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Publication numberUS367496 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 2, 1887
Filing dateOct 13, 1880
Publication numberUS 367496 A, US 367496A, US-A-367496, US367496 A, US367496A
InventorsJames Atkinson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 367496 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

- (No Model.) '5 Sheets-Sheet 1. r



.No. 367,496. Patented Aug. 2, 1887.

(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 2.



No. 367.496. Patented Aug. 2,1887.

no Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet a. J. ATKINSON.


.No. 367,496. Patented Aug. 2, 1887.

fig 6.

no Model.) V 5 Sheets-Sheet 4. J. ATKINSON.

GAS ENGINE. No. 367,496. Patented Aug. 2, 1887.,

(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Shet 5.


GAS ENGINE- No. 367,496. Patented Aug. 2,1887.




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 367,396, dated August 2, 1887.

Application filed October 13, 1886.

. 1 1 Serial No. 216,141. (No model.) Patented in England MarchlQ, 1886, No. 3,522; in France July 2, 1886, No. 177,151; in Belgium July-3, 1886; in Germany July 13, 1886, No. 36,083; in Sweden September-11,1886, and

in Norway February 16, 1887.

.To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, JAMES ATKINSON, a subject of the Queen of England, residing at Hampstead, in the county of Middlesex and Kingdom of England, have invented new and useful Improvementsin Gas-Engines, of which the following is a specification, the same having been patented in the following countries: England, March 12, 1886, No. 3,522, France, July 2, 1886, No. 177,151; Belgium, July 3, 1886; Norway, February 16, 1887 Sweden, September 11, 1886 Germany, July 13, 1886, No. 39,083.

The gas-engines constructed in accordance with my Letters Patent No. 336,505, dated February 16, 1886,, have in actual practice proved to be economical and reliable. There are, however, some conditions of working under which they might not be of the most suitable form.

This invention is for the purpose of getting similar results with a different construction of engine.

On referring to the specification to my Letters Patent No. 336,505 it will be seen that the power was developed in a very short spaceot time, and the expansion of the ignited compressed charge was continued to a larger volume than the original uncompressed charge. (In practice twice this volume has been found to give good results.) Owing to these advantages I have been able to obtain a more economieal result than has been previously attained, so far as I know, by any other construction of gas-engine. In this invention I retain these proved advantages.

I construct my improved engine as described in this specification, and as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which- Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, Sheet I, are diagrammatical views showing four positions of the moving parts of the engine corresponding to four positions of the crank-pin. Fig. 5, Sheet II, is asectional elevation. Fig. 6, Sheet III, is an elevation. Fig. 7, Sheet IV, is a plan; and Figs. 8 and 9, Sheet V, are separate views of details of the engine.

The engine has an inclined cylinder, A,

formed by forcinga cylindrical liner into a portion of the main framing of the engine, the space between this portion of the framing and the liner forming a water-jacket. The cylinder A is closed at its lower end by a cover, in which passages for the inlet of gas and air and outlet for the exhaust are formed. The other 5 3 end is left open, and a single-acting piston, B, is fitted. The piston is connectedby a link or links, 0, (hereinafter called the pistonlink,) to a pin, D, which is fixed in a connecting-rod, E, the connecting-rod E being attached to the crank F. The upper end of the rod E is fitted with another pin, G, forming a T-head to it. To thepin G one end of the links or link H is attached, the other ends or end being connected to a fixed center, I, (hereinafter called the center-pin, the links H, which vibrate round the center-pin, being called the vibrating links) A From an examination of Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, Sheet I, it will be seen that the piston B has a peculiar motion imparted to it by the revolution of the crank-pin F, and this peculiar motion enables the whole cycle of operations necessary to a compression gas-engine to be performed by one piston in a single-acting 7 cylinder, and gives a working-stroke for each revolution.

