US 3669819 A
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June 13, 1972 D. BISCHOFF 3,669,819
CARPET MATERIAL Filed April 20,1970
INVENTOR DIETER BISCHOFF ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent Int. Cl. D04h 11/00 US. Cl. 161-66 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE 'Carpet consisting essentially of a needled non-woven fleece having a floorside and a tread side, substantially horizontally extending fibers forming the body of the fleece, and, securing the fibers of the body of the fleece together, generally vertically extending needled fibers having looped sections on the floor side of the fleece and free fiber ends adjacent the tread side thereof, the floor side and the tread side being distinguished from each other in that the floor side harbors said looped sections and is impregnated with a binder securing fibers of the fleece together and forming a backing for the carpet, while the tread side is substantially free of binder and has said fiber ends disposed therein and adjacent thereto.
BACKGROUND The invention relates to a novel carpeting or other such floor covering material.
It is in the prior art to needle loose matting onto a supporting fabric such as jute, and to use the material, after impregnation with a binding agent in some cases, as a floor covering, the needled mat layer serving as the surface. With this procedure, however, there is the disadvantage that, when the mat is needled onto a supporting layer the latter is considerably damaged, so that the desired effect, namely the supporting of the carpet material, is lost at least in part. Furthermore, the fibers needled into the jute can easily be pulled out of it.
THE INVENTION Now, it is the aim of the invention to eliminate the disadvantages described, and at the same time to enable the supporting layers commonly used hitherto to be dispensed with.
Another object of the invention is imparting resistance to bacteria and fungi in a way resulting in substantial advantages.
According to the invention, a carpet material is provided which comprises a non-woven matting needled one or more times and which is impregnated as such, e.g. to approximately /3 of its depth (i.e. height, measured from the floor side of the fleece) with a binding agent. The fibers are bonded by the binder.
To carry out the invention it is desirable first to needle a loose fiber matting coming from the comb. Details on this procedure can be obtained from the book, Nonwoven Fabrics, published by Nonwoven Associates, PO. Box 328, Cambridge, Mass., copyright 1959, pp. 19 and 25. If it is desired to produce a thick carpet material, it is recommended that loose slivers also coming from the combs be deposited on the slivers then be needled into the first layer.
In the accompanying drawing:
FIG. 1 is a schematic showing of a needled fleece; and
FIG. 2 is a schematic showing of the fleece with binder applied thereto.
The needled web of non-woven material that is formed has a structure such as the one schematically indicated in 3,669,819 Patented June 13, 1972 "ice FIG. 1 of the annexed drawing. In the mat coming from the comb the fibers 1 lie substantially horizontally, i.e. parallel to the suface of the thin web. In the needling process, some of the fibers which originally were lying parallel, are set generally vertically or perpendicular to their original orientation. These needled fibers 2 thus form loops 3 on the surface of the mat, while on the opposite surface the free ends 4 of the loops protrude.
These free loops, shown in FIG. 1 can easily be removed by pulling them in the direction of the arrow. Since the needled surface, i.e., the one on which the loops are located, usually, in the prior art, serves as the tread surface, the fibers are pulled out of the needled matting to some extent when the matting is walked on.
Now, as depicted in FIG. 2, the invention provides that the needled mat is impregnated from the loop side with a binding agent 5, e.g. a high-percentage, latex foam. The loop side, i.e. the side harboring loops 3, forms the lower or floor side of the carpet; the free fiber ends 4, are disposed at or adjacent the tread side or upper side of the carpet.
The foam impregnation process is known from US. Pats. Nos. 2,338,960, 2,719,795, 2,719,802, 2,719,803, and 2,719,806. For its performance the needled matting is passed through the gap between two rolls and at the same time foam is introduced into the fleece by the rolls. In contrast to the former procedure, however, the foam 5 is made to penetrate only to a limited depth, e.g. about two thirds of the depth of the needled mat.
The preferred binding agent is a self-vulcanizing styrene-butadiene-latex. In this case it is suflicient to dry the mat briefly at C. after the foam impregnation. If a non-self-vulcanizing binding agent is used, the mat has to be heated for a longer period at higher temperatures in order to bring about a complete vulcanization or setting of the binding agent.
In use as a carpet, the dried material is laid on the fioor in such a manner that the binding agent-free side having the open, projecting extremities 4 of the needled fibers 2 serves as the tread, or walked on, surface. If one pulls at the two extremities, the fibers cannot be pulled out, because on the back they are firmly anchored in the fabric by a loop and the binder.
Such a carpet is also substantially softer to walk on than one manufactured merely according to FIG. 1, in which the loop side serves as the tread surface and in which a binding agent, if any, is uniformly distributed in the matting.
A special optical effect can also be achieved by clipping the protruding free fiber ends. An apparatus that serves for shearing sheep can be used for the purpose.
If desired, the back of this carpeting can also be cemented to a stiffening support such as cork and/or asphalt. The material can be marketed then in the form of tiles of a size of, for example, 30 x 30 cm.
