US 3678640 A
A prefabricated partition-wall element constituted by a parallelepiped-shaped plate of relatively great length as compared to its width, and comprising a rigid and resistant core covered with apparent facings of smooth coatings whose dimensions are equal to the largest dimensions of the element, said core being provided on its narrow faces and all along its periphery with sunk and raised portions provided in the material of the core and intended to ensure the binding with the adjacent elements subsequent to interposition of a binder.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Tillie 1 July 25, 1972 PARTITION-WALLS FORMED O $28,636 1 H1894 Kupper .52/437 PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS 2,838,144 6/1958 MacDonald 52/585 X 3.389.517 6/1968 Dunnington .52/238  inventor: Jean-Claude Tillie, Marcz en Baroeul,
mm FORElGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 13,092 1/1 897 Switzerland ..s2/437 22 i SCPL 23 970 63,154 3/1955 France "52/437 [2| 1 Appl' No; 74'803 Primary ExaminerPrice C. Faw, Jr.
Attorney-Kenyon & Kenyon Reilly Carr & Chapin  Foreign Application Priority Data Sept. 25, i969 France ..6932656 ABSTRACT A prefabricated partition-wall element constituted by a para]-  U.S. Cl ..52/238, 52/309, 52/437, lelepiped-shaped plate of relatively great length as compared 52/582, 52/615 to its width, and comprising a rigid and resistant core covered  Int. Cl. ..Eo4h 2/10, E04b i/lO i h pp rent f cings of smoo h oatings whose dimensions 58 Field orsearch....................s2 437, 438, 439, 422, 238, are equal 10 the largest dimensions of the element. said core 52 22 53 5 5 0 2 being provided on its narrow faces and all along its periphery with sunk and raised portions provided in the material of the  defences Cited core and intended to ensure the binding with the adjacent elements subsequent to interposition of a binder.
10 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures Patented July 25, 1972 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented July 25, 1972 3,678,640
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 c/EQN' C1 4005 77LL/E 5 Y r?? u @756 954,.- 77D/QNE ZS I VE N TOF PARTITION-WALLS FORMED F FREFABRICATED ELEMENTS The present invention relates to a prefabricated partitionwall element of inter-level height constituted by a parallelepiped-shaped plate.
The invention also concerns the various uses of such elements which, by being appropriately shaped, offer multiple possibilities of assembling in vertical, horizontal and all directions. Such assemblies may serve as dividing walls for habitable rooms or for industrial, commercial or ornamental purposes, as well as doubling or ceiling partitions.
In the present state of the art. 85 percent of the partitions used are mounted in the conventional" way, while the remaining percent are "prefabricated elements." indeed, the latter do not yet meet the simplification and competitiveness purposes sought for in the manufacturing stage as well as the installation or placing stage.
Among the prefabricated elements of inter-level height proposed up to the present, some are made:
exclusively from plaster. They are frangible, heavy and their fabrication requires considerable labor. Their installation is still rudimentary and their assemblies are liable to serious behavior defects, especially as far as vertical and horizontal cracking at the level of the joints is concerned;
from plaster coated with paper constituting thin sheen assembled by means of cardboard. They are very flexible, very hydrose nsitive, too light and therefore very sounding;
from plaster coated with paper, mounted on a metal frame or carcass. Their drawbacks are the same as those mentioned above. Such partitions are very costly,
from bricks coated with plaster. Their fabrication rim sitates considerable labor and their installation is carried out according to a process which is very close to conventional processes. Their heavy weight, hydrosensitivity and the inevitable cracking at the level of the vertical and horizontal joints. in addition to their relatively high cost resulting from manufacturing and installation difficulties, are their main drawbacks;
from wood particles covered with veneer. They may be tubular or solid. Their main drawback is that their cost is very high, for they are formed of costly raw materials and the process of fabrication is very complicated. Their appearance is not that of conventional partitions owing to the necessity, in most cases, of applying joint covers or butt straps and high and low braces, unless a pronounced" joint is left. They are fabricated in standard dimensions and must be sawn on the site. Lastly they are very hydrosensitive;
from compressed straw impregnated with a synthetic resin and coated with paper. Such a partition, the price of which is competitive, is however highly hydrosensitive, and this considerably limits its use. The systematic use of braces and joint covers imparts to it a highly anaesthetic appearance;
from metal, especially aluminum. Such elements are costly although recoverable. This advantage is not indispensable in most cases. Their use is limited to the partitioning of offices.
