US 3678694 A
A tunnel lining apparatus and method for installing tunnel liner segments behind a tunnel boring machine having a trailing tail shield is provided in which tunnel liner segments are delivered on a haulage car to a transfer point and transferred to a mobile rail which moves forward into the tunnel as the tunnel boring machine advances and delivers liner segments to a support erector machine within the tail shield which support erector machine pulls the segments into place to form an annular ring and then pushes the completed ring into position as a part of the completed liner after which grout is pumped behind the completed ring.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Haspert [4 1 July 25, 1972 s41 METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR 3,411,826 11/1968 Wallers et al. ..6l/85 x INSTALLING TUNNEL LINERS 3,561,223 2/ i971 Tabor ..6l/85 ,0,0 71971 72 Inventor: John c. Haspert, Arcadia, Calif. 3 59 59 vulas'mvc 61/85  Assignee: Commercial Shearing 8: Stamping Com- Primary Examiner-Dennis L. Taylor pany, Ohio Attorney-Buell, Blenko & Ziesenheim  Filed: July 10, 1970 ABSTRACT 21 A l. N 53 8 I 1 pp 0 18 A tunnel lining apparatus and method for installing tunnel liner segments behind a tunnel boring machine having a trail-  U-S-CI "61/84, 61/42 ing tail shield is provided in which tunnel liner egments are lllti 8 5/o0 delivered on a haulage car to a transfer point and transferred  Field of Search ..6l/84, 85, 42, 45 R, 63; to a mobile which moves f d into the whnei as the 299/ 1 33 tunnel boring machine advances and delivers liner segments to a support erector machine within the tail shield which support  References cued erector machine pulls the segments into place to form an an- UNITED STATES PATENTS nular ring and then pushes the completed ring into position as a part of the completed liner after which grout is pumped be- 3,206,824 9/1965 Cerutti ....61/84 X hind the completed ring. 3,258,135 6/1966 Bigge et al. ...61/84 X \Vinberg ..6 H85 14 Claims, 20 Drawing; Figures Patented July 25, 1972 9 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR John C. Huspert Patented July 25, 1972 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR John C. Huspert Patented July 25, 1972 9 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig .5.
mvsmon John C. Hospert Patented July 25, 1972 3,678,694
9 Sheets-Shoot 4 INVENTOR John C. Hospert AHLW Patentad July 25, 1972 9 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig.8.
INVENTOR John C. Huspert Patented Jul 25, 1972 3,678,694
9 Sheets-Sheet 6 Fig.l0.
INVENTOR John C. Huspert Patented July 25, 1972 2| Fig.l4.
9 Sheets-Shut 7 mvsmon John C. Hospert Patented July 25, 1972 9 Sheets-Shoat 8 mvemon John C. Huspert @ZfJ M A" s Patented Jul 25, 1972 3,678,694
9 Sheets-Shoot 9 METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR INSTALLING TUNNEL LINERS This invention relates to methods and apparatus for installing tunnel liners and particularly to an automated mechanism for delivering and installing tunnel liner segments.
The history of tunneling practices during the past decade shows that continuous drilling and tunneling machines used where ground support systems were not required were able to develop footage production rates far in advance of those where ground support is required. This has been primarily the result of a lack of adequate tunnel liner handling and installing equipment.
There are numerous situations where tunneling projects which did not require ground support developed extraordinary performance records. The Azotea project at Chama, N.Mex., for example, reported footage production rates at intervals of the project which totaled to over 6,000 feet per month. Other projects around the country, machine drilled and requiring alight support structure such as roof bolts only, also reported footage production averages comparable to the Azotea reports.
Aside from ground conditions that did not require supports directly behind the advancing tunneling machine, the other significant factor that should be noted is that they were tunneling projects in which continuous drilling by the tunneling machines was permitted. There were no interruptions necessary to the placement of a tunnel support structure. Tunneling projects requiring support systems installed in the tail shield of a tunneling machine have never been able to approach footage production rates such as those established at Chama, N. Mex., and Henderson Nev., since the need and effort of placing a ground support structure heretofore has always required the drilling operation to stop while the support structure is installed. Thus, the difference of footage production rates between non-cyclical and cyclical operations can be established. Current techniques render cyclical operations unavoidable if the tunnel has to be lined.
