US 3670894 A
In the ground surface drainage apparatus, a monolithic catch basin has a side outlet from which drain water can flow. The catch basin is tubular, with an open top. Interiorly of the catch basin, below the open top, is a stop. A vertical extension pipe of selectable length is inserted into the catch basin down to the stop and extends up to near the ground surface. A grate rests in the top of the upright extension. All parts preferably are made of synthetic polymer composition material.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Fried] [451 June 20, 1972 [541 GROUND SURFACE DRAINAGE OTHER PUBLICATIONS APPARATUS Domestic Engineering, April, 1958, p. 163, 155; Vol. 191. 72 Inventor: Edward L. Friedl, 14751 Bessemer Street, Blendermann, gn of g' & ge Sys ndus- Los Angeles, Calif. 91401 Ilia] Press, 1963' P  Filed: 1970 Primary Examiner-Reuben Friedman  Appl. No.: 4,153 Assistant Examiner-T. A. Granger Attorney-Allan M. Shapiro  U.S. Cl ..210/l64 51 Int. Cl. ....E03f 1/00  ABSTRACT  Field of Search ..2 10/165 X, 163 X, 164, 271, In the ground surface drainage apparatus, a monolithic catch 210/289; 61/10 x; 4/286 237 basin has a side outlet from which drain water can flow. The catch basin is tubular, with an open top. lnteriorly of the catch  References cued basin, below the open to is a step A vertical extension pipe P UNITED STATES PATENTS of selectable length is inserted into the catch basin down to the stop and extends up to near the ground surface. A grate rests 2,749,999 6/1956 Schmid ..2l0/ 165 in the top of the upright extension. All parts preferably are 902,104 10/1908 Neireiter ..210/163 X made of synthetic polymer composition material. 810,879 l/l906 Perry ..6l/l0X 1,457,637 6/1923 Sievens ..2l0/l63 X 40111115, 6 Drawing Figures FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Germany ..4/286 GROUND SURFACE DRAINAGE APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a ground drainage apparatus and, more particularly, to a combination of easily assembled plastic elements useful as a drainage system for lawns and the like.
2. Description of the Prior Art In the past, typical drainage systems have included a network of metal, cement, or clay drainpipes installed below ground surface level prior to final grading. After the ground has been graded, holes of substantial size are dug down to the drainpipe, and the drainpipe opened at locations where drainage is desired. These holes then are lined with cement, brick, mortar or the like, and covered with a metal grate of ap propriate size. Digging and lining such drain holes is both time consuming and, more important, disruptive of the completed grading. The latter problem is aggravated if landscaping has been completed prior to digging the drain hole. Even more importantly, it is often extremely difficult to obtain and maintain proper slopes or grades for the drainpipe system itself due to the discontinuities and disruptive effects of the operations incident to the creation of the drain holes. Moreover, such drainage systems, when completed, include large unsightly metal grates which mar the appearance of a lawn.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In order to aid in the understanding of this invention, it can be stated in essentially summary form that it is directed to a ground surface drainage apparatus which includes a tubular catch basin having an open top. The catch basin has a side drainage outlet intermediate the top and bottom, and has an inwardly directed stop intermediate the top and the drainage outlet. An upwardly extending extension tube, of selectable length to substantially reach the ground surface, rests in the top of the tubular catch basin against the stop. A perforated grate is positioned on the top of the upright extension adapter.
It also will be seen that the ground surface drainage apparatus which forms the subject of this invention comprises a network of subterranean plastic drainpipes, coupled to which at spaced intervals are a plurality of the unitary molded plastic catch basins, each configured to receive a vertical adapter pipe which leads up to the surface of the ground and is configured to receive a unitary plastic grate to complete the in stallation.
In practicing the present invention, the drainpipes and catch basins are laid into trenches dug for the purpose, coupled together and simultaneously provided with the appropriate subterranean grade for flow of the drainage water therethrough. Then, each of the catch basins is provided with either a solid cap which resides safely below the ground surface level or else a vertical adapter pipe of sufficient length to extend noticeably above the ground surface level at that location. In either case, dirt and debris are prevented from entering and clogging the catch basin and drainpipes during the subsequent consecutive operations of filling the trenches and grading the ground surface. Upon completion of surface grading, the vertically projecting adapter pipes are cut back to the particular ground surface levels at their respective locations and the plastic grates are fitted thereon; in the case of solid cap use, which is particularly useful when heavy earthmoving equipment is employed for surface grading, a relatively small hole is dug down to the catch basin, the cap is removed and replaced by an adapter pipe suitably sized for that location, and the grate is fitted into place as aforesaid.