The present invention is intended to remedy the aforesaid various drawbacks and to afford new advantages.
The prefabricated partition-wall element according to the invention is characterized mainly by the fact that it is composed of a rigid and resistant core covered with apparent facings of smooth coatings, the dimensions of which are equal to the largest dimensions of the element, and is provided on its narrow faces and all around its periphery with sunk and raised portions provided in the material of the core and ensuring the binding with the adjacent elements subsequent to interposition of a binder.
The said element is strictly identical with the adjacent elements, especially in thickness, and is perfectly adaptable to the walls and floors.
The lower portion of the said element is waterproofed by way of steeping.
It is convenient to design the sunk and raised portions on the narrow faces in the form of parallel grooves on the outer faces and of cavities whose axes are located in the medial plane of the element but are oblique with respect to the said narrow faces.
The partitions assembled from the elements defined hereabove are characterized by the fact that the elements are accurately juxtaposed by being keyed, and then a binder is injected between them so as to till the grooves and the cavities and by hardening firmly binds together the various elements of the partition, a malleable product being cast on the side where the keys are located, the said keys thus remaining in place in the mounted partition.
In making vertical partitions, the elements, whose height is a little less than that of the wall between the floors, are keyed from underneath so as to be applied at their top and their sides on the adjacent elements, the lower keys being subsequently concealed.
The following description gives a non-limitative example of the elements, partition-walls, and of the apparatus used to fabricate the elements forming the subject matter of the invention, and which are illustrated in the appended drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one angle of an element;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view along a medial plane parallel with outer faces of an element;
FIG. 3 is a partial sectional view of a joint between two elements;
FIG. 4 is an elevational view of a partition constituted by elements according to the invention, during construction;
H6. 5 is a perspective view of a key prior to installation;
FIG. 6 is a view in profile of the same key during installation;
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic view of the apparatus serving to manufacture the elements according to the invention.
The plates 1 constituting the partitioning elements according to the invention are parallelepiped-shaped and their length is relatively great as compared to their width. Where plates serving to make vertical partition-walls are concerned, the length of each element 1 is a little less than the height of a between-floors wall. Each element is composed of a rigid and resistant core covered with apparent facings consisting of smooth coatings 3, 4, the dimensions of which are equal to those of the core 2. 1n the examples illustrated, the surface of the apparent facings 3, 4 is equal to the section of the core 2 in a medial plane parallel with the said facings 3, 4. All along the periphery of the element 1, grooves 5, 6, 7 and cavities or cells 8 are cut in the material of the core 2 on the narrow face of the element 1. In the example illustrated on FIG. I, the grooves 5 and 6 are semi-cylindrical in section whereas groove 7 is triangular in section but the grooves may have any section whatsoever. The grooves 5, 6 are parallel with the outer edges of the element 1. The cavities 8 have their axes located in the medial plane of the element. The axes of the cavities 8 are oblique with respect to the surface of the narrow faces of the element. It has been found advantageous to so arrange the cavities 8 that their axes are inclined obliquely, alternatively in 4 one direction and the other; the inclination of the cavity axis is of the order of approximately from 30' to 45.
The core 2 is made from a conglomerate of plaster reinforced with straw, while the apparent facings 3, 4 are made from compact, polished and calibrated plaster. Indeed, the dimensions of the various elements are respectively strictly identical.
The core is not compulsorily made from plaster reinforced with straw. It has also been found advantageous to make the core from expanded and reinforced polysterol. Other materials may also be used provided they ensure the required res'mtance and their cost is not too high.
In order to form vertical partition-walls by means of the elements just described, the latter are accurately juxtaposed by being keyed by means of lyres 9. Thereafter the elements are keyed by being clamped against one another and against the adjacent walls after the edges of the narrow faces of the elements are coated with glue. The clamping is effected on one or another side and upwardly so as to apply the various elements against the ceiling. The clamping is then preferably achieved by means of resilient metal keys having the shape of an open lyre or omega such as illustrated in FIG. 5. When the key 9 is open (FIG. 5) it has a given height )2. When the key 9 is closed and takes the shape of a lyre or of an omega obtained by constricting the two legs (arrows l and 11) towards one another, a new height H superior to h is conferred to the key 9. This new height is variable and depends upon the degree to which the said two legs of the lyre or the omega are moved nearer to one another.
