US 3676277 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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July 11, 1972 B. s. TRusKoLAsKl DECORATIVE BOW AND METHOD OF MAKING' SAME Filed Deo. 18, 1970 BMA/ARD 5. QusKo/ ASK/ July 11, 1972 B.s.TRUsKo1 AsK1 DECORATIVE BOW AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME 2 Sheets-Sheet Z Filed Dec. 18, 1970 QAM A r TOR/VE Y5 l N VEA TOR 5". TRUSKOLASK/ BY M BERNARD Qzzsoozz: :32:3: z:
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United States Patent Oce 3,676,277 Patented July 1l, 1972 3,676,277 DECORATIVE BOW AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Bernard S. Truskolaski, St. Paul, Minn., assignor to Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minn.
Filed Dec. 18, 1970, Ser. No. 99,448
Int. Cl. D04d 7/06 U.S. Cl. 161--9 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates generally to the art of gift wrapping and provides ribbon material, decorative bows made therefrom and a method for producing such decorative bows.
One of the primary aims of the gift wrapping art is to provide aesthetically pleasing and unique products so that the purchasing public will utilize such products on personal gifts and packages. The products must be individualistic in appearance and yet must be susceptible to production in large quantities in a relatively short time so that they may be reasonably priced. Ordinarily, mass production, on the one hand, and the provision of attractive, unique, individualistic and artistic appearing bow products, on the other, are mutually exclusive goals. The present invention is especially concerned with meeting these seemingly antagonistic aims.
The ribbon materials of the present invention are Ilacelike materials made from interconnected pliable filaments. The filaments are sparsely Ibut regularly distributed so that a major portion of the ribbon material is comprised of open spaces.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a drawstring is bonded to the lace-like material at spaced points along its length, the drawstring being longitudinally centrally disposed throughout the length of the lace-like ribbon material.
The present invention makes it possible to provide a large number of Prefabricated bow forms (pre-bows) by mass production techniques. These pre-bows can be fabricated as individual pre-bows or they may be supplied in roll form ready for separation into pre-bows at the time of use.
Shipping and handling of the pre-bows in either form can be accomplished without the need for special procedures, without danger of multilation or degradation of the aesthetic value of the completed bows.
The method of forming the completed bows is so simple that the user need not have special skills or above average manual dexterity to form attractive bows in minimal time.
The invention will be more readily understood from the following detailed description and disclosure, especially in light of the accompanying drawings, wherein like numerals refer to corresponding parts in the several diagrammatic views, in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of pre-bows of the decorative ribbon of the present invention in roll form;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of one form of decorative bow made from the pre-bow of FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of another form of decorative bow made from the pre-bow of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 4 to 6 are perspective views of the pre-bow of FIG. l in the process of being formed into the decorative bow of FIG. 2;
FIG. 7 is a bottom view of the bow being formed in FIG. 6; and
FIG. 8 is an enlarged perspective view of a preferred embodiment of the ribbon of the present invention showing the drawstring and its method of attachment to the ribbon.
Referring now to the drawings, ribbon 10 comprises a plurality of filaments 11 sparsely but regularly distributed and bonded at their points of intersection and a drawstring 12 bonded to or othewise constrained by the filaments 11 at its points of intersection with said filaments. In the embodiment shown, drawstring 12 is a composite drawstring of nylon-acetate construction. The drawstring 12 consists of a 210-6Z nylon yarn 13 wrapped with two ends of 300-LTDZ- cellulose acetate yarn 14 with seven twists per inch. The cellulose acetate component 14 of the composite drawnstring 12 makes it possible to produce a large variety of patterns of lace-like ribbon materials since the drawstring 12 can be placed anywhere on the lace-like web as it is being extruded by sp-innerettes. The spinning solution, i.e., the filaments 11, bites into the cellulose acetate yarn 14 and secures itself thereto by solvent bonding.
With the ribbon structure 10 of the present invention, it has been found to be possible to make the decorative bows illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 by an extremely simple and reliable process to be hereinafter fully explained.
The ribbon structure 10 of the present invention must possess the two following characteristics designated A and B and desirably should possess the characteristics designated as C and D.
