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Publication numberUS3676964 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 18, 1972
Filing dateDec 29, 1969
Priority dateDec 29, 1969
Publication numberUS 3676964 A, US 3676964A, US-A-3676964, US3676964 A, US3676964A
InventorsAnglade Carlos Jr
Original AssigneeAnglade Carlos Jr
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Frame and building structure and method of constructing same
US 3676964 A
Abstract
A skeleton frame for a building comprises a series of long span arches made up of straight bars joined at their ends. Successive arches are staggered such that the corresponding bars of alternate arches are parallel, and with this relation, each joint between arch bars is connected to all adjacent joints by diagonal struts. Alternate arches of both sets are tied by cross-members extending perpendicularly to the planes of the arches. The complete building is enclosed by sheet material carried by the cross-members and curved in conformity with the arches.
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United States Patent Anglade, Jr.

[54] FRAME AND BUILDING STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING SAME [72] Inventor: Carlos Anglade, Jr., Apartado fite 80.084, Caracas, Venezuela [22] Filed: Dec. 29, 1969 [21] Appl. No.: 888,495

[52] Cl ..52/86, 52/648, 52/745 [51] Int. Cl ..E04b H32 [58] Field of Search ..52/86, 741, 745, 648

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,619,518 3/1927 Junkers...

2,044,321 6/1936 Nozawa 52/86 X 2,666,507 1/1954 Ruark 52/86 X 3,494,092 2/1970 Johnson et a1. ..52/745 3,501,876 3/1970 Engle ..52/86 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 665,770 10/1938 Germany ..52/86 1,027,738 4/1966 Great Britain ..52/86 [451 July 18, 1972 Primary Examiner-Alfred C. Perham AttorneyRobert S. Dunham, P. E. l-lenninger, Lester W. Clark, Gerald W. Griffin, Thomas F. Moran, R. Bradlee Boal, Christopher C. Dunham and Robert Scobey [57] ABSTRACT A skeleton frame for a building comprises a series of long span arches made up of straight bars joined at their ends. Successive arches are staggered such that the corresponding bars of alternate arches are parallel, and with this relation, each joint between arch bars is connected to all adjacent joints by diagonal struts. Alternate arches of both sets are tied by crossmembers extending perpendicularly to the planes of the arches. The complete building is enclosed by sheet material carried by the cross-members and curved in confon'nity with the arches.

In constructing the frame, the bars making up several arches are laid out flat on the ground, with the struts, and are loosely connected. The structure is then lifted up, as by hoisting at selected points, until it is archshaped, and is then secured to ground supports at its free ends. The joints are tightened, and successive arches are added, as by loosely assembling them in further groups on the ground and raising the groups in succession as before.

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ATTORNEY FRAME AND BUILDING STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention resides in structures particularly related to an in-situ erected, primary, load bearing construction which, as a whole, forms a curved arch whose mid-point is above the externally supported terminal edges. In a specific sense, the invention is directed to buildings, which may be of large dimensions, constituted by or inclusive of the stated type of construction.

Structures of this classification have been proposed or used in the prior art as aircraft hangars, auditoriums, warehouses, and the like, where it has been important to provide wide space unobstructed by columns or other support members. However, a number of structures of the prior art, for such purposes, have employed either arches which in effect have been trusses, or individually curved, weight-supporting members, or a panelled construction. Structures employing truss-type arches are considerably heavier and more expensive than the novel and improved construction of the present invention; structures employing individually curved members are diffi cult to make; structures involving panels are also difficult to make; structures involving panels are also difficult to design and construct. There has been some prior disclosure of structure formed of polygonal arches made up of individual seg ments, but the arches used in the present invention differ markedly and advantageously-in construction, in attachment to each other and in function from the arrangements heretofore proposed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention, in notably important aspects thereof, is in a skeleton frame structure and buildings including the same, and in a method of constructing such frames.

The structure is of the long-span construction type, useful, for example, in warehouses, industrial plants, mills or shops, hangars, auditoriums, gymnasiums, sports arenas, exhibition halls, terminals, and other commercial and public buildings, especially where unobstructed wide floor area may be required. It is made up of a series of polygonal arches tied to the ground at their free ends, with their center of gravity above the ground, and tied to adjoining arches by diagonal struts and to alternate arches by cross-members.

In particularly advantageous structures according to the invention, the arches are made up of individual straight bars connected endwise by joints. The bars may be beams, pipes, solid bars or any other convenient structural members, but in themselves ordinarily need not be trusses. Successive arches are staggered such that the corresponding bars of alternate arches are parallel. Each arch joint is connected to all adjacent joints by diagonal struts. Additionally, alternate arches are connected by cross-members, generally under tension, which are essentially perpendicular to the arch bars. The cross-members may comprise a series of long structural members connected to the center of each corresponding bar of alternate arches, or they may be a series of long structural members connected to corresponding joints of alternate arches, or

a combination of both. It is noted that each joint in an arch is raised above the surface of the plane formed by the two adjoining arch bars which are not connected to the joint.