When the keying is completed, a fluid binder is injected under pressure into the joints from the bottom and fills the grooves 5, 6, 7 and the cavities 8. A very strong cement glue may be selected as a binder. When the said binder hardens, it firmly binds the various elements of the partition-wall to one another and to the adjacent walls of the structure. The binding takes place at the level of the core 2, not at the level of the facings 3, 4 which do not partake in resistance and which, therefore. do not tend to crack subsequently. The arrangement of the cavities 8 inclined alternatively in one direction and the other increues the cohesion of both elements held together by a cement glue joint, the shape of which recalls that of a fish-bone. The binding to the walls l2, 13 of the structure is also ensured by the cement glue. if necessary. grooves and cavities may be cut in the walls 12 and 13.
The binding of the partition-wall portion located on the side of the keys 9 to the corresponding wall 14 of the structure is achieved by filling the space comprised between the partition wall and the wall l4 with a plastic material which is cast between the keys. This material may be cement, plaster or any other synthetic material.
The prefabrication of the elements I is carried out at the factory on the machine diagrammatized in FIG. 7. In this machine the special plaster and treated straw mixture l serving to make the core 2 is poured into the hopper 16 which distributes the same onto the conveyor band 17. The mixture may be compressed and pushed onto the band 17 which conveys it towards the die 20. The die 20 may have a plane surface to which a reciprocating motion is imparted in order to suitably flatten and size the element. The setting and hardening time of the plaster is reduced by way of heating or by means of an accelerating or hardening admixture. Grooves 5, 6, 7 and cavities B are imprinted by means of dies and pins or studs on the narrow faces of the elements at the level of the die 20.
Behind the die 20 is arranged a severing device (not shown) which is so adjusted as to enable to obtain elements or boards having an accurately predetermined length; as a rule, the length of the vertical partition-walls is a little less than one interlevel height. The rough and rugose element thus formed is automatically conveyed and arranged onto a marble member 21 where it receives the desired coating on one or both faces to form the facing or facings 3 and 4. A series of similar and readily adjustable marble members having the selected dimensions in length as well as in thickness is provided on the side of the die 20 to receive the elements. The rotating speed of the marble members is calculated according to the setting and hardening time of the selected coating or coatings.
The element 1 constituted by a core 2 coated with facings 3 and 4 is then subjected to a die treatment a second time in order to be imparted quite definite dimensional characteristics, especially in thickness for which the tolerance is a few hundredths of a millimeter. The die 22 used to this end achieves a smoothing and a hardening of the faces which are to remain apparent. A so-called cut, "smoo or alumed" plaster is thus obtained depending on the choice made by the user or the architect.
The elements thus obtained have a constant width and a strictly observed thickness. Their width may be readily adapted on the site by way of sawing according to the dimension of the element. The sawing may be replaced by any other cutting operation.
The element leaving the die 22 is pushed onto a table 23 on which it may be straightened by a straightening device 24 as soon as it leaves the die. or it may receive coatings such as finish papers, etc. In case of application of finish papers, the face or faces to be treated are printed at each edge with a cove or the like, so that the calico to be stuck on the site will not result in extra-thickness.
Subsequent to straightening, prints of paint, sound insulation or acoustic correction products or the like may be applied on the elements.
Thereafter, the elements covered with the coating are conveyed automatically and vertically to a drying device and a store.
An insulating operation at the capillary rise of the unit may possibly be performed by making the foot of the element I pass through a constant-level tank filled with a dampor water-proofing liquid.
The elements and the method of manufacture thereof having thus been described, the manner in which they are used on the site to form vertical partition-walls will now be indicated.
The elements in the dry state are arranged side by side and retained in a vertical plane, for instance by means of a set of rules, and they are joined to the ceiling through the medium of sunk or embedded steel lyres such as those illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 and the use of which has already been described. Thereafter, cement glue is injected into the joints from the bottom of the elements into the channels formed by the grooves 5, 7. The last operation consists in casting a plastic material from the side where the partition-wall is keyed, for instance at the bottom between the keys 9 in case of a vertical partition-wall.
The elements according to the invention, the use thereof and the partition-walls obtained therewith offer a great number of advantages. They enable to make prefabricated partition-wall elements of inter-level height, made or not from conventional materials and affording, by being appropriately shaped, multiple possibilities of assemblies in vertical, horizontal and all directions, and serving to form division walls for habitable rooms or for industrial, commercial or simply ornamental purpose. It also enables to make doubling or doubleceiling partitions. The jointing of the elements on the site enables to replace all the working operations in their conventional form.
Their industrial manufacture eliminates all labor work at the factory and their jointing on the site enables to replace all the conventional working operations leading to the same results.
