US 3678589 A
Apparatus to aid in the drawing of pictures in perspective. A portable case includes a box for carrying various items of sketching equipment and a top having a transparent window hinged to the box for pivotal movement between a closed position and an upright position. A sight is used to view a distant object through the window. A platform for the sight is removably mounted to the box and provides for positioning of the sight at selected distances from the window in order to obtained varying degrees of perspective. After a sheet of transparent material has been removably mounted on the window, one can draw thereon an image of a distant object in proper perspective with the aid of the sight.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Baier 1 July 25, 1972 APPARATUS FOR DRAWING IN PERSPECTIVE Robert J. Baler, 3960 W. Chester Pike, Newtown Square, Pa. 19073 22 Filed: Dec. 18,1970
2| Appi.No.: 99,345
Primary Examiner-Harry N. Haroian Attorney-Albert W. Hilburger  ABSTRACT Apparatus to aid in the drawing of pictures in perspective. A portable case includes a box for carrying various items of sketching equipment and a top having a transparent window hinged to the box for pivotal movement between a closed position and an upright position. A sight is used to view a distant object through the window. A platform for the sight is removably mounted to the box and provides for positioning of the sight at selected distances from the window in order to obtained varying degrees of perspective. After a sheet of transparent material has been removably mounted on the window, one can draw thereon an image of a distant object in proper perspective with the aid of the sight.
7 Clalrm, 17 Drawing figures APPARATUS FOR DRAWING IN PERSPECTIVE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention herein relates generally to appliances for student artists and specifically to apparatus to aid in the drawing of pictures in perspective.
In order to achieve a high degree of expertise in the art of drawing, it is necessary to master the technique of obtaining perspective. Although this requirement has long been known and various forms of apparatus have been proposed previously as aids in the mastery of the technique, many of these devices were large and cumbersome or complicated and difficult to use.
In contrast, the invention herein proposes the use of an artist's aid which is light in weight, compact, portable, and sufficiently inexpensive to be available to virtually all potential users. One embodiment of the invention which achieves these goals is in the form of a portable case which includes a box for carrying various items of sketching equipment. A top having a transparent window is hinged to the box for pivotal movement between a closed position and an upright position relative to the box. A sheet of a suitable transparent material is applied to the inner surface of the window by means of pressure-sensitive tape. With the aid of a sight to obtain and retain a proper degree of perspective for a particular drawing, a distant object can be viewed through the window and a crayon or felt-tipped pen used to draw the image of the distant object on the transparent sheet. In order to obtain different degrees of perspective, a platform which is removably mounted to the box provides for positioning of the sight at selected distances from the window. After a particular position for the sight has been chosen and the image has been drawn to the satisfaction of the artist, the transparent sheet is removed from the window and can itself be considered the finished product. Or, if desired, the image can be transferred onto a sheet of opaque material such as paper by conventional photocopy or tracing techniques. At the option of the artist, the resulting picture lends itself to further artistic operations such as the application of pastels or watercolors to obtain a colorful finished product.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of the invention to provide new and improved apparatus enabling one to make accurate perspective drawings rapidly and conveniently.
Another object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus to enable a person lacking an artistic background to obtain professional results with a minimum of effort and expenditure of time.
A further object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus to enable an art student to learn the value of maintaining perspective so as to assure a resemblance between the picture and the object being drawn.
Still another object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus to enable a teacher to rapidly and easily instill in his students the concept of drawing in perspective.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide, for the drawing of pictures in perspective, new and improved apparatus which is light, compact, portable and inexpensive. A related object is to provide a portable case having a top with a transparent window movable between a closed position and an upright position, a sight member for viewing a distant object through the window, and a platform removably mounted to the case for supporting the sight at selected distances from the transparent top.
Other and further objects and advantages will become apparent from a reading of the specification which follows, taken together with the appended drawings.
In the drawings, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout:
FIG. I is a perspective view illustrating a typical use of the invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective view of the invention shown in FIG. 1 but lacking certain parts;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are perspective views, respectively, of the invention in its inoperative but portable condition;
FIG. 5 is a top plan view of apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a top plan view partly cut away and in section of a detail of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a section view in elevation taken along lines 7-7 in FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a top plan view similar to FIG. 5 showing schematically the relationship between certain parts therein;
FIGS. 9 and I0 are elevation views of different embodiments of the same element; and
FIG. I1 is a perspective view of a combination of elements which comprise a different embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the apparatus shown in FIGS. 1-4 and showing it in the inoperative but portable condition;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 12 illustrating the different embodiment in its operative condition;
FIG. I4 is a side elevation view, partly in section, showing a detail of pans illustrated in FIG. 13',
FIG. 15 is a section view taken along lines lS-IS in FIG. 14;
FIG. 16 is a perspective view of still another embodiment of the invention and showing it in the operative condition;
FIG. 17 is a detail side elevation view, partly in section, of parts shown in FIG. 16.