Fig. 1 shows the position of the crank-pin F, the various rods, and the piston at the end of the exhausting stroke, and while in this position the piston may be worked as close to the cover as is consistent with safety, so that the residuum may be thoroughly expelled, if desired. As the crank F revolves in the direction shown by the arrow, the piston Bis S5 moved into the position shown in Fig. 2. During this movement the gas and air, forming an intimate and homogeneous explosive mixture, are drawn into the cylinder A. The crank F, continuing to revolve, w moves 0 the piston B back so as to compress the charge until the position shown in Fig. 3 is reached, when the charge is ready for ignition, after which the increased pressure due to the ignition drives the piston 13 into the position 5 shown in Fig. 4, thus imparting power to the crank-shaft F, the stored-up energy carrying the shaft round during the rest of the revolution, the exhaust being driven out while the engine is passing from the position shown in Fig. 4. to that shown in Fig. 1.

The relative proportions of the capacities in the cylinder A when in the position shown in Figs. 1 and 3 may be varied by altering the distance apart of the pins D and G,- or their relative positions to the crank-pin and the position of the main-shaft center. If these pins coincide, these capacities will be the same, and the fartherapart they are the greater their difference, provided that the maiu-shaft center is so placed that the T end of the connectingrod E, the piston-link C, and the vibrating links H are more in a straight line when in position shown in Fig. 1 than they are when in that shown in Fig. 3.

The center-pin I may be placed on the axial line of the cylinder B; but I prefer to place it to one side, partly to get abetter action of the piston and partly to keep the angle of the piston-link C more favorable while the workingu stroke is being made.

The relative proportions of the capacities in the cylinder A when in the position shown in Figs. 2 and 4 define the amount of expansion. These capacities are varied, chiefly, by moving the crankshaft center nearer to the axial line of the cylinder A, to increase the amount of expansion, or farther away to decrease the expansion.

If the center-pin I is placed on the axial line of the cylinder A, the centers D and G made to coincide,and the crank-shaft center so placed that the centers 1) and G are caused to work to the same distance on either side of the axial li ne,the engine would expand to original volume,and could be caused to work in either direction; also, if a pump fitted with a singleacting piston worked in the same manner for drawing in and compressing .the gas and air were combined with the working-cylinder, so that the pump drew in, compressed, and delivered into the working-cylinder two charges for each revolution of the crank v shaft, the working-cylinder would give two workingstrokes for each revolution, and the engine would be double-acting.

The necessary valves for the admission of gas and air for governing the engine, for cansing the ignition, and letting out the exhaust may be variously arranged to suit the conditions under which the engine has to work.

I will now proceed to describe an engine embodying my improvements by reference to Sheets II, III, IV, andVof the accompanying drawings. In this engine the exhaust-valve K is of a form very commonly used for this purpose, and is shown worked by an eccentric through a wayshaft and levers. A simple nonreturn valve, L, is placed in the exhaust-pipe, which prevents any of the exhaust being drawn back into the cylinder when the governorvalve operates to prevent the admission of a full working-charge into the cylinder, as will be hereinafter explained.

