Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3677794 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 18, 1972
Filing dateApr 23, 1970
Priority dateApr 23, 1970
Publication numberUS 3677794 A, US 3677794A, US-A-3677794, US3677794 A, US3677794A
InventorsWilliam C Jeff, Thomas Luyster Jr, James F Lynch Jr, Frank A Moroli
Original AssigneeJohn L Armitage And Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Textured articles and process for preparing same
US 3677794 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 18, 1972 w. JEFF ETAL 3,677,794

TEXTURED ARTICLES AND PROCESS FOR PREPARING SAME Original Filed June 1, 1965 INVENTORS WILLIAM c, JEFF THOMAS LUYSTER,JR JAMES F. LYNCH,JR FRANK A MoRou JiZZrygs- United States Patent O1 3,677,794 TEXTURED ARTICLES AND PROCESS FOR PREPARING SAME William C. Jefi, Basking Ridge, and Thomas Luyster, .In, Saddle Brook, NJ., James F. Lynch, Jr., Schaumberg, 111., and Frank A. Moroli, Clark, NJ., assignors to John L. Armitage and Co., Newark, NJ. Continuation of application Ser. No. 460,216, June 1, 1965. This application Apr. 23, 1970, Ser. No. 31,339 Int. Cl. B44d 1/14, 1/16 US. Cl. 117-45 24 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A novel method for forming textured coatings and the resulting novel textured articles are taught. The method involves forming a discontinuous patterned, ink layer either directly on the surface of a form-retaining member such as plastic, metal, etc., or on a base layer applied to said surface, and then applying a top layer of resinous, film-forming material thereover.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This is a continuing application of our copending application, Ser. No. 460,216, filed June 1, 1965 now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention Description of the prior art The classical wrinkle finish is produced by causing the surface of an organic film former to swell and fold into a shriveled pattern of hills and valleys. It is accomplisehd by the use of drying oils or more recently by vinyl-modified di-methacrylate or epoxy formulations. These finishes are available in a variety of sizes; e.g. fine or typerwriter, medium, or coarse patterns. The fine wrinkle viewed under X magnification exhibits exactly the same surface characteristics as the coarse type. There is, then, a classical wrinkle pattern, and those schooled in the art are familiar with its nature.

The leather-like texture finish described in US. Pat. 2,715,587 provided a new type pattern that was readily distinguished from the standard wrinkle finish. It, too, can be processed in fine, medium or coarse pattern sizes. It, however, cannot be substantially changed in character.

US. Pat. 2,982,670 describes a leather-like finish that is produced by a two-step process. It is very similar in appearance to the articles made in accordance with US. Pat. 2,715,587 but can be readily identified and distinguished from such articles and wrinkle finishes. It has its own unique pattern either in a fine or heavy pattern. It is also limited by the fact that it may be altered in size appearance only and not by any basic configuration change.

hoe

The fourth finish that has been used widely as a texture coating by industry is the spatter type. It fits in the general family of leather-like textures and is also limited to variations of size development by application techniques. The irregular surface is produced by spraying a smooth, thin coat to a substrate and then following with a second poorly atomized or spatter coat of the same material. A rough bumpy surface results that is typical and readily identified as fitting in the class of spatter textures.

Various other types of paints have been employed to produce surface irregularities. Those schooled in the art are familiar with crystal, crackel and veiling lacquers. All of these finishes share a common disadvantage of being limited to a range of pattern sizes. Furthermore, most suffer from poor control or reproduction of exact pattern size. The stresses that were set up during the shrinkage of the crackel coat were not always relieved along the same lines and thus the results were uncontrollable and unpredictable.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Although the other previous texture coatings described were far superior in every way to the crackel system, none possesses the following unique features of our present invention:

(1) It provides a method to produce, with a single set of materials, a wide variety of surface textures.

(2) It provides a method whereby the surface texture may be pre-determined.

(3) It provides a method whereby a high degree of accuracy of reproduction can be employed which formerly required equipment like embossing rolls or precision molding equipment.

(4) It provides a method whereby the degree of the texture may be positively controlled. Thus, we have both a quantitative as well as qualitative process.

In accordance with our present invention, we alsoprovide articles which comprise a form-retaining member and a textured coating on a surface of said member, said textured coating comprising a discontinuous, ink layer adhering to and forming a predetermined pattern on said surface and a top layer of resinous film-forming material adhering to said ink layer and to the exposed portion of said surface, said top layer having a textured pattern conforming to that of said ink layer, the thickness of said top layer being at a substantial maximum directly over the exposed areas of said surface of said member and at a substantial minimom over the ink layer. It desired, and we presently prefer to do so, a base or primer coat may first be applied to the form-retaining member, in which event the thickness of the top layer is at a substantial maximum over the exposed portion of said base and at a substantial minimum over the ink layer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the accompanying drawings:

'FIG. 1 is a plan view of an article made in accordance with this invention, showing a textured alligator-like effect;

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic fragmentary enlarged sectional view, taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 in the direction of the arrow, and shows a three layer system; and

FIG. 3 is a View similar to FIG. 2, except that the former shows a two layer system coated onto a curved form-retaining member.

layer 12.

In FIG. 3, the form-retaining member may be plastic and has a discontinuous ink layer 12 adhering to its top surface. The topcoat 13 covers the ink layer 12' and the exposed portions 14' of the surface of member 10'. The thickness of the topcoat 13 is at a substantial maximum at points 15' over the exposed portions 14' and is at a substantial minimum over the ink layer 12.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS As aforementioned, our novel finish is a textured organic coating system that conforms to a pre-determined pattern. The topographical condition that exists for leather, wood or fabric is a texture typical to that particular material. It may be considered as a series of hills and valleys which form the recognizable pattern. We are able to obtain any of these effects by printing a design with an ink, which represents the valleys. A valley will then be formed when a given topcoat is applied over the ink, and will always form at the ink-topcoat interface, i.e., over the ink layer, and will conform exactly to the dimensions of that ink line or portion. Those familiar with the art of gravure plate or silk screen production know the excellent reproduction of designs that can be made on a printing plate or screen and thus transferred to another surface by ink transfer. The resultant textures we can obtain by these and other related methods in accordance with our present invention duplicate with remarkable accuracy the actual surface topography of the driginal prodnot. I

We have found certain combinations of coating materials that, when used under certain conditions, will give optimum results to produce our novel texture phenomenon. With any given set of materials, we are able to produce a pre-determined, positively controlled texture in accordance with this invention. Thus, excellent facsimiles of natural and man-made surface textures can be produced.

Our process consists of a two-step, or the preferred three-step, system. The two-step system consists of:

(1) Application of an inked design or pattern directly to a form-retaining member; e.g. wood, metal, plastic, etc.

(2) Application of a clear or pigmented topcoat over the entire surface of the inked, form-retaining member.

The three-step process, which is preferred, includes one additional step-that being the application of a basecoat to the form-retaining member prior to the application of the inked design.

The formation of the texture, we believe, is dependent upon a surface disturbance at the ink-topcoat interface. It is this disturbance which we believe is the essence of texture. If a measurable deposit of ink is applied to a limited area of a surface, and a measurable deposit of a film-former applied on the entire stu'face, it would seem logical to assume that if any texture were to form, it would be in the form of a hill at the topcoat-ink interface, i.e., over the ink layer, and a 'valley at the topcoatuninked interface, i.e. over the exposed portion of the form-retaining member (in the two step process) or over the exposed portion of the base coat (in the three step process). The opposite actually happens with our system. It is the formation of a valley or what appears to be a valley at the ink-topcoat interface of our coating system that is unexpected, and makes the resultant texture new,

novel, distinct and controllable.

While we do not wish to be held to the scientific accuracy of our theory, we presently believe the texture phenomenon is a complex physical disturbance that occurs at the ink-topcoat interface. The texture effect and control thereof is dependent on the tendency of the topcoat to pull away, crawl, draw away, shrink or mudcrack at the topcoat-ink interface to form what appear to be valleys and what appear to be hills at the topcoatbasecoat interface. In the two-step system, the valley occurs at the ink-topcoat interface and the raised sections at the substrate-topcoat interface. This occurrence would suggest that surface tension or compatibilities play an im portant part in the phenomenon. This makes the results we have obtained surprising in light of the fact that roller grain processing has been used for years and, to our knowledge, the novel texture of this invention has never been observed.

It is dilficult to formulate a theory as to why our system textures when the multiplicity of factors are considered. We offer two possible explanations. One is the fact that generally any topcoat that shows a definite tendency to mud-crack when applied over a mobile surface (such as a design printed with a non-or semidrying ink line would be) will usually make an excellent topcoat as far as positiveness for texture, i.e., texture in accordance with this invention, is concerned.

The second possible explanation is that, generally, high molecular weight (above 10,000) thermoplastic polymers work well as topcoats and have definite advantages in the formulation of some of the basecoats. We know that these polymers are diflicult to put in solution and tend to shrink when used unplastcized. This tendency to shrink may be the reason why many polymers of this type work well for topcoat compositions in our texture system. A typical example of such a polymer would be a medium viscosity nitrocellulose (MW 35,00040,000). It will be demonstrated that one of the systems preferred for the texture process is one involving an acrylic resin basecoat, epoxy ink and organosol topcoat. Vinyl systems are noted for their tendency to mudcrack. It may be no coincidence that these high molecular weight, thermoplastic resins can be formulated to make excellent topcoats. The other elements, that of a mobile surfaceas represented by slow curing epoxy syrup resin, and the thermoplastic basecoat-are all conducive to mud-cracking of this type topcoat formulation.

As the instructions for the application and the formulation of compositions for the texture process are developed, we will discuss more completely some experimental data that help support the surface disturbance or mudcrack theory and will point out the possible importance of the high molecular weight-thermoplastic concept.

Our new and novel texturing process may be used over most surfaces. The two-coat system, which does not require a basecoat, may be applied directly to any formretaining member such as metal, plastic, and sealed (nonporous) wood, wood products or paper surfaces. The word wood in the claims is intended to include wood products. These substrates may be rigid or flexible, as, for example, paper and plastic or metal foil. The threecoat system which utilizes a basecoat step may also be applied to the aforementioned materials of construction. A typical two-coat process would be performed as follows:

(1) An ink formulation is applied to a gravure plate and the excess ink removed by a doctor or scraper blade. A gelatin roll is then run over the gravure plate surface so that the design is transferred to the roll. The roll is then passed over the surface to be coated, thus transferring the design to that surface. The ink is allowed to air dry a short time or may be set by heat.

(2) The inked surface is then topcoated by spray application. Depending on the type of formulation or the substrate employed, the topcoat may be baked or air dried. The texture will form according to the nature of the ink printed design. That is, there will be a valley at the inktopcoat interface and an apparent raised portion on the un-inked areas.

The typical and preferred three-step process simply includes as a first step the application of a basecoat. The same application techniques can be employed.

Basecoat formulations may be applied by conventional industrial methods: e.g. conventional spray, airless spray, hot spray, electrostatic spray, roller coat, curtain coat. They are applied at viscosities best suited to the specific method of application, and are deposited from .25 to 5.0 mils dry film thickness. The range from .5 to 3.0 is preferred for most formulations. Basecoats may be air dried, forced air dried (up to 200 F.) or baked at elevated temperatures (200 F. and up). The basecoats of this texture system perform the following functions:

(1) They serve as adhesives for subsequent ink and topcoat films.

(2) They serve as background colors.

(3) They provide protective properties to the coating system.

(4) They may be modified to increase or decrease the degree of texturethat is, the depth of texture.

The inks of this invention may be applied by those methods already established as good industrial practice; e.g. silk screen printing, blanket printing, gravure printing. They are applied at viscosities best suited to the specific method of application and are deposited from 5 to 150 microns dry film thickness. The range from approximately to 80 microns is preferred for most ink formulations. We have successfully used both silk screen and gravure plate methods to print. Silk screens made to 16XX nylon mesh are preferred. Gravure plates of from 10 to 200 micron depth etch and produced from 300 to 50 line screens are operable. The preferred range for gravure plates will depend strictly on the type of design printed, and thus the detail requirements for good reproduction. Generally, most patterns may be produced from 100l50 line screen and etched to a depth of 10 to 80 microns. Any method that will facilitate the deposit of from approximately 5 to 80 microns dry ink film can be used to print and thus develop the basic texture phenomenon. As an example, to demonstrate the simple ink step, several methods were employed on an experimental basis that are rather crude ways of utilizing materials for transfer print plates.

We have been able to developed excellent textures by using the following:

(1) A commercially available embossed steel sheet as a printing plate. The pattern was duplicated exactly when used in the three-step texture system.

(2) A piece of artificial leather embossed in an alligator leather pattern as a printing plate.

(3) A piece of burlap saturated with a thermo'set material cured and laminated to a steel sheet and used as a printing plate.

All of these plates were used in conjunction with a gelatin pick-up roll. Those familiar with the art will recognize that etched plates, as distinguished from the etched plates done by the photographic screen process used for the gravure plates, will also work as design plates. The basic requirement in all cases is that the depth of the design pattern, engrave or etch be adequate so that sufficient ink can be picked up and deposited to develop the texture phenomenon and retain the detail of the original texture surface.

The ink coat performs the four following functions:

(1) It is used to transfer the design or pattern from the design plate or roll or through the silk screen to the 6 surface to be coated. This step pre-determines the exact type of texture.

(2) It functions as the basis for the configuration of the desired pattern and controls the topcoat texture action in direction and degree.

(3) It can add color or special effects to the valley of whatever pattern is formed.

(4) It can be used to regulate the depth or degree of the texture.

The topcoats may be applied by those methods already established as good industrial practice; e.g. conventional spray, airless spray, hot spray, electrostatic spray, roller coat and curtain coat. They are applied at viscosities best suited to the particular application method employed and are deposited from .25 to 20.0 mils dry film thickness. The preferred range is approximately from .5 to 8.0 dry film thickness for most formulations. Depending on the specific formulation, the top coat may be air-dried, forced air dried or baked at elevated temperatures (200 F. up). The texture may form during the air dry cycle or in some cases the bake material develops the texture after complete cure.

The topcoat performs the following functions:

(1) It provides the protective and decorative surface which textures and makes the finished product the close facsimiles of the original article. It may have longitudinal recessed lines similar to those found in the natural grain surface of wood when used over wood patterns, random recessed valleys when used over an inked leather design, or regular repeating patterns of geometric hills and valleys if used over such a printed pattern.

(2) It may provide protection to the ink printed pattern.

(3) It provides transparency, translucency or opaque coloration to the system, as desired.

(4) It can be regulated to increase or decrease the depth or degree of texture by simple film thickness changes or by special modification according to the formulation principles that will follow.

We have found certain combinations of materials that will give optimum and operable results when used to produce our novel texture finish. The principles of basic formulation and the process methods are set forth here so that one familiar with organic coatings can readily produce the texture phenomenon. Those schooled in the art can appreciate that these examples are not intended to limit the selection of materials or methods.

A variety of materials can be used as film formers in the formulation of basecoats. All of the common pigments are usable. Bleeding pigments should be avoided because of the nature of the multiple coat system. The guiding principle of basecoat formulation is that provision should be made to fulfill the basic function of adhesion. Adhesion is obtained to different substrates like steel, aluminum or plastics by the selection of different film formers and those familiar with coating formulation will appreciate that no general statement about materials to use can be made. The same problem holds true for acceptance of topcoats. The complete system and how it is to be used must be considered before specific formulations can be chosen. We have made our invention work over a variety of basecoat formulas and are satisfied that resinous film-forming substances, e.g., alkyds, acrylics, lacquer types, phenolics, and epoxies will all function for specific uses. Acrylics are a preferred group for use as basecoats, and as an example, may be used when adhesion to plastic is desired and a vinyl topcoat is to be employed. Modifications of the acrylics have also proven to be the preferred basecoat for metal application. An evaluation of film formers in basecoat or primer formulations, applied in accordance with the process of this invention, gave results which are tabulated in the following table:

TABLE I.-PRIMER EVALUATION S Ex. Basic film former Type Texture No. of primer Type topcoat ink results 1--. 1. Methyl-butyl Vinyl organosol- Epoxy Positive.

methacrylate copolymer. 2- 2. Phone and rosin d do. Do.

modified alkyd resin. 3.-." 3. Alkyd-urea ..do do Do.

formaldehyde. 4.-- 4. Nitrocellulose d0 do Do. 5 5. Alkyd resin do do-- Do.

(oxidizing) A.D.M. Aroplaz 6006. 6.---. 1. Methyl-butyl Urea alkyd do Do.

methacrylate copolymer. 7...--- 2. Phenol and resin do do Not positive.

modified alkyd resin. 8..-.- 3 Alkyd-urea Do.

formaldehyde 9- 4 NltIOEBHU-IOSB-. Do. 10.--- 5. Alkyd resin Do.

(oxidizing) A.D.M. Aroplaz 6006. 11--.- 1. Methyl-butyl Nitrocellulose -.do Positive.

methacrylate copolymer. 12.--- 2. Phenol and rosin d0 do.-.. Not positive.

modified alkyd resin. 13.-.- 3. Alkyd-urea ---do do.... Do.

formaldehyde. 14.--- 4. Nitrocellulose d0 do-..- Positive. 15.--- 5. Alkyd resin do do Do.

(oxidizing) A.D.M. Aroplz 6006.

NOTE:

1. Primer on Steel-l.0 mil dry film.

2. Topcoat-1 to 3 mils dry film.

3. Ink deposited from gelatin roll after pick-up from 60 micron depth embossed plate.

Since the acrylic copolyrner basecoat was considered the best for purposes of this invention, an evaluation of topcoat film-formers was made in a system in which the basecoat was formulated from the acrylic polymer, the ink was an epoxy and the topcoat was the variable. The results are given in Table 11.

and free of surface texture. The inks for the wood grain process were made from oils and specialty varnishes. We have successfully used inks made from oils, varnishes, alkyd resins, epoxy resins, epoxidized oils, epoxy syrups, polymeric and monomeric plasticizers, and plastisols in accordance with the present invention. Pigmentation of the inks to obtain opacity and color is accomplished by standard methods and with common materials. Transparent inks may be used that deposit colorless films and cause the texture to have some unusual effects. As an example, a special cracking or ticking effect can be accomplished with a transparent ink when used over a wood grain pattern. It gives the appearance of a natural, unfilled, wide-grain wood surface. We have been particularly successful in making inks With epoxy syrup materials like Shell Chemicals Epon 828 (a low molecular weight bis-phenol epichlorhydrin epoxy). in both clear and pigmented form, this material works well with a wide variety of topcoat formulations.

An evaluation of ink vehicles was made in combination with the aforementioned preferred acrylic basecoat, copolymer of methyland butyl-methacrylate, and an orglanosol topcoat. The results are given in the following tab e:

TABLE. III-IN K EVALUATION S Acrylic base Ex: coated Texture No. Ink Topcoat steel results 32---- Epoxy Vinyl organosol Positive 33- Polymeric plasticizer do Do. 34 Oxidizing phthalic alkyd do Do. 35- Epoxidized soya oil do. Do. 36. Amine adduct do Do. 37. Di-octyl phthalate do Do.

TABLE II.-T OPOOAT FORMULATIONS Ex. Approximate Texture No. Basic film former of topcoat Commercial equivalent mol weight results 16-.- Eth lens 1 coltere hthalio acid olyester. Goodyear Vitel PE-Zf o 18,000 Positive. 11. vinyl tolu ege acr ia Goodyear Pllolite VTAG. -76, 000 Not positive. 18. Vinyl chlorideacetate maleic acid modifie Bakelite VMCH 27-33, 000 Positive. 19 Vinyl chloride, acetate alcohol terpolyme Bakelite VAGH 30-35, 000 Do. 20- Chlorinated rubber Hercules Powder Parlon-ZO 09s.- 125, 000 Do, 21 Polyvinyl chloride Goodrich Geon 121 80-100, 000 Do. 22-- Cellulose acetate bu Eastman k sec. C.A.B- 50,000 Do. 23-- Cellulose nitrate- Hercules powder sec. 36, 000 Do, 24.- Heat reactive mixture of short oil, phthalic alkyd end Koppers Rezyl 387-5-.. 2, 000 Not positive urea formaldehyde resin. Rohm & Haas F-200-E 2, 500 Do. 25 Heat reactive mixture of bisphenol A, epichlor- {Shell Chemical Epon 1007 3-4, 000 Do. hydrin type epoxy with urea formaldehyde resin. Reichhold Chem. 1 -138 Beckamine. 2, 500 Do. 26.. Styrene modified phthalic alkyd resin Koppers Cycopol 8 102-5 1, 500 Do. 27-- Urethane modified phthalic alkyd resin- Spencer Kellogg Spencle F-78 1, 500 Do. 28 Moisture cure urethane Archer, Daniels Midland Arothane 156-XAL-50 Do, 29 Reactive mixture of epoxy-polyamld Bakelite BEL-2774, Ciba Lancast A 350-400-500 Do,

Unsaturated styrene 30-.--.{ cgpolymeh 1ay But 300 8-10, 000 Do. 31 Alkyd resin- Archer, Daniels Midland Aroplaz 6006 1, 500-2, 000 Positive.

Graining inks are nothing new to the industrial finish field. Wood graining over metal goes back many years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in wood graining metal for use, for example, on television cabinets. Those skilled in the art remember the extensive use of wood graining metal parts for the interior of automobilesdash boards, window posts, garnish moldings, etc. These finishes were applied by a three-step process similar to that of this invention, but were always smooth tion of any one of the three depends somewhat on the other two. We have devised the following test plate and procedure that is useful in testing for the value of any one of the components when used in conjunction with any of the other two.

A copper plate has been etched by the usual gravure plate method so that 6 cross hatched areas are provided. The etched sections vary from 10 up to microns in depth (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 120) and have been produced through various screen sizes. This plate allows us to evaluate any ink and topcoat formulation over any given basecoat for:

(l) Positiveness of texture.

(2) Optimum ink film deposits.

(3) Optimum topcoat deposits.

(4) Probable depth best suited to a particular design with the particular ink, basecoat and topcoat combinations.

The procedure for the use of this test method is as follows:

(1) A test panel of the particular substrate to be employed is prepared with basecoat, (or unbasecoated if the two-step system is being considered). The basecoat is selected for use over the specific substrate and applied to the preferred film thickness (.5 to 3 mils dry film).

(2) An ink selected from the preferred group is applied to the cross hatch plate by means of doctor or scraper blade.

(3) A gelatin or similar pick-up roll is passed over the plate and the cross hatch patterns are transferred to the roll in the form of the ink.

(4) The pick-up roll is then passed or rolled over the test panel thus transferring the design by ink deposit to the surface of the test panel.

(5) The topcoat to be tested is then applied over the entire surface of the test panel. After a dry time or cure of the test panel, it may be examined for:

(a) Evidence of the texture phenomenon at the ink-topcoat interface.

(b) Degree or depth of texture at the various ink thickness deposits.

Once it is established that the topcoat will work at one given film thickness, then with the use of the plate as described above, the optimum film thickness of the particular topcoat may be determined by repeating the test at various film thickness levels.

In summary, we have found the following illustrative materials to be preferred in accordance with the present invention.

Vehicle composition The basecoats:

(1) Acrylic resins (2) Epoxy-phenolic-acrylic resins (3) Urea formaldehyde modified alkyd resins (4) Nitrocellulose (5) Oxidizing alkyd resin inks: (1) Epoxy syrups (2) Epoxidized oils (3) Polymeric plasticizers (4) Monomeric plasticizers (5) Oil topcoats:

(1) Maleic modified vinyl resin organosol for twoand three-coat system for plastic.

(2) Maleic modified vinyl resin and vinyl copolymer organosol two-coat system only on metal.

(3) Homopolymer organosol for three-coat system for metal.

(4) Cellulose acetate butyrate lacquer topcoat.

(5) Nitrocellulose lacquer topcoat.

(6) Short oil modified alkyd resin.

(7) Urea-formaldehyde modified vinyl organosol.

Due to the large number of combinations possible, the use of the cross hatch texture test is recommended to determine if positive texture will result. Details of specific materials and formulations will follow. However, some general formulation guide lines should be considered. The surface disturbance or mud-crack theory that has been discussed, along with the concept involving the significance of high molecular weight thermoplastic resin, is substantially supported by the following suggestions for control of the texture efiect. In order to induce mudcracking or surface disturbance at the ink-topcoat interface, the following things may be done:

(1) The topcoat, if it is an organosol, may be processed in a pebble mill to increase solvation of the vinyl particles.

(2) The topcoat, if a solution type (nitrocellulose or cellulose acetate butyrate) may be used without plasticizer modification.

3) Solvents may be selected that leave the film rapidly or that flocculate resins and promote lack of cohesion in the topcoat film.

(4) High oil absorption materials may be added to the topcoat.

(5) High molecular weight thermoplastic materials may be added to the basecoat.

(6) The ink formulation may be altered by adding low viscosity, low molecular weight materials to produce greater mobility under the topcoat.

(7 The ink film thickness deposit may be increased.

(8) The basecoat film thickness may be increased and the topcoat film thickness decreased in conjunction with the ink deposit increase.

In order to decrease the tendency for the surface disturbance or mud-cracking to occur and thus diminish the gepth or degree of texture, the following things may be one:

(1) Add thermosetting materials to basecoat, ink, topcoat or all three.

(2) Add plasticizer or resinous material to the topcoat that will overcome the shrink stresses that set up in the topcoat during the cure or dry process.

(3) Add thermoset materials to the basecoat and ink and bake the combination before the application of the topcoat.

(4) Decrease the ink film thickness to below those obtained from a 10 micron depth etched gravure plate and increase the topcoat to above the 20 mil preferred thickness.

We have mentioned previously that a selection of any one component (basecoat, ink or topcoat) is dependent on the other two and have given a test to determine whether a texture will result from the use of a particular combination of materials. To illustrate this, and to show how the aforementioned methods to control the mudcrack or surface disturbance phenomenon are used, the following is worthy of consideration.

We have indicated in Example 24, that a combination of short oil alkyd and urea formaldehyde resin will not give positive texture results when used with an epoxy ink and acrylic basecoat. The combination may be induced to work by altering the ink formulation, and further induced to texture by altering the topcoat formula. Example 24 was made up of:

Basecoat: Example 38 Ink: Example 43 Topcoat: 35 parts alkyd resin; 15 parts urea formaldehyde resin; 45 parts xylene; 5 parts butyl alcohol If the ink formula is made more mobile by reducing the pigmentation (per aforementioned principle 6 on how to induce mud-cracking), the combination will then function and the texture of this invention will be produced. Such a revised ink formula is the following:

10 parts by weight: Ink of Example 43.

50 parts by weight: Epoxy syrup (commercial equivalent ERL-2774-Bakelite Corp.)

this invention. The following topcoat alteration will produce these results:

On a solids basis:

70 parts by weight: Short oil alkyd resin 30 parts by weight: Urea formaldehyde resin parts by weight: Finely divided silica (.015 micron average particle size) commercial equivalent Godfrey Cabot Corp. Cabosil M-S This illustration will further point out the complexity of the system when particular materials and/ or specific formulations are to be considered for use in producing the texture of this invention.

it will be understood that, if desired, a compatible mixture of film forming resinous materials may be used in place of those aforementioned in connection with the base or primer, ink and/or topcoat compositions employed in accordance with this invention.

A wide variety of products may be treated in accordance with this invention. Pre-formed products such as television cabinets, oflice furniture, radios, cabinetry of all types, paneling, are but a few articles where a texture surface may perform its three fold function of protection, decoration and covering imperfect surfaces. The numerous types of polymers that may be employed with the system allow a selection of coatings based on cost, resistance properties such as wear and mar, flexibility, etc. Tough, adherent films that will yield excellent in-use service are readily produced. Flat stock such as sheet steel, aluminum, wood or plastic may be finished with the texture system on high speed coating lines. Metals may then be formed into various articles the way present vinyl laminates are used. A wide range of film thicknesses are obtainable to say nothing of the unlimited surface textures that can be reproduced.

Most of the applications discussed thus far have been of a design or styling nature. However, practical applications of the embossed coatings must not be overlooked. As an example, metal engraving is still done today by highly skilled artists. Many industrial instruments require control panels that have engraved letterings on their surfaces. Our invention permits the elimination of the expensive engraving operation since the lettering or symbols could be silk screened or transfer printed and then top-coated. The desired recessed or raised symbols would be automatically obtained in a paint system. No further labor cost would be required.

The compositions of Examples 38 to 54 inclusive, and Example 60, were found to be useful in accordance with this invention. All parts are by weight unless otherwise specified.

EXAMPLE 38 Basecoat for plastic Rutile titanium dioxide Lead chromate medium yellow Molybdate orange LamphlaclL- (40% Acrylic resin solution in toluene, commercial equivalents:

Rohm & Haas 13-66; Catalin A4149; Du Pont Lucite44- Magnesium silicate 2-ethoxyethanol, Union Carbide Cellosolve *In this specification, whenever viscosity data are given, the com ositions tested at 71 F.

I 2 EXAMPLE 39 Basecoat for metal Larnpblack 2. 0 Acrylic resin solution 40% in toluene. Commercial equivalent:

Rohm & Haas B-82 62.0 Acrylic modified epoxy-phenolic resin solution 60% in methyl ethyl ketone. Commercial equivalent: Bakelite BKSA2760- 14. 0 Magnesium silicate. 10. 0 Tnllmnn 6, 0 Isopropyl acetate 3. 0 Methyl isobutyl rah-ma 2. 0 Diacetone alcohol. 1. 0

Charge all ingredients into a pebble mill and grind to a 6 reading, North Standard, on Hegman grind gauge.

Physical constants: Viscosity: 128 sec., #4 Ford Cup Wt./gal.: 8.7 lbs. Solids: 44-46% EXAMPLE 40 Alkyd-urea basecoat Titanium dioxide 35. 5 Tall oil modified alkyd resin solution 50% in xylene. Commercial equivalent: A.D.M. 1443 22. 4 Magnesium silicate- 7. 0 325 Asb 1. 5 Urea formaldehyde resin 50% xylene butanol, commercial equivalent: R.C.I. Beckamine P-l38 11.5 Mineral spirit l5. 1

Charge all ingredients into a pebble mill and grind to 5 /26 North Standard on Hegman grind gauge.

Physical constants: Viscosity: sec., #4 Ford Cup Wt./gal.: 11.0-11.2 lbs. Solids: 65-66% EXAMPLE 41 Lacquer basecoat swi m r Load all ingredients into a pebble mill and grind to 6 reading on a Hegman grind gauge.

Physical constants: Viscosity: 20-30 sec., #4 Ford Cup reduced equal volumes with lacquer thinner Wt./gal.: 8.5-8.7 lbs. Solids: 28-30% EXAMPLE 42 Air dry oxidizing basecoat Titanium dioxide Medium 011 soya modified alkyd solution 60% in mineral thinnor, commerclal equivalent: Rohmdz Haas Duraplex C57 Grind above on 3 roll mill until a reading of 7+ on Hegrnan grind gauge is obtained and add:

Short oil soya modified alkyd resin solution 50% in xylene,

commercial equivalent: A.D.M. Aroplaz 6006 6% Cobalt naphthanate Xylene. Mineral sDirits PP. g WONG Physical constants: Viscosity: 60-75 sec., #4 Ford Cup Wt./gal..: 8.9-9.1 lbs. Solids: 55%

13 EXAMPLE 43 A pigmented graining ink for use over basccoated polystyrene system Rutile titanium dioxide Y Molybdate orange Lead chromate, medium yellow Low molecular weight Bisphenol A type diepoxide. 11 to 13,000 cps.: SpJgr. 1.15-1.17; Epoxy assay 135-195. (Commerclal equivalent: Bakelite ERL 2774; Shell 828; Ciba 6005) Roller Mill to 7 plus North Standard Hegman gnnd gauge,

then add the following and mix until homogeneous:

Bakelite ERL-277 m Magnesium silicate 2-butoxyethanol- High boiling aromatic hydrocarbon solvent (Commercial equivalent: Esso Solvesso 150) T l- 1 V n..-

use 000 Physical constants:

Viscosity: 2500 to 2700 cps. Brookfield viscosity, 4 spd.

2 20 r.p.m.

Wt./gal.: 12.3-12.5 lbs.

Non-volatiles: 92-93% EXAMPLE 44 Black epoxidized oil ink Procedure: (Pro-mixed and ground three passes on three roller mill).

Lampblack pigment, Example: #3 lampblack from Theodore H.

Deutz Co 10,0 Epoxidized soya oil, having an average molecular weight of 1,000, and viscosity of 3-4 poises at 25 0., Example: Rohm &

Haas Paraplex (3-62- 90. 0

Physical constants:

Brookfield viscosity RVF Model #4 spindle at 20 r.p.m.,

2,200 cps.

Wt./gal.: 8.68 lbs.

Hegman gauge reading 7NS EXAMPLE 45 White polymeric plasticizer ink Titanium dioxide 30 Polymeric plasticizer weight medium high molecular weight approximately 4,000. Viscosity approximately 60 poises color on Gardner scale about 8 and a Sp./gr. of 1.10. Commercial equivalent: Rohm & Haas (3-53, G-54; Emery 9765 70 Disperse pigment in the plasticizer on 3 roll mill to a reading of 7+ on a Hegman grind gauge.

Physical constants: Viscosity: 6,5007,000 cps. Brookfield viscosimeter, 20

r.p.m., #4 spindle Wt./gal.: 11.1 lbs.

Solids: 100% EXAMPLE 46 A momomeric plasticizer ink Titanium dioxide 60 Di-octyl phthalate. 40

Disperse on a 3 roll mill until a reading of 7+ on a Hegman grind gauge is obtained.

Physical constants: Viscosity: 48,00050,000 cps. Brookfield viscosimeter, 20

r.p.m., #4 spindle Wt./-gal.: 13 lbs. Solids: 100% 14 EXAMPLE 47 Black oil ink Procedure: (Pro-mixed and ground three passes on three roller mill).

Lamplglak pigment-Example: #3 lampblack from Theodore H.

Deu 0 Polymerized (oxidized) castor oil, having an hydroxy value of 137, and a Stokes viscosity of 250 at 25 C. Example: Baker Castor Oil #15 O Physical constants:

Viscosity: Brookfield viscosity using RVF Model #7 spindle at 2 r.p.m., 73,000 cps.

Wt./gal.: 8.7 lbs. I

Hegman gauge reading: 7+ NS EXAMPLE 48 Clear topcoat for plastic two or three coat system Anti-skinning agent, commercial equivalent: Exkin #1 0. 2 6% Cobalt nap 0. 2 Barium-zinc stabilizer Commercial equivalent: Nuodex UV12.- 0. 5 Tri-cresyl phosp 8 0 60% Solution of a castor oil modified polyester resin in xylene.

Commercial equivalent: Rohm & Haas Amberlac 292K 0 40% Solution of an acrylic resin based on methyl and butyl methacrylate. Commercial equivalent: Rohm & Haas B-66-.- 10. 0 A maleic modified poly-vinyl chloride resin. Commercial equivalent: Goodyear Pliovic A0 20. 0 2-ethoxyethanol. Commercial equivalent: Union Carbide Cellosolve Solvent. 7 3. 0 Toluene 37. 1

Total 100. 0

Manufacturing instructions: All of the above ingredicuts were weighed into a pebble mill and the mill was run for 16 hours. After grinding the composition had the following physical characteristics:

Viscosity: 750 cps., #4 spindle 2 20 r.p.m. Brookfield Wt./gal. 8.3 lbs. Solids: Approximately 42% EXAMPLE 49 Pigmented topcoat for two coat system on metal The topcoat composition was prepared by charging the following ingredients into a pebble mill and grinding for 16 hours.

After discharging from the mill the coating had the following:

Physical constants? Viscosity: 3,000-3,500 cps., Brookfield 'viscosimeter, 20

r.p.m., #4 spindle "Wt/gal: 8.25 lbs.

Solids: Approximately 36.3%

15 EXAMPLE 50 Clear vinyl organosol topcoat for heavier ink deposits, 60-80 microns Polymeric plasticizer medium high molecular weight, commerical equivalent: Rohm & Haas G53-G-54; Emery 9765..-- Di-octyl phthalate 40% acrylic resin solution in toluene. Commercial equivalent:

Rohm & Haas 3-66; Catalln A4149 Tin mercaptan stabilizer. Advance TM-l80 High boiling aromatic solvent, commercial equivalent Esso- Solvesso 150 High molecular weight polyvinyl chloride homopolymer resin. commercial equivalent: Goodrich Geon 121, Geon 120x105.--

All of the ingredients were weighed into a pebble mill and ground for 16 hours.

Physical characteristics: Viscosity: 1,200 cps. #4 20 rpm. Brookficld Wt./gal.: 8.75-9.0 lbs. Solids: 65%

EXAMPLE 51 Clear cellulose acetate butyrate topcoat Cellulose acetate butyrate lacquer prepared under high speed agitation Cellulose acetate butyrate ester consisting of an average acyl content of 13% acetyl, 37% butyral and a molecular weight of 30,000 with a viscosity range of 1.12-4.88 poises. Example: Eastman Chemical Products second cellulose acetate butyrate Toluene-- Denatured alcohol (95%) Xylenm Methyl isobutyl ketone 55% (Short oil, oxidizing-type alkyd, 41 phthalic anhydride, 33 soya oil acids content, in xylene). Example: Kopper's Rezl 387 J Total 100. O

The following data were secured in connection with the composition of this example:

Physical constants: Theoretical solids: 17.9 Viscosity: 40 sec., #4 Ford Cup Wt./gal.: 7.52 lbs. Spray viscosity reduced 1-1 by volume with methyl isobutyl ketone: 14 sec., #4 Ford Cup at 77 F.

Dissolve the cellulose butyrate in the solvents under high speed agitation. When fully cut, add the alkyd resin.

EXAMPLE 52 Clear nitrocellulose lacquer topcoat Nitrocellulose lacquer topcoat prepared under high speed agitation Percent Cellulose nitrate, P second grade, RS type, INS-12.2% nitrogen.

Example: Hercules sec. RS Nitrocellulose 16. 91 Denatured ethyl alcohol (95%) 7. 2A Toluene l6. l0 Isopropyl alcohol 99% l6. l0 Isopropyl acetate. 24. 15

60% (Short oil, non-drying alkyd, 43% phtlia c anhydride, 80

Coconut Oil Acids content, in xylene.) Example: ADM Aroplaz 2570X60 19. 50

Total w h The composition of this example had the following characteristics Physical constants: Theoretical solids: 28.61%

16 Viscosity: 1,450 cps. using the Brookfield RVF #4 spindle at 20 r.p.m. Spray viscosity: Reduced 1-1 by volume with methyl isobutyl ketone, 27 seconds, #4 Ford Cup. Wt./.gal.: 7.93 lbs.

EXAMPLE 53 Clear alkyd resin topcoat Short oil alkyd resin solution-50% in xylol, commercial equivalent: Aroplaz 6006 manufactured by Archer-Daniels-lldidland 24% lead naphthenate drier 78 6% manganese naphthenate dri 24 6% cobalt naphthenate drier 2.1 Xylene. 7. 82 Toluene 7. 82 Ethyl acetate 85-90%- 4.

Silicone oilcommercial equivalent: SF-69, manufactured by General Electric 04 Total parts by wei ht 100. 00

Components are mixed until homogeneous. Physical constants: Viscosity: 25 sec. #4 Ford Cup, 77 F. Wt./gal.: 7.9 lbs. Solids: 39%

This composition may be applied by standard spray methods, at film thickness levels described in the other examples of the invention. It may be air dried or baked.

EXAMPLE 54 A clear topcoat for two-coat system on plastic Tri-cresyl nhnqnhata Barium-zinc stabilizer. Commercial equivalent: V-12 manufactured by Nuodex Chemicals Tin mercaptan stabilizer. Commercial equivalent: 'IM-180 manufactured by N uodex Chemicals 0 Toluene 39. 0 Maleic modified polyvinyl chloride resin. Commercial equivalent: PllOV'lO A0, manufactured by Goodyear 80. 0 60% Solution in xylene-butanol, urea-formaldehyde resin.

goliismercial equivalent: Reichhold Chemicals-Beckamine 1 5 Grind entire contents in pebble mill for 18 hours. Physical constants:

Viscosity: 800 cps, Brookfield viscosimeter #4 spindle, 20 rpm.

Solids: 50-52%.

This composition may be applied by standard spray methods, at film thickness levels described in the other examples of the invention. It is prepared for spray use, however, by a special catalyst thinner which makes it valuable as a low bake F., 30 min.) topcoat.

For the two-coat system on plastic, the catalyst thinner should be used as follows:

3 volumes of foregoing composition of this example The catalyst thinner formula is as follows:

Para-toluene sulionic acid 5. 0 2-eth oxyethanol 47. 5 Toluene 47. 5

Total parts by weight 100. 0

Examples 55 to 59, inclusive, illustrate two and three coat systems applied to metal or plastic substrates in accordance with this invention.

EXAMPLE 55 EXAMPLE 58 A two-coat system A three-coat system Substrate Polystyrene. Substrate Polystyrene Compositions used Ink composition of example 43; topcoat Compositions used-. Basecoat composition of Example 38; Ink composition of Example 48. composizion Exaniplies 43; Topcoat;

composi ion 0 xamp e Application ste iiI-glasgcoatz st d d e o an a! spray-commercial e ui ment Step-Link: DeVilbiss, etc. q p

Method- Ofiset gravure leather like pattern. Thinning 2partsbasecoatto1 part 2-eth0xy ethanol. 1rglate slpegrtiication mgcondepth engravmg. Fluid pressure lbs.

ry sc e u e Step-II-topcoat: y mm 10 l% ;y l:gi1 l I 150 F.

Method stlajncxlgrg spraycommercial equipment, S Dry fllllkm thicknes lmil.

e l 155, e c. tep Il-I Thinning To 25 sec. #4 Ford Cup with Kylene. Method Ofiset gravure linen pattern. Fluid pressure 5-11bs. Plate specification. 50 micron depth engraving. Air pressure 40-45 lbs. D schedule Air d 5 min.

. '5 gry schedilgg0 mlm. Airflash then 1 hour at 150 F. Step III-Topcoat:

r film e m1 8- Method Standard 5 re -commercial e 111 merit esults A leather like texture resulted. Valleys Devilbiss, etc q p formed at the ink topcoat interface so Thinning To 25 sec. #4 Ford Cup with xylene. Itliliaifs tll e surizace of the coated article had Fluid pressure 5-15 lbs.

e e m Surat. appemc tiyiffiitiai: i3 lfitfiimash a... 1 hour at 150 F.

Dry film deposi 2 mils.

Result The linen thread lines that were printed from the gravure plate caused the topcoat to "mud-crack or "pull away" directly, and only at the ink-topcoat interface. A fabric-like result was obtained due to the surface texture that was created.

EXAMPLE 59 EXAMPLE 56 A three-coat system A two-coat system s b tr te Masonite or tempered hardboard.