(A) The ribbon structure 10 must have variable compressibility in a direction parallel to the drawstring 12 such that the portion adjacent the drawstring is easier to compress than the edge portions of the ribbon further removed from the drawstring. This compressibility differential may be either a cumulative increase in the cornpression resistance or may be a simple differential increase.
(B) The individual filaments 11 of the ribbon structure 10 transverse to the drawstring 12 must be capable of rotating or twisting relative to the drawstring 12.
(C) The ribbon structure 10 should resist compression in a direction transverse to the drawstring 12.
(D) The drawstring 12 should possess some resistance to being pulled longitudinally along the ribbon structure 10. In the preferred embodiment disclosed herein, this resistance is provided by the points of attachment of the acetate yarn 1'4 to the individual filaments 11 and the sliding action of the nylon yarn 13 through the acetate wrap 14.
As earlier noted, with the ribbon structure 10 one can readily form decorative bows such as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. The bow of FIG. 2 which is a coiled or rose-bud bow is formed when the drawstring 12 is pulled and the ribbon material, consisting of the relatively easily compressible interconnected filaments 11 adjacent the drawstring 12, is compressed into a nest while the filaments 11 forming the outside edges resist compression and are held away from the center by the transverse stiffness of the filaments i11. The mechanism by which the coiled or rose-bud bow is formed is believed to be that whereby the rectilinear pulling force on the drawstring i12 is translated into a rotary motion within the developing bow and appears to be dependent on the difference in actual force required to form a coiled structure as contrasted to a ruffied structure. Since according to characteristic B the filaments 11 of the ribbon structure are relatively free to rotate about the drawstring 12 the ribbon structure 10, in the absence of a constraining force, will rotate and form the coiled or rose-bud bow of FIG. 2. If, however, the ribbon structure is obstructed from rotating as by being laid fiat on a surface or if the drawstring 12 is pulled rapidly so that air friction and inertia hinder rotation, the rufiied or puff bow illustrated in FIG. 3 is formed.
One might reasonably suppose that the self-coiling tendency of the ribbon structure 10 in forming the rosebud bow was attributable to the spiral acetate overwrap 14 on the nylon drawstring 13. It was observed, however, that the ribbon 10 would coil in either direction, once started. It can be started by chance or by purposeful directing. It was therefore concluded that the ribbon structure 10 itself and not the spirally wound acetate overwrap 14 was responsible for the coiling.
It will be seen in FIG. l that the filaments 11 at the edges of the ribbon run primarily parallel to the drawstring 12 and are overlaid. These substantially linearly oriented filaments result in a structure that resists compression when the drawstring 12 is pulled. In contrast, it will be obsenved that the filaments :1|1 in the central portion of the ribbon structure 10 run generally perpendicular to the drawstring 12v and thus offer very little resistance to compression when the drawstring 12- is pulled along its length.
The pre-bow 10 of the present invention comprises a length of lace-like ribbon material, formed of interconnected pliable filaments 11 sparsely but regularly distributed so that a major portion of the ribbon material is comprised of open spaces, having a drawstring 12 longitudinally disposed along the length of the pre-bow. The drawstring 12 may be trapped between two layers of spun filamentary material or may be woven into the filamentary material or could simply be bonded to the spun ribbon filaments as shown in FIG. 8. In the preferred embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the ribbon filaments 11 of acetate solution are laid onto a moving belt by a spinnerette moving in a circular motion. The drawstring 12 is first placed on the belt and the overlaid wet acetate filaments 11 form a solvent bond to the acetate overwrap 14 on the nylon drawstring 13. It has been found that a very satisfactory composite drawstring can be produced by laying a serpentine pattern of at least one, preferably two, acetate laments 11 onto the belt, laying the nylon drawstring 413 thereover followed by filaments 11. Alternatively, the procedure may be reversed with the serpentine pattern being laid down last. The pre-bow 10 of the present invention typically measures from 12 to 18 inches in length for a 3 inch wide ribbon structure and is provided at least at one end with a drawstring retainer. It is understood, of course, that it is possible to manufacture ribbon structures of the present invention in practically any width; wider ribbon structures would require pre-bows of correspondingly greater length to produce aesthetic bow structures therefrom and shorter lengths for narrower ribbon structures. In the embodiment illustrated, a drop of a suitable hot-melt adhesive in the form of dots 15, 15a is applied over drawstring 12 to securely bond the drawstring to the ribbon material. Dots 15, 15a can be conveniently applied to pre-bows 10 by the use of a double orifice hot melt head or two single orifice hot melt heads spaced approximately one-half inch apart to simultaneously apply two dots 15a onto the drawstring 12 at any desired spaced intervals along the ribbon length. As earlier noted, the pre-bows 10 may be supplied as individual pre-bows in which event the ribbon material would be severed between spaced dots 15a to produce an individual pre-bow 10. For ease of bow fabrication, the ends of each pre-bow '.10 are preferably cut of`1r as shown in the drawings. If the prebows are to be supplied in roll form, the ribbon material. with adhesive dots applied thereto is simply rolled upon itself for later use. The generally triangular portions of ribbon material adjacent dots 15 and 15a may be excised from the ribbon material as part of the hot-melt adhesive applying or windup procedure.
One method of forming the coiled or rose-bud bow 20 of the present invention is as follows: pre-bow 10 is grasped between the thumb and index finger of one hand immediately below dot i1'5 (as seen in FIG. 4) with the free end of pre-bow 10 freely hanging downwardly. Drawstring 12 is then grasped at dot 1S between the thumb and index finger of the other hand and rapidly pulled for approximately one-third its length. As drawstring 12 is thus rapidly pulled, rufiies 21 are formed as the acetate wrap 14 of the drawstring 12 and the ribbon filaments 11 attached to the acetate wrap 14 break loose from nylon drawstring 13 and begin to bunch in a nest immediately ahead of the thumb and forefinger. Drawstring 12 is then gently and gradually pulled; this pulling of drawstring 12 results in the filaments 1 1 coiling around the drawstring according to characteristic B as shown in FIGS. '5-7 and as explained hereinafter. It will be remembered that the filaments 11 which are being compressed together in the area immediately adjacent drawstring 12 still have transverse stiffness according to characteristic C and tend to hold the two edges of the ribbon structure apart. Since the ribbon structure is free to rotate and since the drawstring .=12 is being pulled gently, the edges begin to rotate about the drawstring. As the gentle pulling on drawstring 12 is continued, coiling continues. When drawstring 12 is pulled to its full extent, dot 15a will be pulled into the center of the coil and be immediately adjacent to the thumb and forefinger grapsing the ribbon. At that point drawstring 12 is securely fastened at the bottom of the bow. This can be conveniently accomplished with a small square card (not shown) having a slit therein to its approximate midpoint, the drawstring being wound about said card and inserted into the slit where it is frictionally retained. The card may have a pressure-sensitive adhesive coating on one side thereof protected by a suitable barrier material for easy attachment of the completed rosebud bow 20 to a package.
Ruffled bow 30 is formed in a similar manner as rosebud bow 20 except that drawstring 12 is pulled quite rapidly for its full length and the ribbon may even be laid fiat on a surface while forming the bow.
In studies conducted on an Instron machine to attempt to determine the pulling force required to form the coiled or rose-bud bow 20 and the rufiied bow 30, it was found that about 10% more pulling force was required to form the ruffled bow 30 than was required for the rosebud bow 20.
It was also found that ribbon structures having the drawstring on one edge would still coil if the portion of the ribbon adjacent to the drawstring was easier to compress than the portion of the ribbon toward the middle or the other edge. Tests have also confirmed that if a ribbon has high resistance to compression at the edge with limp transverse members, the ribbon tends to fold in the middle with the two edges coming together. Such a folded structure, now having the drawstring along one edge, still forms a coil, however.
I have found that if the transverse filament members of the ribbon structure are too stiff to twist or bend, a ruflied bow will form. This result is explained by the fact that in a coiled or rose-bud bow, the edges which were initially parallel to the central drawstring finish in a spiral at an approximate angle to the drawstring; to do this, the transverse memebrs must be capable of being twisted.
In an effort to determine whether definite values could be placed on the parameters for a self-coiling bow structure, a spun ribbon series was made in a railroad track pattern with denier acetate fibers parallel to the drawstring and spun acetate transverse filaments bonding the drawstring to the linear acetate fibers. In this way, the transverse fibers were not connected to each other and offered no resistance to compression. The position and numbers of linear acetate fibers could be carefully controlled.