At the present time, a good majority of the tunnel machines are using the support structure in the tunnel as the drilling thrust base. Other types of soft ground machines fewer in number which anchor to the unsupported tunnel wall with thrust shoes extending radially from the machine's center, also develop a cyclic drilling operation. This is common to all types of tunneling machines since the support structure is installed under the protective shelter of the machine's tail shield. The current practice is to stop drilling while the supports are put in place. Even though the tunnel wall anchor type machine does not use the support system as the thrust base, advancements made by the machine before the support system is in place would expose the unsupported crown section of the tunnel. All soft ground tunneling is currently a cyclic operation.
Many tunneling machines of diflerent makes have, in the past, clocked actual drilling rates approaching 25 feet per hour. This has been for short intervals of tunnel length only. Average actual drilling rates range from to 15 feet per hour, depending on the ground conditions. This is not necessarily confined to smaller diameter machines.
Many types of support erector units have been tried, the most common of which is the support erector arm. (See additional discussion on this below.) There have been many efforts to reduce the downtime waiting for the support system to be installed. They have included many approaches. Among these are segment rings made up of only 3 or 4 unit segments and a multiple of erector arms instead of just one. Another is a drum-type structure which moves the segments around the tail shield after they are placed there by some sort of hoisting systemaAll efforts made to date, however, require that drilling operations be shut down to permit the installation of the support structure. Efforts, for example, where two or more erector arms were used instead of the one to speed up the operation, also entailed the addition of extra manpower, and an encroachment in the available space both of which are items with definite limitations. In short, it can be said that all efforts made to reduce downtime of the current cyclic operation have had very limited success. The bottleneck is in the ability to place the tunnel support structure only after drilling is stopped. This procedure alone establishes the wide margin in footage production rates found in an unsupported tunnel as opposed to a supported tunnel. Records on file on time studies covering long periods of a tunneling; operation show the downtime to drilling, waiting on the installation of the support structure, exceeds the drilling time for the section receiving the support from 30 to 100 percent. The cyclic tunneling operation carries in its wake a problem creating factor. Weak soils many times could be contained and kept under control if drilling were allowed to continue at a continuous rate. The
cyclic operation develops time cycles of sufficient duration,
which many times allow weaker soils to begin moving. A caving action, once started, must be brought under control before drilling action can resume.
To cope with caving problems, bulkheading is oftentimes placed on the wheel of the wheel-type tunneling machine. Other approaches have been shields with mucking units inside of them, and the use of poling plates around the crown area of the shield which act as buffers to caving soils. A machine of this later type was manufactured by Memco of the Delaware V.M. Corporation, and in late 1969 or early 1970, finished driving the 26-foot diameter 6,250 foot long Saugus Tunnel. (See Western Construction Magazine May 1968 issue A new way to drive tunnels) Machines of this type, namely buckets working at the end of a boom inside of a shield, date back to an original development by the Kemper Construction Company and used on a flood-control tunnel in the city of Los Angeles. Mr. Max Kemper should be credited as the original developer of this type machine. The machine he developed for that project approximately l0 years ago, according to reports, did a good job. But he has not used the machine since then, nor has he considered this type of machine for other tunneling projects he has since been involved with. This type of machine has a spot application, as does most any kind of a drilling rig structurally sound in its manufacture.
Average progress rates ranging from 44 to 60 feet per day were established at the Saugus tunnel. A peak performance of 200 feet was reported as a record and achieved one day during the contract effort. Soil conditions were supposedly at their best, permitting a rapid drilling advance without the aid of the poling plates in the shield. Aside from the tunneling rates in the Saugus tunnel, the Newhall tunnel (also in Southern California) currently in construction, is reporting a'number of days with production rates of to feet of tunnel per day. As tunnel production averages in 26-foot diameter work, they are a considerable improvement over averages established 10 years ago in the same diameter range. In a breakdown, however, a 66-foot lined tunnel production average for a single days operation reflects less than half of the actual drilling capacity of most tunneling machines. Considering the actual drilling rate only, a number of soft formation type tunneling machines have been clocked with advance rates ranging to 25 feet per hour.