The admission and governor valve is shown in Fig. 8, Sheet III. The gas is drawn through a number of holes in the seating of the valve M, (hereinafter called the mixing-valve,) and the air through a greater number of holes, also in the seating ofthe valve M, and sometimes also in the inner area of this seating. This valve consists of a light metallic disk kept up to its seating by a light spring just strong enough to prevent gas passing the valve M when it is closed. A piece of india-rubher or other suitable material may be placed between the metallic disk of the valve and the seating, so as to make it perfectly tight. The gas and air are then drawn through the suction-valve N. This valve also operates as a governor in the following manner: The suction of the gas and air when being drawn into the cylinder opens the valve against the pressure of the light spring 0, when it is prevented opening any farther by the stronger spring,P. If, however, the speed of the engine increases beyond a predetermined amount, the increased pressure of the rush of gas and air past the suction-valve overcomes the stronger spring, P, and the valve N closes onto the lower seat, thus preventing the admission of any more gas and air into the cylinder, which makes the next working-stroke with a reduced charge and develops less power. The spring P is fun ther compressed to increase the speed of the engine and slackened to decrease the speed. The valve L in the exhanstpipe prevents exhaust being drawn back into the engine when the governor-valve cuts off some of the charge, and also if the spring on the exhaust-valve K should be too weak to hold it down against the partial vacuum in the cylinder during the time the charge is being drawn in. The ignition is caused by means of a small tube, Y, kept red-hot by means of an external flame, and is accurately timed by means of a small slide, Q, driven by a cam or eccentric on the main shaft. Just immediately before the de sired time of ignition-that is to say, when the engine is in the position shown in Fig. 3, Sheet I-a small hole through the slide is made to coincidewith a hole in the outer slide-cover leading to the inside of the igniting-tube, which has its outer end closed, (see Fig. 9,) and another hole leading to the inside of the cylinder or the passage thereto from the inletvalve. At this time the charge is compressed in the cylinder. Some of it rushes into the redhot tube, is ignited, and fires the charge in the cylinder. During some other part of the stroke of the slide-valve, preferably shortly before the time of ignition, the slide opens a passage from the inside of the tube to the atmosphere, and thus lets out any pressure that might otherwise be shut inside the tube and prevent the ignition taking place. The ignition may also be caused by electricity or any other known means.

In some instances it may be desirable to use only one slide for the admission of gas and air and for causing the ignition.

The cylinder may be placed vertically or horizontally, and more than one cylinder may be connected together, so as to form a combined engine.

The rods and working-centers may be variously arranged, the essential part being the peculiar toggle movement, which enables the desired movement of the piston B to be obtained.

Having fully described my invention, what I desire to claim, and secure by Letters Patent, 1s-

1. In a compression gas-engine, a singleacting piston connected by means of rods and i levers to a single crank-pin F, said piston making two outward and two inward strokes for each revolution of the crankpin, the said crank-pin being the only revolving part of the mechanism, substantially as set forth. 2. In a compression gas-engine, the singleacting cylinder A and piston B, in combination with the rods 0 E H and the crank-pin F, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. 3. In a compression gas-engine, the combination of the rods 0 E H. with the piston B and crank-pin F, whereby the toggle motion is obtained, as described.




Referenced by
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US3021825 *Sep 30, 1958Feb 20, 1962De Georges Jacques Marie GastoInternal combustion engine
US4057040 *Apr 12, 1976Nov 8, 1977Wax Archie EInternal combustion engine system
US4380972 *Jul 8, 1980Apr 26, 1983Parkins Malcolm FrederickInternal combustion engines
US4517931 *Jun 30, 1983May 21, 1985Nelson Carl DVariable stroke engine
US6526935Jun 8, 2001Mar 4, 2003Ralph ShawCardioid cycle internal combustion engine
US7559298Jul 14, 2009Cleeves Engines Inc.Internal combustion engine
US7921817Apr 12, 2011Cleeves Engines Inc.Internal combustion engine
US8365697Jun 4, 2009Feb 5, 2013Pinnacle Engines, Inc.Internal combustion engine
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US8960150Jul 12, 2013Feb 24, 2015Milladale LimitedPiston arrangement and engine
US9175609Nov 10, 2014Nov 3, 2015Pinnacle Engines, Inc.Control of combustion mixtures and variability thereof with engine load
US9206749Apr 8, 2013Dec 8, 2015Pinnacle Engines, Inc.Variable compression ratio systems for opposed-piston and other internal combustion engines, and related methods of manufacture and use
US9316150Jul 2, 2013Apr 19, 2016Pinnacle Engines, Inc.Variable compression ratio diesel engine
US20070044739 *Aug 30, 2005Mar 1, 2007Caterpillar Inc.Machine with a reciprocating piston
US20080047530 *Apr 2, 2007Feb 28, 2008Cleeves James MInternal combustion engine
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WO2014009745A1 *Jul 12, 2013Jan 16, 2014Milladale LimitedPiston arrangement and engine
Cooperative ClassificationF02B75/048