It was found that as little as one 150 denier acetate fiber on each edge or at one edge would cause the ribbon to coil. Spacing had little effect, as acetate fibers placed 'Ma inch or 31/2 inches from the drawstring both resulted in ribbons that coiled.
In another series of tests with the railroad track structure, varying members of 150 denier filaments were laid within 1A inch of the drawstring in the following configurations with the results shown:
(a) 2 at center-1 at edge-Ribbon only forms rufiles.
(b) 2 at center-2 at edge-Inside crumples. Outside forms sporadic coils.
(c) 2 at center-3 at edge- Forms a coil with crumpled center. Not a strong tendency to coil.
These railroad track tests demonstrate that only slight differences in properties are needed to make the bow function, but it is essential that basic characteristics A and B be met.
It is desirable for the ribbon to offer uniform resistance to the drawstring being pulled longitudinally along the ribbon structure. This resistance compresses the ribbon into a coiled nest in an orderly cumulative fashion. If portions of the ribbon structure have varying drawstring friction, the bow can begin to compress at more than one point, with different directions of rotation, resulting in a rufiied bow.
With the discovery and understanding of the characteristics or parameters required for the formation of a coiled bow, it is possible to postulate new constructions that would be self coiling. Exemplary structures were prepared of the following materials:
Woven ribbons: It is possible to make self-coiling ribbon by weaving or knitting techniques or by a combination of weaving and laminating or weaving and cutting techniques. A strip was cut from a piece of burlap, approximately 3 inches wide. The linear threads were removed in the central portion of the strip and left on the edges. A single linear thread was left in the middle to act as a drawstring. When the drawstring was pulled, the burlap ribbon coiled.
In another case nylon netting was cut into a 2 inch strip. In the central one-inch portion of the strip, all of the linear threads were cut with a razor, leaving the transverse threads intact. Only the 1/2 inch bands of linear threads at the edges could therefore offer resistance to compression. When a drawstring, added by weaving between the transverse threads, was pulled, this ribbon structure formed a coil.
Laminated ribbons: Coiling ribbon structures were made by adding a drawstring to a compressible ribbon structure and then laminating compression resistant strips to the edges. Stiff tape added to the edge of a uniformly compressible lace-like drawstring ribbon structure provided one example of this construction. In another example, a drawstring was heat laminated to the center of a loose, non-woven ribbon (Garnett backing), and narrow Sasheen Brand ribbon strips were heat bonded to the edges. The railroad track pattern acetate structures with strings of Sasheen Brand ribbon taped on the edges are other examples of laminated ribbon structures which form coiled structures.
Die-cut structures: Sself-coiling structures were made from stiff film of polypropylene and acetate which were cut into shapes that fulfilled the parameters for a coiled bow. Linear strips were left at the edges to resist compression; transverse members were separated to provide compressibility in the drawstring sector, and a juncture permitting rotation was left between the linear and the transverse members. Constructions were made with both one and two linear elements. By suitable cutting or by laminating one die cut structure to another it is possible to make flow-like structures.
The film can be embossed and die cut with decorative patterns for added decoration. The drawstrings were made by threading a string through holes in the transverse members, or by combining a spun ribbon with film, where the drawstring was attached to the spun ribbon.
These die-cut structures could be used not only for decorative package ornaments, but for such purposes as table ornaments, light shades, hats, skirts, containers, window shades, or room dividers. In all cases, the decorative articles could be changed in shape simply by pulling or releasing a drawstring.
Assembled structures: Self coiling structures were assembled from metal strips, string and glue. Similar structures could be made with wood strips or they could be injection molded from thermoplastics. End uses of these structures would be as decorative ornaments or toys.
While the decorative bows of the invention have been described as individual structures particularly suited for gift wrapping purposes, it will be understood that their use is limited only by an individual users imagination. For example, extremely attractive corsages have been made utilizing from 3 to 12 rosebud lbows 20 suitably backed with a green lace-like ribbon material resembling foliage. In addition, two or more prcfabricated bow forms 10 of different colors may be superimposed and then pulled to form a multi-colored decorative bow of either the rosebud or ruffled configuration depending on the manner in which it was pulled I have also found that the rose-bud bow can be made to appear more life-like if the retainer card for the drawstring is enlarged and made in the form of petals to simulate the calyx or plant foliage.