In summary, it should be noted that loss in footage production per hour as ascertained from the machine's maximum performance ability and the actual production footages obtained, represent the cyclic time programming of the overall operation. The Chama, N.Mex., project and the Henderson Nev., projects referred to above, reported a good number of days with production rates running over 300 feet. The earth formations were much stronger, ranging to 7,000 psi in strength. As such, because of cutting suucture changes and energy requirements, drilling problems of a different nature existed over those found in soft earth formations. 300 feet of tunnel driven in a 20-hour day, however, does represent an actual drilling rate of 15 feet per hour, and progress attainable with non-cyclic type operations. Switching muck trains requires some time, but it is an insignificant factor.
The above correlation allows that any support structure which could be installed while the tunnel machine is drilling, in its own merit would improve production averages of most types of soft formation tunneling machines by a factor rang'ng from 50 to I percent.
The current and most popular method of handling individual sections of the tunnel-support structure is an assembly referred to as the erector arm. When used with tunneling machines it is generally adapted to the machine in the tail shield area. When used in conjunction with just a shield it can be adapted to either the shield or to the temporary support directly behind the shield, pending the contractor's view as to the best job approach. As noted above, the erector arm is part of the cyclic operation. At best, it replaces the manual labor needed to place the individual support sections into their respective positions inside of a tail shield on either a tunneling machine or a shield. Regardless of the extent to which they are improved or as to the number of them placed into service, they will never eliminate the cyclic phase of a tunneling operation. Each erector arm used needs an operator on the control buttons plus a minimum of two support men, who are needed to tie the support down once the erector arm has it located in the desired area of a completed support ring structure.
Muck removal, as such, cannot be considered as a serious drawback to improvements in overall production rates. Drawbacks or downtime will develop only when poor judgment is used in designing the conveyor chain or belt system, the switching area, the number of cars in each of the muck trains or underpowered locomotives.
The present invention provides a system for delivering, hark dling and installing liner segments immediately following a tunneling machine at a rate which will match the tunneling machine's capacity to remove earth and dispose of it.
Preferably I provide a tunnel support erector system capable of installing liner segments or plates into the tunnel while the tunneling machine is drilling. The system of this invention provides a haulage car capable of delivering a plurality of segments each to a given unload or transfer point, a harness or segment hanger adapted to be removably attached to a segment, said hanger having a rolling member and a hook on opposite sides of said segment, said rolling member being adapted to movably engage the haulage car, a mobile rail movably suspended from a completed portion of a tunnel wall from the transfer point to a point adjacent a tail shield of a tunneling machine, spaced segment carriers on said rail adapted to engage the segment hanger, means for moving the mobile rail forward by increments substantially equal to a segment unit width, a support erector machine housed within the tail shield of a tunneling machine and between the tunneling machine and the last installed ring of segments in the tunnel liner, said support erector machine having a frame receiving a thrust ram system of the tunneling machine and transferring a thrust therefrom to the tunnel liner, means on the frame receiving segments from the mobil rail and delivering them to a point within the framework, means on the frame receiving each segment and transferring it to a final position as a part of a ring within the frame in interlocking position and means for moving the completed ring into position against the completed tunnel liner and advancing the frame.