Whereas in tiles of this kind the edges formerly had visible seams between them when laid, in the new material the edges are not visible, since the binding agent-free pile surface of the one tile merges with the pile of the adjacent one.
The carpeting manufactured according to the invention proves to be especially advantageous because it can be used without the supporting fabric otherwise commonly used in needled felt sheet materials. Furthermore, it has a plush-like appearance and feel over its entire surface, which is to be attributed to the fact that the tread surface itself, as previously mentioned, is practically free of binding agent.
It has been observed that bacteria and fungi are able to grow between the fibers of floor covering. It is therefore an aim of the invention to construct the described floor coverings in such a manner that they are substantially bacteria and fungi resistant.
This is accomplished according to the invention by including in the binding agent a bactericidal and/ or fungicidal agent. Since the binder is not present at or adjacent the tread surface, the tendency for soil to adhere to the mat is not adversely affected by the binder.
For the practical manufacture of these bacteria-resistant floor coverings, it is sufficient to add small quantities of a fungicidal and/or bactericidal agent to the binding agent. Surprisingly, the action of the bactericidal or fungicidal agents is not adversely affected either by the binding agent or by the treatment at elevated temperature that follows.
In other words, it is possible to proceed as usual in the manufacture of non-woven carpeting containing binding agent. All that need be done is to add to the binding agent small quantities of the fungicidal or bactericidal agent. When the final product contains as little as 0.05 to 1% of these agents, a complete or very great resistance to bacteria and fungi is achieved.
The fibers can be dyed. The penetration of the binder can be Va- A the depth of the carpet; it is preferably about The length of the fibers can be 40-100 mm., preferably 60-80 mm.; the denier can be 6-40, preferably 6-47. The Weight of the fleece or mate can be 200-1200, preferably 250-800, without binder, and 300-700, preferably 330-880, with binder, the weight units being g./m.
EXAMPLE From polypropylene fibers of an average length of 60 mm.v and deniers, a non-woven matting is prepared having a weight of 450 g./m. This matting is needled, and then impregnated with a 50%? butadiene-styrene latex by the foam-impregnating method. To 100 g. of this latex 12.7 g. of additive mixture is added. Thisadditive mixture consists of Parts by weight Sulfur 0.2 Zinc oxide 5.0 Thiuram 3.0 Anti-aging agent MB 1.0 Vultamol surfactant dispersing agent 0.5 Water 15.0
- Then the matting is impregnated to a wet absorption becan be brought about by adding only 0.01 part by weight of the Sanitized agent to the above-mentioned additive mixture. It is surprising that the bactericidal and fungicidal agents are elfective even though, e.g. only two-thirds of the carpet depth is impregnated, i.e., the impregnation does not extend as far as the surface of the carpeting. Were the impregnating material to extend to the surface, it would detract from the appearance and increase the soiling susceptability of the carpet.
What is claimed is:
1. Carpet consisting essentially of a needle non-woven fleece having a floor side and a tread side, substantially horizontallyextending fibers forming the body of the fleece, and, securing the fibers of the body of the fleece together, generally vertically extending needled fibers having looped sections on the floor side of the fleece and free fiber ends adjacent the tread side thereof, the floor side and the tread side being distinguished from each other in that the floor side harbors said looped sections and is impregnated with a cured, self-vulcanizing latex foam binder extending from said floor side upwardly to about two-thirds of the height of the fleece securing fibers of the fleece together and forming a backing for the carpet, while the tread sied is substantially free of binder and has said fiber ends disposed therein and adjacent thereto.
2. Carpet according to claim 1, wherein said binder has admixed therewith an effective amount of a bactericidal agent, and wherein the portion of the fleece which is substantially free of binder is also substantially free of said agent.
3. Carpet according to claim 1, wherein said binder has admixed therewith an effective amount of a fungicidal agent, and wherein the portion of the fleece which is substantially free of binder is also substantially free of said agent.
4. Carpet according to claim 2, the fibers consisting essentially of polypropylene.
5. Carpet according to claim 3, the fibers consisting essentially of polypropylene.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,373,033 4/1945 Kopplin 1-6l--154 2,480,984 9/1949 Van Issum 161-50 3,285,796 11/ 1966 McElhinney 161-62 3,352,739 11/1967 Blue 161-67 3,383,273 5/1968 Pearson et a1. 2872.2 3,481,821 12/ 1969 =Brunner et al. 161-67 3,506,479 4/1970 Breens et al. 161-67 3,497,414- 2/ 1970 Blue 1-61-81 WILLIAM J. VAN BALEN, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.
UNKTED STATES PATENT OFFEE CERTEFICATE OF CORRECTION v 3,669,819 Dated June 13, 1972 Patent No.
Invcntor(s) Dieter Bischoff It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Col. 3, line 26, reads "300-700" and should be --30o-17oo--.
Col. 4, line 24 reads sied" and should be --side--.
Signed and sealed this 17th day of October 1972.
i ROBERT GOTTSCHALK EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents