PU may be called a data processor since it handles the computations and data manipulations. The operations of PU 248 are conducted by its own control memory 254. PU 250 hm connected to it at least one [/0 control 256 and the associated I/o devices 252. PU 250 is conducted by a second control memory 258 and in the described embodiment may be termed an I/o processor. The determination of which of the PUs (248 or 250) operates on a specific instruction is determined by the instruction operation code. For instance, the most significant bit of the operation code can be used to select the proper control memory (254 or 258). It can also be used to gate the remaining part of the instruction word to the selected control memory and the associated PU (248 or 250). As soon as an instruction word is sent to PU 250, control is returned to the instruction fetch which is a function of PU 248. While PU 250 is executing the 1/0 instruction, PU 248 is ready to fetch the next instruction. Concurrent operations are thus obtained. The primary storage is a main memory 260 which is connected to both PUs (248 and 250).

There are no operation code decoders used in processors (248 and 250) of the present system 246. A large portion of the operation code is used as the starting address of the microprogram (in either of the control memories 254 and 258) to be used for executing that particular instruction. Microprograms are written so that no sharing of micro-instruction locations exist between instructions and the last micro-instruction is used to pass control to the instruction fetch.

In the typical case, the micro-instructions of a microprogram are in sequence. However, both a conditional transfer of control and unconditional transfer of control must be allowed. The unconditional transfer of control may be carried out easily by providing a partial next address or the complete next address in each micro-instruction word. As was previously mentioned, the control word used for the BPU is a part of the micro-instruction wordv The conditional transfer of control may be executed by modifying the next address based on the results of the control flip flop (24 of each BPU) sensing. The control word uses a fixed format of coding and completely specifies the operations to be carried out by a PU.

Because of the above, one distinction which may readily be noted between the present system and that typified by the prior art system of FIG. 7a is that there is no direct connection between the data processing PU 248 and the 1/0 PU 250 in the new system whereas there is a direct connection between the CPU 238 and 1/0 channel 240 of the prior art system. The new system thus enables the complete statements or macros to be sent to the 1/0 processing PU 250 for execution without compilation. Of course, it still depends on the microprogram of the 1/0 processor control memory 258 to interpret these statements or macros but the whole procedure will be done inside the l/o processor 250 and, hence, a much higher degree of concurrency can be obtained.

Stated another way, the proposed system 246 utilizes a multi-processor approach in that the [/0 processor 250 is not subordinate unit of the data processor 248. Additional PUs can be added to the system 246. Each additional PU would require its own control memory. A small portion of the operation code of an instruction is used to select a certain control memory and it is also used to gate the remaining part of the instruction word to the relevant PU and its control memory. Only one processor (PU 248 of FIG. 7b) is responsible for the entire instruction fetch of a program.

As was previously stated, the PUs (248, 250 and any additional units that may be desired) are all built from an identical basic logic structure, the BPU of FIG. 1. Because of this, any one processor made with the same number of BPUs connected in the same fashion as any other processor, may be interchangeable with the other processor. It is the control memories, and more particularly the microprograms stored in the control memories, which determine the specific function of a particular processor.

While a particular form of my invention has been illustrated and described herein, various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention. Accordingly, I do not intend that the invention be limited except as by the appended claims.

Having thus described the invention, what is claimed is:

1. A basic processor unit for use in a data processing system comprising in combination:

a data storage unit including a plurality of registers and the input and output gating for said registers;

an output bus and an input bus;

a data processing unit including an arithmetic unit and the gating for said arithmetic unit, said data processing unit having an input connected to said data storage unit through said buses and an output connected to said output bus;

a timing control including a timing element adapted to operate in a synchronous or an asynchronous mode;

means for controlling the asynchronous operation of said timing element;

decoding means having an input connected to a control source;

means for externally connecting said buses;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said input bus;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said output bus;

and means for connecting the output of said decoding means and the output of said timing control to said data storage unit and said data processing unit.

2. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein said timing control includes an oscillator having a feedback path; a multi-phase time signal generator comprising a plurality of bistable elements; and a counter adapted to advance with each oscillation of said oscillator; said oscillator including a first delay device having an output connected to said counter and an input connected to a multiple input logic gate having at least one input for each phase, each input of said gate being connected to a second logic gate, said second logic gates each having on input connected to the feedback path of said oscillator, a second input connected to the means for controlling said asynchronous mode, and a third input connected to the corresponding phase of said multi-phase time signal generator; and a second delay device having an input connected to the output of said first delay device and an output connected to said rnulti-phase time signal generator.

3. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein said arithmetic unit has an initial carry input and a final carry output, at least one bistable element operationally connected to said final carry output, and gating for the output of said bistable element adapted to be enabled or disabled.

4. The invention in accordance with claim 3 further including a second bistable element, said second element operatively connected to the output of the most significant bit of said arithmetic unit and gating for the output of said second bistable element adapted to be enabled and disabled.

5. The invention in accordance with claim 4 further including a logic element having an input connected to each bit of said output bus and an output operatively connected to a third bistable element whereby to detect the presence of either zero or non-zero resultant from said arithmetic unit and gating for the output of said third bistable element adapted to be enabled or disabled.

6. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein said input bus and said output bus each have at least one bit cor' responding to each bit of said registers; said input bus bits are connected to the corresponding output bus bits through a buffer; and means for external connections for all bits of one of said buses.

7. The invention in accordance with claim 1 further comprising a first operand register having an input connected to said input bus and output connected to said data processing unit and a second operand register having a first input connected to said input bus, a second input connected to said output bus and an output connected to said data processing unit.

8. The invention in accordance with claim 1 further comprising a second output bus having a bit corresponding to each bit of said registers; a second input bus having a bit corresponding to each bit of said registers; and a second buffer interconnecting each bit of said second output bus to the cor responding bit of said second input bus.

9. The invention in accordance with claim 8 further com prising a third output bus connected to each bit of the output of said registers.

10. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein said data processing unit further includes a bit manipulation unit for logic operations and a shift unit.

1 l. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein said data processing unit includes a logic gating for shifting its output one bit to the left or one bit to the right and said output bus includes a bit position corresponding to the shift left and shift right outputs of said data processing unit.

12. A processor unit comprising in combination a first basic processor unit and a second basic processor unit, each said basic processor unit comprising:

a data storage unit including a plurality of registers and the input and output gating for said registers;

an output bus and an input bus;

a data processing unit including an arithmetic unit and the gating for said arithmetic unit, said data processing unit having an input connected to said data storage unit through said buses and an output connected to said output bus;

a timing control including a timing element adapted to operate in a synchronous or an asynchronous mode;

means for controlling the asynchronous operation of said timing element;

decoding means having an input connected to a control source;

means for externally connecting said buses;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said input bus;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said output bus;

means for connecting the output of said decoding means and the output of said timing control to said data storage unit and said data processing unit; and.

means connecting the bits of the first basic processor unit output bus in parallel to the corresponding bits of the second basic processor unit output bus whereby the total number of data processing units and data storage units is double that each basic processor unit.

13. A processor unit comprising in combination a first basic processor unit and a second basic processor unit, said processor unit having twice the number of bits of said basic processor units individually, each said basic processor unit comprising:

a data storage unit including a plurality of registers and the input and output gating for said registers;

an output bus and an input bus;

a data processing unit including an arithmetic unit and the gating for said arithmetic unit, said data processing unit having an input connected to said data storage unit through said buses and an output connected to said output bus;

a timing control including a timing element adapted to operate in a synchronous or asynchronous mode;

means for controlling the asynchronous operation of said timing element;

decoding means having an input connected to a control source;

means for externally connecting said buses;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said input bus;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said output bus;

and means for connecting the output of said decoding means and the output of said timing control to said data storage unit and said data processing unit;

wherein each ofsaid arithmetic units includes:

an initial input carry and a final output carry, a first bistable element operatively connected to said final output carry, and gating for the output of said bistable element adapted to be enabled or disabled;

a second bistable element, said second element operatively connected to the output of the most significant bit of said arithmetic unit, and said gating for the output of said second bistable element adapted to be enabled or disabled; and

logic gating for shifting the output of said data processing unit one bit to the left or right;

each of said output buses includes a bit corresponding to the shift left or shift right output, the overlapping bits of said output buses are connected together whereby the resultant combined output bus has only one shift left bit position and one shift right bit position;

and said first and second bistable elements of the least significant basic processor unit are disabled, and the control source and timing control of both said basic processor units are connected in parallel.

14. A data processing system comprising:

a main storage memory including storage elements, at least one data register, at least one address register, and control logic;

a first processor connected to said storage memory to receive and transmit data instructions therefrom;

a first control memory including storage elements, at least one data register, at least one address register, and control logic;

means interconnecting said first processor and said first control memory;

means interconnecting said first control memory and said first processor;

a second processor connected to said storage memory to receive and transmit data instructions therefrom; a second control memory including storage elements, at

least one data register, at least one address register, and control logic;

means interconnecting said second processor and said second control memory;

at least one input-output control connected to said second processor; and

said first and second processors are free of direct interconnection therebetween.

15. The data processing system in accordance with claim 14 wherein each of said processors includes at least one basic processor unit, said basic processor unit comprising:

a data storage unit including a plurality of registers and the input and output gating for said registers;

an output bus and an input bus;

a data processing unit including an arithmetic unit and the gating for said arithmetic unit, said data processing unit having an input connected to said data storage unit through said buses and an output connected to said output bus;

a tinting control including a timing element adapted to operate in synchronous or asynchronous mode;

means for controlling the asynchronous operation of said timing element;

decoding means having an input connected to a control source;

means for externally connecting said buses;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said input bus;

at least one register of said data storage unit connected to said output bus;

and means for connecting the output of said decoding means and the output of said timing control to said data storage unit and said data processing unit;

wherein, said means for controlling the asynchronous operation of said timing element is connected to the main memory and the first control memory;

said decoding means is connected to the output of the data register of said first control memory; and

said means for externally connecting said buses is connected to the data register of said main memory.

* m s: a a

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Classifications
U.S. Classification713/600, 713/502, 711/172, 713/401
International ClassificationG06F15/16, G06F15/80, G06F15/76
Cooperative ClassificationG06F15/16, G06F15/8007
European ClassificationG06F15/16, G06F15/80A