The foregoing general description provides an outline of the problems of the tunnel lining art and of the purposes, objects and advantages of this invention. Other objects, purposes and advantages will be apparent from a consideration of the following description and the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a vertical longitudinal section through a tunnel in process of being bored;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the tunnel of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an end elevational view of a segment hanger according to my invention;
FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the segment hanger of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of a powered segment transfer car according to my invention;
FIG. 6 is a side elevational view of an unpowered transfer car according to my invention;
FIG. 7 is a top plan view of the car of FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a top plan view of the car of FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 is an end elevational view of a typical transfer car and of the mobile rail;
FIG. 10 is a segmental elevational view of the mobile rail and haulage car track at the transfer point;
FIG. 1 l is a segmental top plan view of the track and mobile rail arrangement of FIG. 10;
FIG. 12 is a side elevation of a mobile ram for use in my invention;
FIG. 13 is a section on the line XIII-XIII of FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 is a vertical longitudinal section through a support erector machine according to my invention;
FIG. 15 is a section on the line XV-XV of FIG. 14;
FIG. 16 is a fragmentary section of the support track of FIG. 15;
FIG. 17 is a front elevation of the erector machine of this invention; and
FIG. 18 is a section on the line XVIII-XVIII of FIG. 17.
Referring to the drawings 1 have illustrated a tunnel l0 having lining segments 11 in place and defining an inner cylindrical lining. A floor of n'mber 12 is placed on the bottom of the tunnel 10 over lining 11. A trackway 13 having a siding 14 is laid on the floor 12. The trackway is adapted to carry muck cars 15 with a haulage motor 16 and segment haulage cars 17 with a driven segment haulage car 18, both of which will be described in more detail hereafter. A mobile rail 19 is suspended on the sidewall of the tunnel to receive segment hangers 20 carrying segments 11. A support erector machine 21 abuts the forward ring of segments 11 and rests within the tail shield 22 of the tunnel boring machine 23. A tunnel boring machine conveyor 24-25 in two parts extends from the tunnel boring machine through the tail shield 22 and support erector machine 21 and over the muck cars 15 to discharge into the muck cars 15.
The tunnel boring machine, tail shield conveyors 24-25 and muck cars are all conventional, as is also the trackway system 13-14 and floor 12.
The driven segment haulage car 18 and regular segment haulage cars 17 are each provided with a single elevated channel trackway 26 which can be elevated and moved sidewise to a position parallel and adjacent the sidewall segments by hydraulic pistons 27 and 28 respectively. A pivotal support 29 is mounted on the haulage cars to support and guide the lower end of each segment 11. The support 29 is actuated by a cylinder 30 mounted on the haulage car. Each segment is supported on a segment hanger 20 by a pin 31 extending through an opening 1 1a in segment 11. The hanger 20 is provided with a support wheel 32 on one side adapted to run in trackway 26 and a hook 33 on the other side. The hook 33 is adapted to engage an opening 34 in a segment carrier 35 suspended from rollers 36 adapted to run on mobile rail 37. The segment carriers are also used to suspend the mobile rail 37 from the sidewall of the tunnel. This is accomplished by placing a suspension pin 38 through a second hole 39 in spaced segment carriers 35 into the sidewall of the tunnel. The segment carriers between the spaced carriers used for suspension are simply left free on the rail and as the rail moves forward and a carrier 35 is released from the wall each of the following carriers follows it from the top guide channels 37a to the bottom guide channels 37b around the end guide 40 on the mobile rail 37. As will be seen from FIG. 11 the channel track 26 on the driven segment haulage car 18 is curved at its forward end toward the mobile rail so as to bring the segments to the rail for pick up. As will be seen also from FIG. 1, the channel track 26 is inclined from the rear downward toward the powered haulage car 18 so that the segments automatically move by gravity to the transfer or pick up point where the hook 33 engages the segment carrier and is carried oiT of the track 26 and along the mobile rail toward the tunnel head, urged by a hydraulic cylinder 41 movably mounted on the rail carrying a piston 42 with a retractable pusher head 43. The cylinder 41 is mounted on a wheeled carriage M which is movable within the mobile rail 37 on flanges 370. The carriage 'i4 is provided with inclined ramps 44a and a separate suspended wedge member 44b having like inclined ramps and adapted to bear on flanges 370. A cylinder 44c between the carriage 44 selectively moves the wedge member 44b to engage the wedge member on flanges 370 to hold the cylinder 44 in place on the mobile rail.