The inventive ground surface apparatus thus assures the proper subterranean grade for the drainage system, eliminates completely the need for digging and lining of drain holes subsequent to grading or landscaping, and provides attractive plastic grates which may be green in color to blend more completely with a lawn, as the only elements visible at ground level.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a ground surface drainage system including only easy-to-assemble plastic members. It is another object of this invention to provide a ground surface drainage system the main elements of which are installed prior to surface grading and which maintain the subterranean grade during subsequent surface grading or landscaping. It is yet another object of this invention to provide a ground surface drainage apparatus with a vertical adapter pipe for obtaining selective elevational adjustment of a grate in flush relationship to the ground surface above the particular catch basin. A further object of this invention is to provide a ground surface drainage system for lawns and the like which, when installed, has attractive colored plastic grates as the only elements visible above ground. It is still another object to provide a process for the positioning of ground surface drainage apparatus, including installation of a catch basin so that an extension tube therein extends above desired ground level, followed by grading of the ground to desired level and cutting off the upwardly directed extension tube so that a ground drain grate can be installed therein substantially at ground level.
The features of the present invention which are believed to be novel are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The present invention, both as to its organization and manner of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a fragmentary top plan view of a typical yard drainage system including the inventive ground surface drainage apparatus;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation view of the inventive ground surface-apparatus as seen substantially along the line 22 of FIG. 1, a projecting adapter pipe and cap being shown in phantom;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged exploded elevation view, partially in section, of the catch basin, adapter pipe, and grate components shown in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an elevation view, partially in section, of the components illustrated in FIG. 3, in assembly;
FIG. 5 is a top plan view, partially in section, as seen in the direction of arrows 5-5 in FIG. 4; and
FIG. 6 is an elevation view, partially in section, illustrating a grate seated directly within a catch basin.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In the following description, it is to be understood that those elements bearing primed reference numerals are the same as or similar to those elements bearing the same reference numerals unprimed and are included in the general description of and reference to the latter to the extent the context permits.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a top plan view of a typical drainage installation including the ground drainage apparatus which forms the subject matter of this application. Visible at the surface 10 of the ground are several grates 11 through which draining fluids, such as rainwater, may flow to drainpipes 14 located below the surface. Subterranean drainpipes 14 which preferably are installed prior to ground surface grading, form a network having appropriate slope or grade to allow gravity flow of the draining fluids to a suitable cooperating gutter or storm drain box not shown) in the adjacent street.
As seen more clearly in FIG. 2, grate 11 is installed so that its top is flush with the graded surface 10 of ground 15. Ground surface 10 in the vicinity of grate 11 is contoured or graded into a slight funnel to improve ground surface drainage into the grate. After entering grate ll, draining fluids flow through a vertical adapter pipe or upwardly directed extension tube 16 and a catch basin 17 into drainpipe l4. Drainpipe 14 is sloped or graded (downwardly to the right as seen in all elevation views) to facilitate gravity flow therein of the draining fluids.
Each plastic catch basin 17 includes one or more tubular ports, such as ports 18 and 19, which are adapted to be coupled to drainpipe 14 for example, by means of tubular coupling segments 20 (FIG. 2). In the illustrated embodiment, tubular ports 18 and 19 have an outside diameter equal to the outside diameter of drainpipe 14 and each coupling segment 20 may comprise a molded plastic tube having an inside diameter equal to the outside diameter of drainpipe 14 or tubular port 18 or 19. Alternatively, the ports 18 and 19 may have an inside diameter equal to the outside diameteg of drainpipe 14 for direct coupling engagement therewith. It is to be understood that, as used throughout this application, the expression equal to, when applied to a comparison of the inside diameter or configuration of one member to the outside diameter or configuration of another member, is intended to connote that the two compared dimensions or configurations are so nearly equal as to allow the smaller member to be press fit or otherwise matingly engaged within the larger member.
It should be noted that tubular ports 18 and 19 are aligned with each other at a slight angle to the walls of catch basin 17 so as to conform generally to the slope or grade of installed drainpipe 14.