In erecting the structure, the bars and the diagonal struts of several arches are laid flat on the ground and are loosely joined. Several temporary cross-members spanning across the several arches are then connected. Cables are hooked to selected cross-members and the structure is raised by simple winch-operated hoisting means, i.e. simple derricks, or other suitable means, until it assumes the shape of an arch. Once the free ends of the arches are connected to ground supports the structure is free standing. From this point, the operation may be repeated, i.e. successive groups of arches may be loosely connected flat on the ground, lifted up to position, and attached to ground supports and to the existing structure until the total planned number of arches has been erected. Alternatively, once the first group of arches is up, individual bars, diagonal struts and cross-members may be lifted up and individually attached to the existing structure.

The basic frame thus defines a selected type of curve, preferably a contour equaling or approximating a portion of a cylinder, with the ends of the bar-constituted arches on each side disposed substantially in a line parallel to the cylinder axis and received by means suitably supported in the ground or otherwise, so that such means carry the weight and thrust of the structure.

Although the described assembly, being of unusual simplicity and effectiveness for its purpose, is essentially complete and self-retaining, a further feature of special advantage comprises bracing means coordinated with each curved end of the structure, designed to control occasional or special strains that have sometimes been found to occur there, primarily in a vertical plane, i.e. perpendicular to the horizontal axis of the building, and that may distort or unduly stress the arch or arches adjacent the end. Thus truss-like arrangements, of the nature of panels in the sense of spanning defined vertical areas, may be erected at the two end arches by po-sitioning a beam, or another arch of different curvature, in the plane of the end arch and connecting it to several of the joints of the end arch by struts which may be cables, the term strut being sometimes herein broadly employed to mean a bracing element whether stressed in compression or tension. In relatively long structures it may also be desirable to provide supplemental bracing in the frame assembly along an arch or arches at one or more intermediate localities as explained below.

A still further cooperating feature in buildings according to the invention is that the frame may advantageously be used to support an external or internal skin of any suitable material, such as corrugated metal panels for example; an arrangement of special advantage involves an enclosure carried at the inside of the frame by certain strut or bar elements as explained below. Walls of suitable material, i.e. enclosure elements, can be carried by or otherwise erected in or adjacent to the end arches. Openings for doors, windows, and other functions may be provided at various locations on the enclosing material and the interior of the structure may be partitioned, if desired.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a frontal or transverse elevation of one embodiment of the invented frame showing the staggeredpolygonal arches, i.e. as at one end of the building.

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic plan view of a section of the skeleton frame structure.

FIG. 3 illustrates one type of a joint of two arch bars and four diagonal struts.

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a segment of the completed frame structure, looking upward at the side.

FIG. 5 shows a method of erecting several joined arches.

FIG. 6 shows a detail offive loosely connected arches which are to be lifted up as illustrated in FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is an elevation, showing in simplified manner, one I form of truss used at each of the two end arches of the completed structure.

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary transverse view, generally 8-8 of FIG. 4, showing an internal enclosure sheet.

FIG. 9 is a longitudinal view, like FIG. 8, but generally as on line 99 of FIG. 4; FIGS. 8 and 9 being somewhat distorted for clarity.

as on line FIG. 10 is a simplified perspective view of a completed building.

FIGS. 11 and 12 are views similar to FIGS. 8 and 9 respectively, showing modifications including an external enclosure sheet.

FIG. 13 is a partial elevation of a modified end truss.

FIG. 14 is a diagrammatic plan view of the structure of FIG. 13.

FIG. 15 is a view similar to FIG. 4, showing special bracing for certain central arches.

FIG. 16 is a schematic perspective view of the structure of FIG. 15.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION FIGS. 1 and 2 show, respectively, a simplified frontal view and a diagrammatic plan view of the arches making up the invented structure. Referring to'FIG. 1, two arches are seen, one behind the other, namely an arch originating at ajoint 1 on a ground support 1a, which may include embedded concrete structure, and terminating at a joint 21 on another, like ground support 210, and an arch originating at a joint 2 on a similar ground support 20 and terminating at a joint 20 on another ground support 20a. The joints between the components of the first arch are identified by odd reference numerals 3, 5, 7, 9 and so on through 19; the joints of the second arch are identified by even reference numerals 4, 6 and 8 through 18.

Each arch is a segment of a polygon and is made up of individual bars joined together, each individually identified by the joints it spans. Thus, the first arch is made up of bar 1-3 at one end, of one-half normal length, joined endwise to bar 3-5, of full normal length, which in turn is joined to bar -7, also of full length, and so on with successive full-length bars through bar 17-19 and a half-length bar 19-21 at the other end. The second arch is made up entirely of full-length bars, comprising bar 2-4 joined endwise to bar 4-6 and so on through bar 18-20. The two arches are staggered with respect to their joints. Joint 3 of the first arch is at about the center of bar 2-4 of the second arch and raised from it as seen endwise of the structure; joint 4 of the second arch is at about the middle of bar 3-5 of the first arch and raised from it, and similarly throughout the pair of arches. In order to achieve the staggered relation, the first and last bars of the first arch are approximately half the length of the remaining bars of the arch. The latter bars and all those of the second arch are substantially equal in length.

FIG. 2 shows a plan view of a part of the invented structure. The first arch of FIG. 1, originating at joint 1 and terminating at joint 21, appears at the bottom of FIG. 2. The other arches are parallel to the first and shown progressively above it in this view, being identified by their end joints with their ground supports, e.g. joint 2 for the second arch, and correspondingly joints 301, 402, 501, 602, 701 for the succeeding third to seventh arches, while the other terminal ground support joints are designated 20 for the second arch and 321, 420, and so on, through 721 for the remainder. The intermediate joints in each arch are identified by like sequences of numbers, in effect alternately repeating the first two rows.

As will be apparent, alternate arches have their corresponding bars in parallel registration with each other. Thus bar 3-5 of the first arch is parallel to bars 303-305, 503-505 and 703-705, while bar 4-6 of the second arch is parallel to bars 404-406 and 604-606. The free ends of each arch are joined to ground supports, as noted above.

Each joint of the bars that make up an arch is connected to all adjacent joints of immediately adjacent arches by diagonal struts. Again in reference to FIG. 2 and as examples of all others, joint 4 of the second arch is connected by struts 43, 43 to joints 3 and 303, and by struts 45, 45 to joints 5 and 305, of the two immediately adjoining odd-numbered arches, and other joints numbered 4 e.g. 404, 604) of other even-numbered arches are connected by identical struts 43 and 45 to corresponding joints numbered 3 and 5 (e.g. 303, 503, 305, 505) of odd-numbered arches. This arrangement continues throughout the assembly; for example joint 317 of the third arch is connected by diagonal struts 167, 167 to joints 16 and 416 and by struts 187, 187 to joints 18 and 418, of the adjoining second and fourth arches. Other diagonal struts are marked at 23, 65, 67, 87 and so on.

Thus the basic frame structure is constituted throughout by identical triangles formed by bars and struts, each bar of an arch being the base of two triangles each of which has its apex at the outwardly higher joint of an adjacent arch, the planes of the triangles thereby forming an obtuse dihedral angle at their common base. Note, for example, in FIG. 4 the two triangles having as base the bar betweenjoints 503 and 505, and apexes respectively at the joints 604 and 404.

The arches are also joined by cross-members for axial support, i.e. carrying tension in an axial or longitudinal direction of the assembled structure. The cross-members are of two types which may be used alternatively or preferably together. Although conceivably one type may be used in one part of the assembly and another type in another part, each type of member (and indeed both, where used, by preference) is advantageously made or considered to extend continuously from end to end of the structure, with joints where necessary. In order to avoid cluttering the drawing, only two cross-members of each type are illustrated in FIG. 2, but several of both types are shown in FIG. 4.

One type is represented by the two cross-members 44c and 550 on the left side of FIG. 2, respectively joining the centers of individual bars of alternate rows. The cross-member 44c joins the center of bar 3-5 of the first arch with the center of bar 303-305 of the third arch, then the latter bar with the center of bar 503-505 of the fifth arch, and so on, the member 44c being thus disposed to pass under and clear of all joints, as at 4, 404 and 604. Whereas member 44c and others like it (not shown in FIG. 2) join the bars of odd-numbered arches, crossmember 550 and similar members not here shown join the bars of even-numbered arches. I-Ience cross-member 55c connects the center points of the bars 4-6, 404-406, 604-606, and so on, passing beneath and clear of joints 305, 505, 705. The cross-member system of this type thus in effect joins the midpoints of all bars of all odd-numbered arches and separately also joins the midpoints of all bars of all even-numbered arches, lengthwise of the entire structure, as further represented by cross-members 33c, 44c, 55c and 66c in FIG. 4.

Another type of cross-member is illustrated by two examples thereof, further to the right in FIG. 2. One of these two, marked 77j, originates at joint 7 of the first arch, connects that to joint 307 of the third arch, then to joint 507, and proceeds to connect also each corresponding joint of each remaining odd-numbered arch. The cross-member 88j directly to the right of it, still in FIG. 2, joins joint 8 of the second arch with joint 408 of the fourth arch, and then with joint 608 of the sixth arch, and so on, with each corresponding joint of each remaining even-numbered arch. This cross-member system thus connects the joints of all odd-numbered arches and separately also connects the joints of all even-numbered arches, lengthwise of the entire structure, as further represented by cross-members 33j, 44j, 55] and 66j in FIG. 4 where it will be apparent that each such member is raised above, i.e. spaced radially outward from, the bars of each arch that is intermediate the arches which it connects.

The two types of cross-members may be used alternatively, or in combination, i.e. selectively at various places, or preferably both together throughout, depending on the span and length of the complete structure. The members of both types function, primarily under tension, to carry stresses in an axial direction of the frame, notably to coact in maintaining the desired positional relationships of the several bars and diagonal struts, and the desired configuration and spacing of the arches. Evidence indicates there is some special advantage in utilizing both types of cross-member throughout the frame, i.e. a complete system of each as shown in FIG. 4.