When the segments reach the end of the mobile rail adjacent the tunnel head they move down an incline 45 on the end of the mobile rail. As the segments move down the incline, the wheel 32 on the segment hanger is picked up by a curved channel trackway 46 suspended on hanger 47 from an overhead I beam 48 which is pivoted at one end 48a by pivot pin 49 to the support erector carriage 50. The movement of succeeding segments forces the segments to move forward onto the trackway 46 and the books 33 are released from the segment hangers 35 and the hangers 35 are forced around loop 51 in the end of the mobile rail to return to the loading point. It is at this point that spaced hanger segments are fastened to the tunnel wall to support the mobile rail as the segments at the loading point are removed from the sidewall.
From the trackway 46 the wheels 32 supporting the segment hangers 20 and segments 11 move onto a segment placer channel track 52 at spaced intervals regulated by an overhead stop lever 53 operated by hydraulic cylinder 54. Each time the stop is moved to the left (viewing FIG. 14) a segment 11 is moved onto segment placer track 52. The segment placer track 52 is raised and lowered by the hydraulic piston 55 operated by cylinder 56 mounted on the support erector. The angular attitude of the track 52 is controlled by hydraulic cylinders 57 and 58 and their corresponding pistons 59 and 60. The cylinders 57 and 58 are mounted on the carriage 61 for the support erector machine which carries a generally vertical guide rail 62 which guides the movement of trackway 52 up and down within the erector support.
The overhead 1 beam 48 is supported adjacent the end remote from end 48a by a vertical beam 63 which is in turn mounted on an elevated platform 64 on wheels 65 which run on the muck car rails 13 on the bottom of the lined tunnel 11. The platform 64 also carries a grout pump 67 which is used to pump grout 68 through holes in segments ll between the finally placed segments forming the liner and the periphery 69 The support erector is provided with a curved or arcuate segment recliner 70 pivoted at one end on pin 71 fixed to the support erector and pivoted around said pin 71 by a piston 72 connected to the recliner 70 intermediate its ends and operated by cylinder 73 connected to the support erector. The function of this segment recliner is to lower the upper end of the segments 11 into place within the erector support after they are released from trackway 52. At this point the pin 31 is removed from the segment hanger 20 and replaced by a puller pin 74. The hanger 20 is deposited in a chute 75 which carries it to a hanger collection box 76 on the elevated platform 64 to be returned to the loading position for reuse.
A puller plate 77 having a keyhole opening 78 adapted to fit over and engage puller pin 74 is engaged on the puller pin. The plate 77 is connected to a roller chain 79 which passes under chain guides 80 and 81 to a sprocket 82 driven by motor 83. The motor 83 is energized drawing the segment 11 beneath a segment guide shoe 84. Each successive segment is drawn into position in this way through a clockwise or counterclockwise movement as desired. The final segment is then inserted to complete the ring. The completed ring is then moved clockwise or counterclockwise until alignment is accurate to mating with previously installed support rings. The completed ring is then pushed rearwardly by pusher ring 85, at which point anchor ring 86 is contracted and withdrawn and the ring of segments pushed into final position. The tail shield and support erector are then drawn forward to the tunnel boring machine by cylinders 87, the anchor ring 86 is expanded into position against the last placed segment ring and the cycle is repeated. Grout 90 is then pumped into the area behind the completed ring against an elastomer grout shield or step 91 on the tail shield. The grout 90 sets and holds the ring against movement and the closer the area between the ring and the earth to prevent shifting.
While I have illustrated and described a presently preferred practice and embodiment of my invention in the foregoing specification, it will be understood that this invention may be otherwise embodied within the scope of the following claims.