Reference to FIG. 1 makes it clear that the catch basin associated with any particular grate may include one or more tubular ports to facilitate connection to the various drainpipe segments. Thus, the catch basin associated with grate 11 is provided with three ports for connection to drainpipes 14 and 14, while the catch basin associated with grate 11" is provided with a single port for coupling to the upper end of drainpipe 14.
Referring more particularly to FIGS. 3-5, it is seen that grate 11 integrally comprises a disc-shaped top portion 21 having a plurality of openings 22 defined by a corresponding plurality of downwardly depending parallel bars 23 through which draining fluid may flow, the bars 23 providing greater strength and debris straining characteristics to the grate. Downwardly depending from the disc 21 is a tube portion 24, the outside diameter of which is smaller than the diameter of disc 21 and concentric therewith whereby the disc 21 provides a downwardly facing annular shoulder surface 25 on its effective peripheral annular flange portion 26. Preferably, the grate 11 is formed ormolded of plastic which is colored green for aesthetically blending into a grass-covered or landscaped yard. 1
The illustrated preferred catch basin 17 is of unitary (onepiece) molded plastic construction and comprises a tubular pipe portion composed of a closed lower end portion-27 and an open upper end portion 28 with the laterally projecting port portions 18 and 19 intermediate thereof. The closed lower end portion 27 serves as a sump. The open upper end portion 28 is provided with a stop collar or ledge 29 preferably in the illustrated form of a radially inwardly extending annular projection located above the uppermost extremities of the ports 18 and 19.
The vertical adapter pipe 16 is preferably the right-circular cylinder illustrated.
Referring more particularly to the detained assembly view of FIG. 4, it will be noted that tube portion 24 of grate 11 has an outside diameter substantially equal to the inside diameter of adapter pipe 16 for close and and preferably press fit therewithin, while adapter pipe 16 itself has an outside diameter substantially equal to the inside diameter of the catch basins upper tubular end portion 28 for similar fit therewithin, and seats on ledge 29. One of the functions of ledge 29 is thus to support adapter pipe 16 and prevent it from sliding down so far within tubular portion 28 as to block or impede fluid flow between tubular ports 18 and 19 and the interior of the catch basin 17.
In some instances when the grading of a yard is completed, the top of catch basin 17 may be situated quite close to surface of ground because of the relative elevation effects of both drainpipe grading and ground surface grading. When this occurs, it may be undesirable if not impossible to use adapter pipe 16 and still insure that the top of grate 11 will be flush with surface 10. In such a case, adapter pipe 16 is eliminated and grate 11 is inserted directly into catch basin 17, as illustrated in FIG. 6. Note that in the preferred embodiment illustrated, the distance between ledge 29 and the open end of tubular portion 28 is less than the length of tube portion 24 of grate 1 1. Moreover, in such a preferred embodiment, the outside diameter of tube portion 24 is substantially equal to the inside diameter of ledge 29, Le, the radial thickness of ledge 29 is the same as the wall thickness of adapter pipe 16 so that, in the absence of adapter pipe 16, grate tube portion 24 can be inserted directly into catch basin 17 in close and preferably press fit engagement with ledge 29. Also, grate flange 26 has a larger diameter than basin tubular portion 28 for seating on the upper rim 30 of the latter. The length of tube portion 24 is not greater than the distance between the rim 30 of tubular portion 28 and ports 18 and 19 so as not to impede the flow of drainage fluids.
Each of the elements of the inventive ground drainage apparatus is preferably constructed of a plastic material such as Styrene. Such material is tough, lightweight, non-corrosive, and may be provided in various colors. Moreover, grate 11, adapter pipe 14 and catch basis 17 each preferably is of unitary (one-piece) molded construction.