Similarly, although the pattern for the lace-like web has been described and shown herein as ibeing a two overlapping circles pattern, it will be understood that other patterns are suitableV provided only that the ribbon structure possesses characteristics A and B- and desirably possesses characteristics C and D described herein.
It will be further understood that drawstring 12, described herein as being a nylon yarn with an acetate overwrap or a nylon yarn having a serpentine layer of acetate applied thereover, can be fabricated from many kinds of materials and can take many forms. For example, ribbon structures have been produced using a polypropylene lm strip as the drawstring. Similarly, monofilaments rather than yarns can tbe used as the drawstring. The drawstring itself or one component of a composite drawstring structure, however, should be of a material which is incompatible with the material of the ribbon structure so that the drawstring will not become firmly bonded thereto and not function as a drawstring.
What is claimed is:
1. A decorative ribbon material comprising a lace-type web formed of interconnected pliable filaments sparsely but regularly distributed so that a major portion of the ribbon material is comprised of open spaces and having a drawstring longitudinally centrally disposed throughout its length, said drawstring comprising. a nylon yarn loosely spirally wrapped with a cellulose acetate yarn and being bonded to the lace-type web only at the points of intersection of said cellulose acetate yarn with the filaments of said lace-type web.
2. A decorative ribbon material comprising a lace-type web formed of interconnected pliable filaments sparsely but regularly distributed so that a major portion of the ribbon material is comprised of open spaces and having a drawstring longitudinally centrally disposed throughout its. length, said drawstring comprising a nylon yarn overlaid with at least one serpentine acetate filament and being bonded to the lace-type web only at the points of intersection of said at least one serpentine filament with the filaments of said lace-type web.
3. A prefabricated fbow form adapted to produce a decorative bow comprising a length of lace-type ribbon material formed of interconnected pliable `filaments sparsely kbut regularly distributed so that a major portion of the ribbon material comprises open spaces, a draw string longitudinally disposed along the length of said lace-type ribbon material, at least one end of said drawstring being rmly aixed to said lace-type ritbbon material, the interconnected filaments of said ribbon material adjacent said drawstring being substantially perpendicular to said drawstring and the interconnected larnents furthest removed from the drawstring being substantially parallel thereto.
4. A prefabricatcd bow form according to claim 3 wherein said drawstring comprises a nylon core loosely spirally wrapped with an acetate yarn, said acetate component of said drawstring being bonded to the filaments of the ribbon material only at the points of intersection of said acetate component with said filaments.
5. A decorative bow constructed from the prefabricated bow form of claim 3 having a central convolutely wound portion surrounded by serpentine undulations Haring outwardly, the bow thus resembling a partially open rose-bud.
`6. A method of forming a decorative bow from a prefabricated bow form comprising a length of lace-type ribbon material formed of interconnected pliable filaments sparsely but regularly distributed so that a major portion of the ribbon material comprises open spaces, a drawstring longitudinally disposed along the length of said lace-type ribbon material, at least one end of said drawstring being firmly aixed to said lace-type ribbon material comprising the steps of grasping one end of the prefabricated bow form between the thumb and index finger of one hand with the free end of the bow form freely hanging downwardly, grasping the end of the drawstring adjacent the held end between the thumb and index nger of the other hand, pulling the drawstring upwardly until the other axed end of said drawstring is in substantial juxtaposition with the thumb and index finger of said one hand and securing the drawstring at the bottom of the thus formed bow.
7. A method of forming a decorative bow according to claim 6 wherein the drawstring is rapidly pulled for approximately one-third its length and gently pulled for its remaining length thereby forming a partially open rosebud bow.
8. A method of forming a decorative bow according to claim 6 wherein the drawstring is rapidly pulled for its full extent thereby forming a ruled bow.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,539,431 11/1970 Schmidt et al. 161-9 2,526,523 10/1950 Weiss 57--144 X 2,869,264 1/1959 Salmi 161-10 PHILIP DIER, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.