1. A tunnel lining apparatus for installing tunnel liner segments behind a tunnel boring machine having a trailing tail shield comprising a haulage car capable of delivering a plurality of segments successively to a given transfer point, a segment hanger removably attached to each segment, said hanger having a rolling member on one side and a hook member on the opposite side, said rolling member to movably engage the haulage car, a mobile rail movably suspended from a completed portion of the tunnel wall from the transfer point to a point adjacent the tail shield of a tunnel boring machine, spaced segment carriers on said rail engaging the hook end of the segment hanger, means moving the mobile rail by increments toward the tunnel boring machine, a support erector machine within the tail shield of the tunnel boring machine between the tunnel boring machine and a last installed ring of segments, said support erector machine having a frame receiving a thrust ram system of the tunnel boring machine and transferring the thrust therefrom to said last installed ring, means on the frame receiving segments from the mobile rail and delivering them within the framework, means on the frame receiving each segment and transferring it to a final position as a part of a completed ring within the frame spaced from the last installed ring and means for moving the completed ring into position against the completed tunnel liner segments and advancing the frame to its next position.
2. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the segment haulage car is provided with a channel track mounted thereon for vertical and horizontal movement and means on the car moving said track selectively vertically and horizontally.
3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein the means for moving the channel track vertically and horizontally is a plurality of fluid operated pistons.
4. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the segment carriers are used to support the mobile rail as they are returned from the segment erector machine to the transfer point.
5. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the segment carriers are moved on the mobile rail by a fluid piston movably engaging the mobile rail.
6. An apparatus as claimed in claim 11 wherein the means on the frame receiving the segments is a vertically and horizontally movable trap rail.
7. An apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein the trap rail is moved vertically and horizontally by spaced fluid pistons.
8. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the means receiving the segments and transferring them to a final position is a roller chain and chain guide.
9. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the support erector machine is provided with a plurality of retractable ring forming members which normally bear against the last completed ring as the tunnel boring machine operates and are retracted to permit each newly completed ring to be moved into position.
10. An apparatus as claimed in claim 9 wherein the newly completed ring is moved into place by the thrust pistons of the tunnel boring machine.
1 1. A support erector machine for use in conjunction with a tunnel boring machine having a rearwardly extending tail shield and thrust propulsion arms comprising an annular frame adapted to fit within the tail shield of a tunnel boring machine, a plurality of retractable ring forming members which normally bear against the last completed ring of a tunnel being lined and are retractable to clear said lining whereby a newly completed ring may be moved into position, a trap rail receiving liner segments to be placed, said trap rail being movable vertically and horizontally, means on the frame for moving said trap rail, a fluid actuated recliner member on the frame guiding the segment from the trap rail to the sidewall of the frame and means on the frame receiving the segments and moving them annularly into position within the frame.
12. A support erector machine as claimed in claim 11 wherein the means moving the segments annularly within the frame is a roller chain and chain guide.
13. A tunnel lining apparatus for installing tunnel segments behind a tunnel boring machine having a trailing tail shield comprising a trackway extending from a tunnel entry to the said tail shield, a segment car adapted to run on said trackway to a transfer point intermediate the ends of said trackway, said segment car having a channel track mounted thereon for vertical and horizontal movement, means on said car for moving said channel track, mobile track means on a tunnel sidewall adapted for advancement lengthwise of a tunnel from said transfer point to a point adjacent the tail shield carrier means movable on said mobile track adapted to receive the segments from the segment car at said transfer point for delivery to said point adjacent the tail shield, a segment transfer means receiving the segments from said carrier means, a support erector frame within the tail shield, a plurality of retractable ring forming members which normally bear against the last completed ring as the tunnel boring machine operates and are retracted to permit each newly completed ring to be moved into position, a trap rail within and supported by said frame, said trap rail being movable vertically and horizontally to receive a liner segment from said segment transfer means and deliver it to the frame, a roller chain having means engaging a segment, means for moving said roller chain around the periphery of the frame to move each segment into position as a completed ring, and guide means on said frame for said segments guiding each segment into place in the completed ring as the roller chain moves it annularly within the frame.
14. A tunnel lining apparatus as claimed in claim 13 wherein a plurality of roller chains are provided, some adapted to move clockwise and at least one adapted to move counterclockwise whereby the segments are drawn into tight contact to form a completed liner ring.
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