While the joint-connecting members 33j, 44j, 55 and so on are shown as cables extending continuously along the building and the bar-connecting members 33c, 44c, 55c and the like are shown as rigid continuous beams (which may facilitate attachment of enclosure sheet and which may comprise successive pieces with end-to-end joints, not shown), it will be understood that both types of members can be of the same form or indeed of any other form suitable for the required linking or tying function.

A segment of the completed frame structure of one presently preferred embodiment is shown in FIG. 4, in which the several joints and bars of the arches, the diagonal struts and the cross-members of both types will be recognized from the designations by reference numbers as mentioned above or otherwise in the scheme of such numbering apparent from other views. The cross-members 44c, 33c and the like are secured by suitable attachments 341 to the bars 503-505, 703-705 and others, and the cross-members 44j, 33j.and so on, are fastened to the appropriate joints of the arches, as 604, 503 and others by devices 342 projecting from the joint to grip or engage thecross-member.

As noted, each joint is raised above the plane defined by the adjacent bars of the two immediately adjacent arches. Thus in FIG. 4 the joint 604 is raised above the plane defined by adjacent parallel bars 703-705 and 503-505; it is also spaced above, and need not be fastened to, the cross-member 44c (of the first type) that may be under it. Similarly each joint-connecting cross-member such as 44j is raised above, and not fastened to, the bars of alternate arches, e.g. bars 703-705 and 503-505.

FIG. 3 illustrates a joint of arch bars and diagonal struts. In this case the bars and the struts are constituted of strong metal tubing, e.g. hollow pipe, with flattened end portions which have bored or punched holes so as to accommodate a bolt inserted therein. Thus for the joint 604 the related bars of the arch, here designated 351 and 352, have respective flattened ends 353 and 354, the diagonal'struts 43 have flattened ends 355 and the like struts 45 have flattened ends 357, the flat portions 355 and 357 being bent to the desired angle between the arch of bars 351, 352, and the diagonal struts. A bolt 360, with threaded shank 361, has been inserted through the flattened portions of the diagonal struts and of the arch bars, and has been secured by nut 362. The holes in flattened portions ofthe struts and of the bars are larger in diameter than the shank of bolt 360 so that imprecision in the lengths of the bars and of the struts, or in the positionsof the holes in their flattened sections, will not affect the final shape of the structure. If it is desired to use cross-members of the second type, the bolt 360 may carry the connecting device 342 for the cross-member, as shown in FIG. 4.

FIG, 7 illustrates one form of a truss or cable bracing assembly which is advantageously connected to the arch or arches at each end of the building. Thus the end arch l-21-of the frame structure (being an odd-numbered arch, in FIG. 1) is connected to a truss comprising a beam 370 and poststressed cable elements numbered 371 through 380. The beam 370, disposed horizontally across the arch opening, carries anchoring devices at points numbered 381 through 387 along its length, and the truss (cable) elements extend from the arch 1-21 to the beam as follows: elements 371 and 372 from joint 7 to points 381 and 382; elements 373 and 374 from joint 9 to points 382 and 384; elements 375 and 376 from joint 13 to points 384 and 386; elements 377 and 388 from joint 15 to points 386 and 387; and elements 379 and 380 from joint 11 to points 383 and 385. Although the beam 370 can in effect be constituted as an enclosure wall of like height in the end opening of the building, it is shown simply as a horizontal beam or girder, supported or tied by vertical members 388, 389, or if desired as a function of the specific frame design, it may be connected to other joints of the frame. As the truss elements or struts 371 to 380 are generally stressed in tension, they are conveniently cables, but may alternatively be rigid members or links.

FIGS. 5 and 6 are illustrative of a novel and effective method of constructing the frame structure described above. The structure is put together by first laying flat on the ground the bars and the diagonal struts needed to make up several arches. Typically five arches are assembled first, with their elements (bars and struts) loosely connected at the joints. FIG. 6 illustrates a section of this loosely connected structure, the bolts such as bolt 360 in FIG. 3 being inserted in the joints, as will be apparent in FIG. 6, and secured by nuts but not tightened. Temporary cross-members as indicated at 431, 432 and 433 are then added (or some are added then and others as lifting begins), along at least the major, central part of the assembly, as at alljoints from 5 to 17. Certain of these members, such as member 432, intended for temporary, direct, lifting support of the assembly, are placed on top with short linkages to the joints, and other temporary cross-members can also be temporarily hitched to the joints.

Suitable hoisting means such as the three simple derricks 441, 442, 443 shown in FIG. '5 are then put in place at localities, evenly spaced across the area to be spanned by the arches, such that the derricks project upward through the loose assembly. As illustrated, each derrick may be a simple, guyed pole having hoisting tackle (a pulley) at the top and an appropriate winch or like means (not detailed) at the foot. Ca-

bles are then run from selected temporary cross-members, as

for example at least those respectively nearest to the poles (eg at the cross regions of joints 7, 11 and 15), over the tackle or sheave at the top of the pole and thence downward. Thus the cable 445 runs from the temporary member 432 at joints 7, 307 and 507, and through and downward from the tackle 447 at the top of the derrick pole 441, so that upon hauling downward on the cable 445 at the winch locality 448, the member 432 is raised. Similar connections are effected at the derrick poles 442 and 443, for hauling up like members at those localities, as will now be understood from FIG. 5 without further description.

The loosely connected assembly of arches is lifted up, by the winches, and aided by the aligning and bracing effect of the other temporary cross-members having direct or indirect lifting function, the structure then, essentially of its own accord, assumes substantially the final arch shape. While the assembly is being lifted, further temporary cross-members are inserted over the center of the long arch bars, but under the joints of the alternate arches, as in the case of the members 431 and 433 shown as originally placed in FIG. 6. It is also possible to lift to a small elevation with only the rigid members used for that purpose, and then to insert all of the others, whereupon hoisting is continued and completed with the effects noted. The end bars or joints of each arch are then connected to the ground supports, as at 1, 2, -20 and 21, and all other joints, comprising flatwise abutted end portions of bars, are tightened. At that time the structure is free-standing but is preferably aided by temporary guy wires, and the derricks and temporary cross-members may be removed.

The entire structure may be completed by repetitions of the same procedure, adding successive arch assemblies. Thus in each step the next additional group of arches may be laid out flat on the ground, loosely connected, and erected by temporary hoisting means in the same way as the first group of arches, and then secured to the previously erected structure. The basic erection of the entire frame to a free-standing state is thus greatly simplified and expedited. Alternatively, however, the individual bars, diagonal struts, and temporary crossmembers for further sections may be lifted up and attached, piece by piece, to the existing part of the structure, if a temporary scaffold is used.

After all the planned arches are erected and connected by permanent cross-members of either or both types described above (in place of temporary elements), the two end arches may be connected to trusses such as the one illustrated in FIG.

7. In the embodiment of FIG, 7, the truss struts 371-380 are cables tightened under tension, such that the end arch is kept in the proper polygonal shape, and serves to prevent distortion, of this and nearby arches, that might otherwise occur by reason of bending stresses near the end of the assembly.

Other types of bracing structures may be used at the ends of the frame, as for example including a polygonal arch of a different curve, above or below the regular end arch and connected to the assembly by suitable struts, such arrangement being preferable where the end of the building is to be at least largely open or unobstructed or where a future extension of the building is contemplated. For example, in FIGS. 13 and 14, where parts identical with previous views are identically numbered, a supplemental polygonal arch of generally parabolic contour extending between the ground supports (as at l) for the first regular arch is composed of bars endwise connected by joints 4:, 6s, 8s and so on, and is disposed beneath the first arch that is designated by joints 3, 5, 7 and others. As will be seen, the joints such as 4s, 6s and 8: of the supplemental arch are conveniently aligned in radial planes with the joints of even-numbered arches. Suitable struts 460, 461, 462, 463 and so on, as indicated in FIG. 13, connect the joints of the supplemental arch with those of the first (oddnumbered) arch, while further struts 480, 481, 482, through 492 and so on, connect the supplemental arch joints with those of the second (even-numbered) arch at 4, 6, 8 and the like, it being noted that a crossing arrangement of such struts 488, 489 may be used between the central supplemental arch joints 10s, 12s and the joints l0, l2. End-bracing systems of this sort are effective and require little or no intrusion into the enclosed space,

A view of a completed building is depicted in FIG. 10, considerably simplified or abbreviated for purposes of clarity, e.g. in showing a structure with fewer bars in each polygonal arch, than in the assemblies of other views, and with a relatively shorter building. The complete structure here includes an enclosing, curved skin 540, assembled of sheet metal plates or strips and supported at and along inside faces or edges of the cross-members. Suitable walls 541, 544 are shown to curtain the sides of the building and an end wall 546 is indicated. Skeleton frames and corresponding enclosed buildings can be designed and erected to any of a wide variety of sizes and proportions, whether smaller as in FIG. 10 or of dimensions as contemplated in FIGS. 1 and others, or indeed of very large widths and of great longitudinal extent. By way of example, one highly effective structure composed of 21 arches successively spaced by about 1.5 meters (or feet), has a transverse dimension of approximately 43 meters (or I40 feet) between ground supports 1 or 2 on one side and 20 or 21 on the other side, and an elevation of the top of the arches from the ground of about 13 meters (or 42.5 feet), the standard bars of the arches, employed in the number and arrangement of FIGS. 1, 2 and others, having a length, between the center lines of joints, of about 5.8 meters (or 18.9 feet).

While it is presently preferred that the enclosing skin or shell, if made of sheet metal, be characterized by a corrugated configuration (with the corrugations parallel to the arches) which, although a frame-bracing effect by the skin is not usually necessary, may be somewhat superior in such effect, an arrangement of plain sheet is shown in FIG. for simplicity of illustration, and likewise in FIGS. 8, 9, 11 and 12.

Special advantage is conceived to characterize the arrangement of the enclosure internally of the frame, as shown in FIGS. 8, 9 and 10, not only for esthetic reasons, but particularly for ease of erection, attachment and servicing of the enclosure. Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, which for illustrative emphasis show the upward spacing of the arch joints from the bars of adjacent arches with some exaggeration, and likewise are characterized by a somewhat exaggerated closeness of the successive arches, relative to the presently preferred proportions embodied in other views, it will be seen that the sheets of the enclosing skin 540 are simply attached to appropriate flanges or like parts of the cross-members of the first type, e.g. as indicated at 542 and 543 for such members 44c and 55c. In this fashion, a complete, lightweight enclosure is carried inwardly of the frame, and may of course embody suitable features (not shown) in the nature of windows, ventilators, and the like, as may be desired.

In FIGS. 11 and 12 the enclosing sheet metal or like skin 550 is mounted on projecting flanges or like supports 552 that may be part of the devices 342 for attaching the cross-members 33], 44j, 55} of the second type, or may be otherwise secured to those members. In this fashion the enclosure essentially completely embraces the exterior of the frame, as may be advantageous to take account of unusually severe weather conditions. These views, FIGS. 8, 9, 11 and 12, also further illustrate the relation of bars, struts and cross-members, identified in accordance with numbering hereinabove indicated, it being recalled that the frame may usefully include both types of cross-member.

In some cases, particularly for very long buildings, i.e. axially long, there may be some tendency for the structure to sag a little at the center region, or become unduly distorted there by high wind pressure or the like. Such tendencies may be obviated by special reinforcing at and adjacent a central arch, for example as shown in FIGS. 15 and 16. Thus considering an arch of bars connected at joint 2002 to a ground support and successively at joints 2004, 2006, 2008 and so on, and assuming that cross-members of the first type, embodied as rigid beams, are included as indicated at 33c, 44c, 55c, 66c and so on, the special reinforcement includes diagonal braces 561, 562 extending from each of the localities where a crossmember is joined to a bar of the stated (even-numbered) arch, respectively to the nearby joints of the immediately adjacent (odd-numbered) arches. Thus as shown, with respect to the cross-member attachments of the arch 2002-2004-2006, the braces 561, 562 thus extend from cross-member 330 to joints 2103 and 1903. Identical braces 561, 562 connect the attachment of cross-member 55c to bar 2004-2006 with joints 2105 and 1905; and similar braces appear at corresponding cross-members throughout the extent of the stated, even-numbered arch.

Cross-member pieces of the second type, but here particularly selected as rigid members to carry both compression and tension, are used, as at 33r, 55r, 77r and so on, to link the above-identified joints of the adjacent, odd-numbered arches. It will therefore be seen that inherently rigid triangular structures are formed, e.g. by the members 561, 562 and 33r, also by the further members 561, 562 and 55r, and so on. As will be seen, the entire three-dimensional figure defined by each of the bars of the stated arch and the two pairs of diagonal struts that run from the ends of such bar and meet respectively at adjacent joints of the arches on each side, thus becomes entirely rigid, in that all planes of such figure are defined by triangular frames,

In order to complete the central braced area, inasmuch as the foregoingrigid figures remain collectively arranged as a series of links circumferentially around the frame, like reinforcing members are included with respect to the center points of the bars of the adjoining (odd-numbered) arches. Thus alike triangular bracing structure 571 is formed with respect to the intersection of the cross-member 44c with the bar 2103-2105 and another identical triangular brace 572 is provided at the intersection of member 44c with the bar 1903-1905. These arrangements are repeated circumferentially around the frame, so that the joints 2004, 2006 and so forth, of the central arch are flanked by rigid three-dimensional structures which rigidly interconnect the abovedescribed identical kind of structures along such arch, and in consequence the entire central assembly of the frame becomes correspondingly rigid. Tendencies to sag or to distort unduly are therefore opposed by this special reinforcement which serves to support the central regions of the frame.

While in FIGS. 15 and 16 an even-numbered arch has been selected as the central line of the reinforcing pattern, it will be apparent that essentially the same arrangement can be applied with respect to an odd-numbered arch. Furthermore, whereas in many long buildings a single, central bracing arrangement will suffice, extremely length structures may require two or more at appropriately spaced localities. A particular feature of the novel design and arrangement of this bracing is that it is accomplished without any parts projecting inward or outward of the enveloping boundaries of the frame.

As will now be seen, the completed frame comprises an assembly which is extremely light in weight, and which, along the curved surface that it generally defines, can be relatively very thin in the sense of occupying only a very small space radially of such surface, with no parts, except at the ends,

protruding above or below. A vertical section in the plane of each arch, between the ends, discloses only a simple polygonal shape and there are no trusses or like complex structures in such sections, nor any need for curved or other intricately shaped elements at any locality. The basic curve, in section, is preferably an arc of a circle, advantageously occupying substantially less than 180, e.g. 140 or less; for instance, in the example above of a structure having a transverse base of 43 meters, the curve has a radius of about 24 meters and occupies about 125 of the complete circle.

The structural elements can be of extremely simple nature and ordinarily involve only a few selected, standardized dimensions, repeated throughout the assembly. Hence the parts can be prefabricated in quantity, or alternatively can be entirely cut and finished from conventional stock at the site of construction, for example by cutting pipe into lengths for the bars, and flattening and drilling the ends, the remaining parts being standard beams, cables and the like. The invention includes, as explained, novel and highly expedited procedure for erecting the frame, with a minimum of mechanical or other effort.

Although a highly effective structure can be constituted with steel tubes and steel beams or cables for the cross-members, and with aluminum sheet for the enclosing skin, other materials can be employed, such as aluminum or other metals for the frame parts, or indeed strong reinforced plastic elements. Likewise the enclosure can be formed of sheet or panels of any appropriate composition, whether steel, other metal, reinforced plastic, even plywood or other composite or laminated sheets. As also explained, whereas the bars and struts are very advantageously formed of tubing, other structural shapes can be employed, as likewise other forms of joint intermediate the several parts. I

While the structure has been described as one standing on ground supports, it may actually be elevated substantially above the ground and thus may be conceived as a roof, the term ground supports thus here generically including supporting structures along the sides, whether close to the ground or in the form of walls appropriate to carry the load and thrust of the frame. Primary advantages of the entire assembly are at its relative lightness and ease of construction. It is inherently stable and resistant to very high loading by wind or other stress; indeed the basically linked nature of the assembly permits an effect of breathing or slightly changing in contour according as wind pressure is exerted in one direction or the other, while thermal expansion and contraction are fully accommodated in like fashion by enlargement or reduction of curvature.

It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific forms herein shown and described but may be carried out in other ways without departure from its spirit.

I claim:

1. A building frame defined by a surface curved about a linear axis, comprising:

A. a series of polygonal arches spaced along the axis in generally parallel relation to each other,

B. each arch comprising endwise successive bars connected by joints at their ends, and

C. successive arches being circumferentially staggered in position in repetitive progression, so as to provide a plurality of groups of arches, wherein a, all arches of a group are positioned similarly to each other, and

b. each arch of the entire series is differently positioned from each arch that is adjacent to it;

D. bars connecting each joint with the adjacent staggered joints of each immediately adjacent arch; and

E. means tying the arches of each group to each other along lines extending axially of the frame, said arch-tying means comprising F. a multiplicity of cross-members associated with each group of arches and respectively with localities of the bars of each arch that are intermediate the ends of the bars,

G. each cross-member extending lengthwise of the frame and connecting together, in succession, said intermediate localities of positionally corresponding bars of the arches of the group to which the cross-member relates.

2. A building having a frame as defined in claim 1 and comprising H. enclosure means extending generally along the contour of said curved surface and supported by said cross-members, interiorly of the frame.

3. A building having a frame as defined in claim 1, in which the arch-tying means also comprises 1. a second multiplicity of cross-members associated with each group of arches and respectively with the joints between the bars of each arch,

J. each cross-member of said second multiplicity extending lengthwise of the frame and connecting together, in succession, the positionally corresponding joints of the arches of the group to which said last-mentioned crossmember relates; said building comprising K. enclosure means extending generally along the contour of said curved surface and supported by the cross-members of one of the aforesaid multiplicities of cross-members.

4. A building having a frame as defined in claim 1 and comprising L. enclosure means supported by the frame, for substantially enveloping the space defined by said surface.

5. A building having a frame as defined in claim and comprising 6. A building frame defined by a surface curved about a linear axis, comprising:

A. a series of polygonal arches spaced along the axis in generally parallel relation to each other,

B. each arch comprising endwise successive bars connected by joints at their ends, and

C. successive arches being circumferentially staggered in position in repetitive progression, so as to provide a plurality of groups of arches, wherein a. all arches of a group are positioned similarly to each other, and b. each arch of the entire series is differently positioned from each arch that is adjacent to it;

D. bars connecting each joint with the adjacent staggered joints of each immediately adjacent arch; and

E. means tying the arches of each group to each other along lines extending axially of the frame, said arch-tying means comprising F. a multiplicity of first cross-members associated with each group of arches and respectively with localities of the bars of each arch that are intermediate the ends of the bars,

G. each said first cross-member extending lengthwise of the frame and connecting together, in succession, said intermediate localities of positionally corresponding bars of the arches of the group to which the said first crossmember relates; and

. a multiplicity of second cross-members associated with each group of arches and respectively with the joints between the bars of each arch,

J. each said second cross-member extending lengthwise of the frame and connecting together, in succession, the positionally corresponding joints of the arches of the group to which said second cross member relates.

7. A building having a frame as defined in claim 5 and comprising H. enclosure means extending generally along the contour of said curved surface and supported by said first crossmembers, interiorly of the frame.

8. A building frame defined by a surface curved about a linear axis, comprising:

A. a series of polygonal arches spaced along the axis in generally parallel relation to each other,

B. each arch comprising endwise successive bars which are connected by joints at their ends and are centrally tangent to said surface. and

C. successive arches being circumferentially staggered in alternating position so that the joints of alternate arches, respectively in two groups, lie in parallel axially extending lines;

D. bars diagonally interconnecting all of the joints whereby each joint is thereby connected to each adjacent staggered joint of each immediately adjacent arch; and

means tying the arches of each group to each other along lines extending axially of the frame, said arch-tying means comprising F. members circumferentially spaced around the frame and extending axially thereof, and attached to alternate arches at localities of the arch bars intermediate the joints.

9. A building frame as defined in claim 8, in which said members comprise G. two sets of said members respectively associated with said groups of arches, the members of each set connecting together the arches of the associated group.

10. A building having a frame as defined in claim 9 and comprising H. sheet enclosure extending generally along the contour of said curved surface and supported from said bars, interiorly of the frame.

11. A building as defined in claim 10 in which the arch-tying means of the frame also comprises 1. a second pair of sets of second members extending axially of the frame, said sets of said second pair being respectively associated with said groups of arches, and

J. the said second members of each set being attached to joints of the arches of the associated group.

12. A building as defined in claim 11, in which M. said enclosure is mounted on the members of the firstmentioned two sets that are attached at intermediate localities of the arch bars.

13. A building frame as defined in claim 8, in which the arch-tying means also comprises I. second members circumferentially spaced around the frame and extending axially thereof, and attached to joints of alternate arches.

14. A building having a frame as defined in claim 13, in

which said second members comprise J. two sets of said second members respectively associated with said groups of arches, the said second members of each of said last-mentioned two sets connecting together the arches of the associated group;

said building comprising K. sheet enclosure extending generally along the contour of said curved surface and supported from said joints, exteriorly of the frame.

15. A building having a frame as defined in claim 8, and

comprising L. enclosure means supported by the frame, for substantially enveloping the space defined by said surface. 16. A building as defined in claim 15, in which said enclosure means comprises M. sheet enclosure extending along the contour of said curved surface and disposed interiorly of the frame. 17. A building frame as defined in claim 8, which includes N. truss structure at an end of the frame, connected to the end arch thereof. 18. A building frame as defined in claim 17, in which said truss structure comprises 0. a horizontal beam in the area bounded by said end arch.

and P. members tying said beam to joints ofsaid arch. 19. A building frame as defined in claim 17, in which said truss structure comprises 0. a polygonal arch substantially coplanar with the end arch and having a different curve therefrom, and R. members connecting said dlfierently curved polygonal arch with said end arch and with the next adjacent arch.

20. A building frame as defined by claim 8, in which V. the bars of the arches and the diagonal bars are tubular members having flattened end portions,

a. said flattened end portions of all said bars that are connected at each joint being flatwise abutted, and

b. said frame comprising a bolt traversing and holding together said abutted end portions at each joint, to constitute the joint.

21. A building frame defined by a surface curved about a linear axis, comprising:

A. a series of polygonal arches spaced along the axis in generally parallel relation to each other,

B. each arch comprising endwise successive bars which are connected by joints at their ends and are centrally tangent to said surface, and

C. successive arches being circumferentially staggered in alternating position so that the joints of alternate arches, respectively in two groups, lie in parallel axially extending lines;

D. bars diagonally interconnecting all of the joints whereby each joint is thereby connected to each adjacent staggered joint of each immediately adjacent arch;

E. means tying the arches of each group to each other along lines extending axially of the frame;

S. bracing means along each of three mutually adjacent arches at a locality intermediate the ends of the frame, said bracing means comprising T. members rigidly connecting the center of each bar of said three arches with both of the immediately adjacent pair of joints of the arches immediately adjacent to such bar, and

U. members rigidly connecting the joints of each last-mentioned pair to each other.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE QfE'llFlCA'iE 0F CORRECTEN Patent No. 3 676 964 Dated July 18 19 72 I CARLOS ANGLADE, JR.

It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Col. 2, line 22, for "po-sitioning" read -positioning-- Col. 3, line 60, before "e.g." insert parenthesis Col. 8, line 46, for "alike" read --a like-- Col. 10, lines 29-30, after "5" delete "A building having a frame as defined in claim and comprising" and insert --A building frame as defined by claim 1, in which (V) the bars of the arches and the diagonal bars have flat end portions,

(a) said flat end portions of all said bars that are connected at each joint being flatwise abutted and bolted together, to constitute the joint.-

Col. 10, line 64, delete "'5" and insert --6-- Signed and sealed this 23rd day of January 1973..

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M. PLETCHER,JR. ROBERT QOTTSCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM PO-IOSO (10-69) USCOMM-DC 50376-P69 U.Sv GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: [969 0-356-334

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3710806 *Oct 27, 1971Jan 16, 1973Kelly VErectable building structure
US3889433 *Jul 5, 1974Jun 17, 1975Eubank Jr Joseph PStructural frame
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US7465236Sep 25, 2003Dec 16, 2008Dieter WagelsFlying arrangement
US7722470Nov 20, 2008May 25, 2010Dieter WagelsFlying arrangement
US7726078 *Jun 21, 2005Jun 1, 2010Arpad Kolozsvary-KissRoof arches without bending moments
US8381456 *Jun 18, 2010Feb 26, 2013S2 Holdings Pty LimitedDomed non-steel roof frame
US8381457Jun 21, 2010Feb 26, 2013S2 Holdings Pty LimitedDomed steel roof frame
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/86, 52/745.7, 52/653.1
International ClassificationE04B1/342, E04B7/10, E04B1/32
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2001/3252, E04B2001/3294, E04B7/105, E04B2001/3241, E04B1/342, E04B1/3205, E04B2001/3247
European ClassificationE04B1/32B, E04B1/342, E04B7/10C