Compositions used Basecoat composition of Example 41; Ink Substrate Phosphate treated steel. composition of Example 43; Topcoat Compositions used Ink C(gTIlPOSflljiOll of ll lxfsmple 43: topcoat comcomposition of Example 52.

posi ion 0 xamp e Step I-Basecoat:

Method Standard spray-commercial equipment Application mm 2 Defilgoiss, etrtal ti 1 t t T n er s asecoa ar so r0 ace a e. step g-n i ki silk t i 1 g 530 lbs. p p N i e o screen geome r 0 pr nt. 40-50 lbs. creer 1 16 XX nylon mesh. Dry schedule Air dry 30 min. or bake 150/20 min. Specification. Dry Film Thickness- 1.5 mils. St Dlrlytschedplmn 5 min. at 200 F. Step II-Ink:

P- 09608 1 Method Ofiset gravure.

Method sta nd alrgi sprtaycommercial equipment, Plate specification An etcllzedt %l%llni fii pan lam e ss, e c. equiva en s a e wi numera s, e ers, 5i topcoat to 1 part toluene. punctuation marks etc- Depth of etch-75 ressure s. microns. Air pressure. lbs. Dry schedule Air dry 5 min. Dry schedule 5 mtiggg h flash, 10 min. at 200 F., 15 min. Step HI-Topcoat: d d I t a Method Stan er spra -commercia equipmen Dry film thich1ess 3 mils. DeVilbiss etc. Results The inked lines causedadisturbance at the Thinning Reduce to spray Vis osi y wi h lacquer topcoat interface and a repeating embossed thinner. effect developed that conformed exactly Viscosity 20-25 sec. #4 Ford cup. to the printed geometric design. 111))ry atltrliledgleli (317.1

ry ticness .-.mi.

esults The complete detail of the etched table was reproduced. Numerals, punctuation marks, letters etc. were duplicated in size, and because of the texture phenomenon that occurred at the ink-topcoat interface, the characters were duplicated in an embossed or recessedcondition just as they appear on the original plate.

EXAMPLE 57 EXAMPLE 60 A three-coat system Clear topcoat composition for three-coat system on metal ubstrate... Anodized aluminurnmetal, 'lri-cresyl phosphate 8- C mp sition Basecoat com osition of Example 40, Ink B &l'll1m-Zll1( stabilizer Commerci 1- compos tion off EExample5043, Topcoat T111; anercaptan stabihzer, commercial equivalc 1 0 0011113051 1011 0 X311]. 6 a Step I-Basecoat: p Medium high molecular weight polymeric plasticrzer, comfi Rvolller 1coat. Tmercial equivalent: Emery 9765; Rohm dz Haas G-53 43- g nn n it i h boilln aromatic h d 0 b 0 1.18118 v g (Solveso 150). g y r em on Msla lleic mrxigied vinyl resin, commercial equivalen Goodyear 28 0 iscosity 40-60 sec. #4 Ford Cu 'QVic gry sfichedule 10 min. at 300 F. p Acfiylic rgsi sohlitign 40% in toluene, commercial eq valent: 9 5 ry lmthicknes 1-2 mils. o m aas 6 p HInki 2-Ethoxy ethanol, commercial equivalent: Union Carbide Celloo u -fl Ofliset gravure alligator leather pattern, Solve- 0 Plate specificat1on 100 line screen, 60 micron depth etch 1]: t st ffi; ffihedul? 553 s -Ba Charge all ingredients into a pebble mill and grind ep opcoa l6 hOLll'S' Method Roller coat. ghinningu Solvesso 150. Physical constants:

iscosity 20-30 sec. #3 Zahn. Dry schedule ar. 5 min. at 200 F. 15 min. at VlSCOSltyI 3,000-5,000 cps, Brookfield #4 spindle Dryfilmthickness. 1-2 mus: WL/gal Results Eacititsegment or sectignfioidtliii alligatlor Non-volatile: 49-50% pa ernwasccary ene uetote g a 1 355? Excellent textunng in accordance with th1s invention is depth were caused by various i obtained when the topcoat composition of this example is d p s and s even the a $6 substituted for that of Example 50in the three coat system toned areas were textured. d

escribed 1n Example 57.

We presently prefer the following combinations or systems of film-forming compositions prepared in accordance with our present invention:

For a two coat system on plastic:

Ink coat Topcoat 1 Example 43;" Example 48. 2 .-d Example 54.

Example 45- Do. 4 do Example 48. 5 Example 4. Example 54.

For a tWo coat system on metal:

Ink coat Topcoat 1- Example 43--- Example 49. 2 -do-... Example 53. Example 44.-. Example 49. do Example 53. 5 Example 45 Example 49.

For a three coat system on plastic:

Additional examples showing a textured article made in accordance with this invention employing a black epoxy solution ink are given below:

EXAMPLE 61 Black epoxy solution ink Carbon black pigment A 55% solution in 2-ethoxyethanol of an unmodified solid epoxy resin which has a weight per epoxide of l,650-2,000; a melting point between 113113 0.; a viscosity between X-Z on the Gardner Holdt Scale; :3 color 013 maximum on the Gardner scale; and a weight per gallon of 9.8 pounds. Commercial equivalent: Ciba Products 00., Araldite 497- 55 96. 0

2-Ethoxyethyl acetate, commercial equivalent: Union Carbide,

Cellosolve acetate- 3. 0

Disperse the above ingredients on a 3 roll mill until a reading of 7 is obtained on the Hegman Grind Gauge.

Physical constants:

Viscosity: 6,000 -1000 cps., Brookfield viscosimeter, #4

spindle, 20 r.p.m.

Wt./gal.: 8.9-9.0 lbs.

Solids: 5354% EXAMPLE 6?.

A three-coat system using black epoxy solution ink Substrate Glazed reinforced paper. Compositions used.-. Basecoat composition of Example 38, ink composition of Example 61, topeoat composition of Example 60. Step-I basecoet:

Method Standard spray-commercial equipment,

DeVilbiss, etc. Thinning .-c". 2 parts baseeoat to 1 part 2-ethoxyethanol. Fluid pressure -10 lbs. Air pressure" 40-60 lbs. Dry schedule 3 min. at 350 infrared heat. Dry film thickness .75 mils.

Ofiset gravure. Plate specification 60 micron depth engraving, a random leather grain. Dry schedule ..r. 1 min. air dry. Step III topcoat:

Method Standard spray-commercial equipment, DeVilbiss, etc. Thinning 20 sec. #3 Zahn with xylol. Fluid pressure 545 lbs.

The resultant texture followed the pattern of the ink so that a valley was formed at all topcoat-ink interface areas.

It will be understood that the foregoing description and examples illustrate the practice of this invention, which, however, is not to be limited thereby but is to be construed as broadly as permissible in view of the prior art and limited solely by the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. An article which comprises (A) a form-retaining member, and

(B) a textured coating on a surface of said member,

said textured coating comprising:

(1) a discontinuous ink layer adhering to and forming .a predetermined pattern on said surface,

(a) said ink layer comprising as an essential component at least one of the following:

(I) an epoxy resin; (11) a plasticizer, or (III) epoxidized soya oil,

(b) said ink layer also containing nonbleeding pigment substantially insoluble in any ingredients in any layer in said coating, and no bleeding pigment,

(2) a top layer of resinous, film-forming material adhering to said ink layer and to the exposed portion of said surface,

(a) said top layer comprising, as an essential resinous component at least one of the following;

(1) short oil-modified alkyd resins;

(II) polyester resin;

(III) vinyl chloride-acetate alcohol terpolymer,

(IV) chlorinated rubber,

(V) vinyl resin,

(VI) cellulose acetate butyrate,

(VII) cellulose nitrate,

(VIII) maleic-modified vinyl resin,

(IX) a mixture of maleic-modified vinyl resin and vinyl copolymer, or

(X) a mixture of urea-formaldehyde resin and maleic-modified vinyl resin,

(b) said top layer having on its upper surface (I) a topographical configuration, consisting of hills and valleys, (i) said valleys conforming to the pattern of said ink layer,

(3) the essential ingredients of said ink layer and the essential resinous component of said top layer being selected so as to give a textured top surface when tested by applying said ink layer on an etched copper plate having a plurality of cross-hatched areas to form a cross-hatched pattern, transferring said pattern to a pick-up roll, then transferring it over a test panel, said top layer then being applied over the entire surface of the test panel which is then dried or cured.