In installing ground surface drainage apparatus of the type and for the purpose as described hereinabove, it should be noted that there is normally a differential between the proper grades for the drainpipe system and the ground surface. For example, the drainpipe system may be graded to provide a one-fourth inch drop for each running foot while the ground surface grade may greatly exceed such 1:48 grade because of the usual obstructions and impediments to the flow of water over the ground surface, such as grass and gravel, for example. Thus, referring to FIGJ, it should be understood that the final graded ground surface level 10 at each of the locations of grates 11, 11" and 11" will vary' in elevation above the predisposed location of the catch basins upper rim 30, thereby requiring a different length of the vertical adapter pipe 16 in .each case in order to achieve the assembled configuration of FIG. 4 wherein the upper surface 31 of the grate is in a substantially flush relationship with its immediately adjacent ground surface 10. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention prior to final assembly, the vertical adapter 1 pipe 15 has a vertical length at least equal to the greatest length normally required for effectively elevating the grate 11 above the catch basin 17 into flush relationship with the ground surface 10 above the catch basin 17 and is selectively shortenable for lower such differential elevations as required in the final installation of the grate 11. In the preferred em-' bodiment described, the adapter pipe 16 is so shortenable by cutting anywhere along its length, as at the transverse phantom line indicated at 32 in FIG. 3, which cutting may be performed prior to insertion of the adapter pipe 16 into the catch basin l7 and in accordance with physical measurement of the distance between the ledge 29 of the installed catch basin 17 and the ground surface 10 then pertaining. Alternatively, the adapter pipe 16 may be inserted into the catch basin 17 and then so cut as at line 32' so as to be substantially flush with the ground surface, it being understood that such latter cutting may be performed while the adapter pipe 16 is in situ. I
The apparatus of the present invention provides a ready means for prevention of entry of dirt and debris into the apparatus and the drainpipe system subsequent to its initial installation and during any landscaping and ground surface grading operations. Thus, referring to FIG. 2, an uncut adapter pipe 16' (shown in phantom) may be inserted into the catch basin 17 so that it projects above the ground surface 10 and is provided with a cap'33 having an outer configuration similar to that of the grate 11 but within the openings 22. Alternatively, the cap 33 may be inserted directly into the catch basin 17 in closure relationship thereto, the drain pipe trench then being completely filled in and, after completion of the ground surface grading, landscaping and so forth, a hole the approximate size of the adapter pipe 16 then being dug down to the catch basin 17 for removal of the cap 33 and replacement by the sized adapter pipe 16 and grate 11 in the manner as aforesaid.
While particular embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from this invention in its broader aspects, and, therefore, the aim in the appended claims is to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
1. A ground surface drainage apparatus comprising:
a catch basin of hollow cylindrical tubular cross section having a catch basin interior diameter and having an upwardly directed axis, said catch basin having a closed bottom, and an open top defined by a circular rim;
a drain port in the side of said catch basin above its closed bottom and below its open top;
a stop collar in the interior of said catch basin forming an interiorly directed ledge defining the stop collar diameter, said stop collar being positioned intermediate said drain port and said open end of said catch basin, the distance between said ledge and said rim in a direction parallel to said axis being a first dimension;
a downwardly directed hollow cylindrical extension tube having an outer diameter at least as small as said catch basin interior diameter and larger than said stop collar diameter positioned interiorly of said tubular catch basin and engaged against said ledge of said interiorly directed stop collar, said extension tube having an axis substantially on said catch basin axis, said extension tube engaging said catch basin so as to be substantially water-tight with respect thereto, said upwardly directed extension tube being of selectable length so as to extend upwards substantially to finished ground level, the interior diameter of said extension tube being substantially equal to the stop collar diameter; and
a grate secured directly to said upwardly directed extension tube and positionable substantially at ground level, said grate having an annular flange with a plurality of openings therethrough and having a depending tube portion extending downwardly from said flange a second dimension, said downwardly depending tube portion having a diameter less than said stop collar diameter and extending interiorly of said extension tube, said second dimension being greater than said first dimension so that said tube portion on said grate is sufficiently long that said tube portion on said grate can extend through said stop collar when said upwardly directed extension tube is sufficiently short, said catch basin, said upwardly directed extension tube and said grate being made of synthetic polymer composition material, so that water can flow from the ground downwardly through said grate and through said extension tube and into said catch basin so that it can be discharged from said catch basin through said drain port.
2. The ground surface drainage apparatus of claim 1 wherein:
said hollow cylindrical extension tube has an outside diameter substantially equal to said catch basin interior diameter for press fit therein from near said lip toward said stop collar.
3. The ground surface drainage apparatus of claim 2 wherein:
said downwardly directed tube portion of said grate has a diameter substantially equal to the interior diameter of said downwardly directed hollow cylindrical extension tube for press fit therein.
4. The ground surface drainage apparatus of claim 1 wherein:
said downwardly directed tube portion of said grate has a diameter substantially equal to the interior diameter of said downwardly directed hollow cylindrical extension tube for press fit therein.