Refer now to the drawings and initially to FIG. 1 which illustrates an artist 20 utilizing the inventions perspective drawing apparatus as embodied in the case 22. As is readily seen in FIG. 1 and in even greater detail in FIG. 2, the case 22 includes a box or base portion 24 having a bottom 26 and a plurality of sidewalls 28 and 30. A top member 32 is pivotally mounted to the box or base portion 24 by means of hinges 34. With the cooperation of a pivotally mounted brace 36, the top member 32 is movable between a closed or inoperative position as illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 to an upright or operative position as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. Preferably, the brace 36 is capable of releasably holding the top member 32 in the upright position. The top member 32 includes sidewalls 38 and 40 which are congruent with, respectively, sidewalls 28 and 30 of the box 24 when the top member 32 is closed against the box 24 (FIGS. 3 and 4). The sidewalls 38 and 40 serve to suitably mount a transparent window 42.
With particular reference now to FIG. 2, it is apparent that the case 22 is provided with a pair of latches 44 which are suitable to assure closure of the case during inoperative periods. The case 22 is shown closed in FIGS. 3 and 4. A suitable handle 46 is appropriately mounted to the sidewall 30 of the box 24 for ease of carrying the case 22 and metallic feet 48 (FIG. 4) are preferably provided in the corners of the sidewalls 30 and 40, respectively, opposite the handle 46 for support of the case 22 without damage to the sidewalls 30 and 40. As seen in FIG. 4, a suitable fitting 50 is mounted to the bottom 26 of the box 24, preferably adjacent the sidewall 30 mounting the feet 48. The fitting 50 serves for attachment of the case 22 to a tripod 52 or other suitable support in the manner shown in FIG. I.
With continued reference to FIG. 2, a plurality of dividers 54 and 56 are appropriately mounted to the bottom 26 and sidewalls 28 of the box 24. The dividers 54 and 56 define a number of compartments in the box 24 for sorting various items of sketching equipment, such as pencils, crayons, paints, brushes and the like. A conventional palette 58 (FIG. 5) may be of a size and shape such that it fits within the cavity of the box 24 and is supported on the upper surfaces of the dividers 54 and 56. Thus, when not being used, the palette 58 can serve as a false top over the various items of equipment being stored in the box.
With particular reference now to FIGS. 5 through 8, it is seen that the inner surfaces of the sidewalls 30 are provided with opposite facing arcuate recesses 60 preferably mid-way between side walls 28. Opposite ends of a platform 62 are formed to mate in contiguous relationship with the recesses 60, the curvature of the ends of the platform 62 being substantially similar to that of the recesses 60. Thus, platform 62,
which serves to support a sight member 64 (FIGS. 1 and 9), as well as to retain palette 58 in position, can be readily mounted to, or removed from, the box 24. FIG. 8 schematically illustrates the manner of attaching the platform 62 to the box 24. To this end, the platform 62 is aligned with the plane of the recesses 60 and then rotated on a vertical axis until the ends of the platform engage the recesses 60. It is preferable for the ends of the platform 62 to maintain a snug fit with the arcuate recesses 60. When so positioned, the platform 62 is capable of retaining the palette 58 and, as will be described, for supporting the sight member 64 at a plurality of selected distances from the window 42 when the top member 32 is in the upright position.
The platform 62 is preferably provided with a longitudinal ridge 66 which extends nearly the length of the platform but terminates a short distance from each end to permit sufficient clearance for the ends of the platform 62 to engage with the recesses 60. The ridge permits ease of handling of the platform, adds strength to the platform, especially in bending, and generally provides sufficient material for a plurality of vertical bores 68 located at spaced positions therealong. The bores 68 are of a suitable diameter to receive the lower end of a spindle 70 of the sight member 64. With a plurality of bores 68 being provided, the sight member 64 can be moved relative to the window 42 to any one of a plurality of positions along a line perpendicular to the window. It should be appreciated that the closer the sight member 64 is to the window, the broader is the view of a distant object. Conversely, the more distant the sight member 64 is from the window, the narrower is the view of the distant object.
The sight member 64 illustrated in FIG. 9 is an embodiment in which an eyepiece 72 is integral with the spindle 70. As shown, the eyepiece 72 is flattened and flared out from the spindle 70 and is, of course, provided with a suitable aperture 74. Another embodiment of a sight member is indicated by reference numeral 76 in FIG. 10. As shown in FIG. I0, the sight member 76 includes a spindle 78 and a yoke 80 movable on the spindle in azimuth. In turn, an eyepiece 82 having an aperture 84 is pivotally mounted on the yoke 80 for movement in elevation. The universal mount for the eyepiece 82 on the sight member 76 enables the artist to see with greater ease all of the object which he is attempting to draw and is of particular benefit when the sight member is close to the window 42.