2. An article as in claim 1, wherein said form-retaining member is selected from the group consisting of wood, metal and plastic.

3. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, said ink layer comprises epoxy resin as the essential component and said top layer comprises maleic-modified vinyl resin as the essential resinous component.

4. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, epoxy resin is the essential component in the ink layer and a mixture of a maleic-modified vinyl resin and vinyl copolymer is the essential resinous component in the topcoat.

5. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, said ink layer comprises epoxy resin as the essential component and a mixture of a urea-formah 21 dehyde resin and maleic-modified vinyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

6. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, plasticizer is the essential component in the ink layer and a mixture of a urea-formaldehyde-resin and maleic-modified vinyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

7. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, and a plasticizer is the essential component in the ink layer.

8. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, and an epoxidized oil is the essential component in the ink layer and a mixture of a ureaformaldehyde-resin and a maleic-modified vinyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

9. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, epoxy resin is the essential component in the ink layer, and a short oil-modified alkyd resin is the essential film-former in the top layer.

10. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, epoxidized oil is the essential component in the ink layer and a mixture of a maleic-modified vinyl resin and vinyl copolymer is the essential resinous component in the top coat.

11. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, and epoxidized oil is the essential component in the ink layer and a short oil-modified alkyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

12. An article as in claim 1, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, plasticizer is the essential component in the ink layer and a mixture of a maleic-modified vinyl resin and vinyl copolymer is the essential resinous component in the top coat.

13. An article which comprises:

(A) a form-retaining member and ('B) a textured coating on a surface of said member,

(1) said textured coating comprising a base layer adhering to said surface,

(2) a discontinuous in-k layer adhering to and forming a predetermined pattern on said base layer,

(a) said ink layer comprising as one essential component at least one of the following:

(I) an epoxy resin, (11) a plasticizer, or (III) epoxidized soya oil,

(b) said ink layer also containing non-bleeding pigment insoluble in any ingredients in any other layer in said coating, and no bleeding pigment,

(3) a top layer of resinous, film-forming material adhering to said ink layer and to the exposed portion of said base layer,

(a) said top layer comprising, as an essential resinous component, at least one of the following:

(I) short oil-modified alkyd resin;

(II) polyester resin;

(III) vinyl chloride-acetate alcohol terpolymer,

(IV) chlorinated rubber,

(V) vinyl resin,

!(VI) cellulose acetate butyrate,

(VII) cellulose nitrate,

(VIII) maleic-modified vinyl resin,

(IX) a mixture of maleic-modified vinyl resin and vinyl copolymer, or

(X) a mixture of urea-formaldehyde resin and maleic-modified vinyl resin,

(b) said top layer having on its upper surface '(I) a topographical configuration, consisting of hills and valleys, (i) said valleys conforming to the pattern of said ink layer,

(4) the essential ingredients of said ink layer and the essential resinous component of said top layer being selected so as to give a textured top surface when tested by applying said ink layer on an etched copper plate having a plurality of cross-hatched areas to form a cross-hatched pattern, transferring said pattern to a pick-up roll, then transferring it over a test panel, said top layer then being applied over the entire surface of the test panel which is then dried or cured.

14. An article as in claim 13, wherein said form-retaining member is selected from the group consisting of wood, metal and plastics.

15. An article as in claim 13, wherein said base layer comprises as an essential component a film-forming material selected from the group consisting of an acrylic resin, a mixture of an acrylic resin and acrylic-modified epoxy-phenolic resin, a mixture of an alkyd resin and a urea-formaldehyde resin, nitrocellulose and an alkyd resin.

16. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, said base layer comprises an acrylic resin as the essential resinous component, said ink layer comprises epoxy resin as the essential component, and said topcoat layer comprises a maleic-modified vinyl resin as the essential resinous component.

17. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, the base layer comprises a mixture of an acrylic resin and an acrylic-modified epoxy-phenolic resin as the essential film-former, the ink layer comprises an epoxy resin as the essential component, and the topcoat layer comprises a maleic-modified vinyl resin.

18. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, the base layer comprises an acrylic resin as the essential resinous component, said ink layer comprises epoxy resin as the essential component and a mixture of urea-formaldehyde resin and a maleic-modified vinyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

19. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, a mixture of an acrylic resin and an acrylic-modified epoxy-phenolic resin is the essential film-former in the base layer, said ink layer comprises epoxy resin as the essential component, and said topcoat layer comprises a maleic-modified vinyl resin as the essential resinous component.

20. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, said base layer comprises an acrylic resin as the essential resinous component, and an epoxidized oil is the essential component in the ink layer and a mixture of urea-formaldehyde resin and a maleic-modified vinyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

21. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is plastic, said base layer comprises an acrylic resin as the essential resinous component, and an epoxidized oil is the essential component in the ink layer, and said topcoat layer comprises a maleic-modified vinyl resin as the essential resinous component.

22. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, the base layer comprises a mixture of an acrylic resin and an acrylic-modified epoxy/phenolic resin as the essential film-former, the ink layer comprises an epoxy resin as the essential component, and a vinyl resin is the essential resinous component in the top layer.

23. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, a mixture of an alkyd resin and a urea-formaldehyde resin is the essential film-former in the base layer, the ink layer comprises an epoxy resin as the essential component, and a vinyl resin is the essential film-former in the top layer.

24. An article as in claim 13, wherein the form-retaining member is metal, the base layer comprises a mixture of an acrylic resin and an acrylic-modified epoxy/phenolic resin as the essential film-former, and an epoxidized oil is the essential component in the ink layer, and the topcoat layer comprises a maleic-modified vinyl resin,

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,276,904 10/1966 Palmer 117-45 2,991,184 7/ 1961 Bernardi 106--30 OTHER REFERENCES 5 ALFRED L. LEAVITI, Primary Examiner M. F. ES'POSITO, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 117- 15

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4017658 *Mar 5, 1974Apr 12, 1977Eurofloor S.A.Composite textured products and their manufacture
US4233343 *Aug 10, 1978Nov 11, 1980J. J. Barker Company LimitedThree-dimensional decorative surface
US4318952 *Jul 2, 1980Mar 9, 1982J. J. Barker Company LimitedThree-dimensional decorative surface
US4339489 *Dec 4, 1980Jul 13, 1982J. J. Barker Company LimitedSimulated ceramic tile
US4393108 *Jul 13, 1981Jul 12, 1983J. J. Barker Company LimitedSimulated ceramic tile
EP1364722A2 *May 19, 2003Nov 26, 2003Ulf GimmProcess for making a leather imitation surface
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/155, 428/207, 428/413
International ClassificationB05D5/06
Cooperative ClassificationB05D5/06
European ClassificationB05D5/06