The assembling of the elements limits labor work. The fact that the elements are bound together by their cores prevents the vertical cracks which were usually rejointed by means of special plaster. The upper binding prevents the partition from vibrating as a result of lack of firm connection with the ceiling. It should be reminded that, previously, the contraction of the head joint was also due to the displacement of the partition wall resulting from its lack of sturdiness or from lack of resistance of the material with which it is completely coated on its six faces; this drawback is completely avoided by using the element according to the invention.
The special features of the assembly are advantageous not only owing to the manner in which the uncrackable head joint under the ceiling is designed and carried out, but also owing to the vertical joint being designed and carried out in an original manner, i.e. owing to the particular arrangement of the grooves 5, 6, 7 and the cavities 8 dissociating an applied force into various components. The grooves and cavities result in an increase in cohesion after the binding of the elements to one another subsequent to the drying of the special injected cement glue.
The elements may be fabricated from a great variety of conventional and new materials for the resistant core as well as the apparent facings. Such variety enables to take advantage of the apparent density of the complex thus constituted. Moreover, completely automated fabrication of the elements may be obtained, and since the fabrication is rapid it enables to comply with every requirement without having to keep im portant stocks. It should not be forgotten that the height of the lower horizontal joint in the case of a vertical partition-wall may vary within extensive limits, so that elements of one and the same size may be used to form partition-walls of various heights. The partition-walls may be made to measure from standard elements.
The inclination of the cavities alternatively in one direction and another forming an angle of from 30 to 45 with respect to the narrow faces of the element leads in fact to three desirable results.
Such an inclination does not result only in a keying" of the juxtaposed elements when the final hardening of the binder is completed, nor does it ensure only the formation of a "fishbone distributing within the material of the core, in a complex form, the stresses caused by external forces. Its purpose is above all to ensure the self-clamping of the elements with one another under the mechanical action of the contraction phenomena taking place in the cement glue injected subsequent to arrangement and preclamping of the elements in the dry state, and this during the whole duration of its setting time.
lt is thus seen that the partition-wall is of interest in that it enables in particular to takeadvantage of phenomena which were up to the present considered to be a major hindrance in other proposed types of partition-walls.
It is known from experience that the self-clamping of the elements with one another is all the more satisfactorily achieved as the percentage of contraction of the cement glue is higher.
Thus, advantage is now taken of a particular property of binders which up to the present was considered to be harmful.
Of course, the invention is by no means limited to the forms of embodiment described and illustrated, which have been given by way of example only. In particular, it comprises all the means constituting technical equivalents to the means described as well as their combinations, should the latter be carried out according to the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is l. A building structure comprising at least two prefabricated partition-wall elements each comprising a parallele piped-shaped core member made of a rigid and resistant material, said core member having two rectangular main faces parallel to each other and peripheral narrow faces and at least one rectangular coating member covering one at least of said rectangular main faces and forming an apparent smooth facing for the same, said peripheral narrow faces being provided with grooves and cavities, said partition-wall elements being accurately juxtaposed along their respective narrow faces so that grooves and cavities on the narrow face of one element registers with grooves and cavities on the narrow face of the other element and being bound with one another, at the level of said core members, by a binder injected under pressure between said juxtaposed narrow faces so as to fill the said grooves and cavities, said elements bearing upon the floor, the ceiling and any other backing structure through the medium of resilient key means, a plastic material being cast on the side of said building structure where the said key means are located the said key means remaining in place in said building structure.
2. A building structure according to claim I, wherein said core member is made of plaster reinforced with straw. whereas said coating member is made of polished plaster.
3. A building structure according to claim I, wherein said core member is made of expanded and reinforced polystyrene.
4. A building structure according to claim I, wherein said grooves provided in said narrow faces have a semi-circular cross-section.
S. A building structure according to claim I, wherein said grooves provided in narrow faces have a triangular cross-sec- 6. A building structure according to claim I, wherein a portion at least of said partition-wall elements is water-proofed by way of steeping.
7. A building structure according to claim 1, adapted to provide a vertical partition-wall, wherein the height of the said elements is less than that of the said vertical partition-wall the aforesaid key means being inserted between said elements and said floor so as to apply said elements on said ceiling and being subsequently concealed.
8. A building structure according to claim I, wherein said key means have the shape of an open lyre.
9. A building structure according to claim I, wherein said cavities are inclined obliquely with respect to said peripheral narrow faces.
10. A building structure according to claim 9, wherein said cavities are inclined obliquely, alternatively in one direction and the other.