Still another embodiment of the sight member is shown in FIG. 1 I and is represented by reference numeral 96. In this instance, a spindle 98 is provided with a magnetic base portion 100. A platform I02 is similar to the platform 62 except that a strip of ferrous metal 104 replaces the longitudinal ridge 66 and is firmly attached thereto in a suitable fashion. The yoke, eyepiece, and aperture are all identical to those described in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. I0. The construction provided in FIG. I I is preferred over the constructions previously described in that the sight member 96 can be moved to an infinite number of positions along the length of the platform I02 or placed on any other convenient metal surface.
To prepare to use the invention, the case 22 is mounted on a tripod 52 (FIG. I) with the aid of the fitting 50 or is merely placed on some other suitably firm support to obtain the desired view of an object 86 which is to be the subject matter for the drawing. Upon releasing the latches 44, the cover 32 is raised until it assumes an upright position which is maintained by means of the brace 36 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The platform 62 is properly mounted to the box 24 if this has not already been done and the sight member 64 is mated with the appropriate bore 68 which will provide the appropriate perspective. Thereupon, a sheet 88 of appropriate transparent material is mounted on the inner surface of the window 42 by means of pressure-sensitive tape 90 or possibly by suitable clamps (not shown). By viewing through the eyepiece 72 of the sight member 64, and by using a drawing instrument 92 such as a felt-tipped pen or a crayon, an image 94 of the object 86 appearing on the sheet 88 can be drawn thereon. Once the drawing of the image 94 has been completed, the sheet 88 can serve as the final product or the image 94 can be transferred to paper or other opaque media, for example, by conventional photocopy means or simply by tracing.
In another embodiment which would have particular appeal to school children, the invention would be of a size and construction which would resemble a text book. Thus, a case 106 is shown in FIG. I2 wherein a top member 108 having a transparent window I 10 is held closed against a box or base portion lI2 by means of a suitable latch I14. The top member I08 may be spring-loaded such that upon release of the latch I14, it automatically springs open to an upright position (FIG. l3) or it may be restrained by means of a pivotally mounted brace II6. Also pivotally mounted and spring-loaded so as to automatically erect upon release of the latch I14 is a sight member 118. The sight member I18 may, for example, include a stamped sheet metal spindle terminating at its upper end at an eyepiece 122 having a suitable aperture I24. At its lower end, the spindle 120 is pivotally mounted to a slide I26 (FIGS. 14 and I5) and urged in a clockwise direction (FIG. I4) by means of a spring I28 until a suitable stop I30 holds it in an upright position. The slide I26 is movable along a track I32 positioned way between lateral sidewalls I34 and generally perpendicular to the top member I08 when it assumes the upright position. In a manner similar to the construction disclosed in FIG. 2, the track I32 is removably mounted to opposite longitudinal sidewalls I36. Specifically, the opposite ends of the track 132 snugly engage arcuate recesses I37 fashioned in the inner surfaces of the sidewalls 136. With the track 132 being removable, it can be laid longitudinally in the box II2, thus permitting the case I06 to be used more efficiently to hold various artist supplies.
Still another embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIGS. I6 and I7 which could also be of a size and construction which would resemble a textbook. As shown in FIG. I6, a case I38 includes a box which is provided with a plurality of longitudinal partitions 142 which serve not only to divide the box into compartments but also as supports for a sight member 144. The sight member 144 includes a pair of resilient tongs at its base which are snugly engageable with the partitions 142 thereby enabling selective positioning of the sight member relative to a window 146 in a top member I48.
Although certain changes may be made in the various embodiments described without departing from the scope of the invention herein involved, it is intended that all matters contained in the above description and shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
What is claimed is:
I. Apparatus for drawing in perspective comprising: a case including a box having a bottom and opposed sides and a top having a window of transparent material pivotally mounted for movement between an operative position and an inoperative position, a sight including an eyepiece for viewing a distant object through said window when said top is in the operative position, and a platform removably mounted to said box for supporting said sight at selected distances from said window when said top is in the operative position, said platform including a pair of arcuate shaped opposed ends, and two of said opposed sides having arcuate shaped recesses therein for removably but snugly receiving the opposed ends of said platform, so that said platform is positioned generally transverse to said top when said top is in the operative position.
2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said platform includes a plurality of holes at spaced locations adapted to releasably receive the extreme lower end of said eyepiece, such that said sight can be selectively positioned at various distances from said window.
3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein at least a portion of the upper surface of said platform is composed of ferrous material and wherein said sight is vertically disposed with said eyepiece at its upper end and its extreme lower end being of a magnetic material such that said eyepiece can be selectively positioned at various distances from said window.
4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said sight includes a vertically disposed spindle and said eyepiece is universally mounted on said spindle.
5. Apparatus as set forth in claim I wherein said box includes a plurality of dividers extending upwardly from said bottom and defining compartments in said box and a palette adapted to be positioned on the upper edges of said dividers, said platform being mounted to said box so as to proximately overlie said palette to hold said palette in place.
6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said base in-