US 3678947 A
An eyeliner consisting of a marker-type applicator with a substantially rigid tip and a coloring matter of low viscosity dispersions of carbon particles in an aqueous medium. The carbon particles are of substantially 0.2 micron or less, do not settle out in the capillaries of the parallelly-oriented fibers of the ink reservoir and pen tip, and are smaller than the diameters of the capillaries of the fibers used in the marker-type applicator. The small-size particles pass between the fibers of the fibrous members of the applicator without clogging the capillaries. The use of such ultra-fine particle size dispersions in such markers permits the making of finer and more accurate lines around the eye than with brush-type applicators.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Ehrlich 1 July 25, 1972 1 EYELINER 2,185,110 12/1939 Coleman ..l06/24 2,933,406 4/ 1960 Salzberg et al.
 Ehrhch New 3,446,647 5/1969 Rizner 106/24 x  Assignees: Melvin J. Davidson; Bernard M. Zitomer,
New York, NY.
Primary ExuminerLouis G. Mancene Assistant Examiner-J. N. Eskovitz Attorney-Sparrow and Sparrow 57] ABSTRACT An eyeliner consisting of a marker-type applicator with a substantially rigid tip and a coloring matter of low viscosity dispersions of carbon particles in an aqueous medium. The carbon particles are of substantially 0.2 micron or less, do not settle out in the capillaries of the parallelly-oriented fibers of the ink reservoir and pen tip, and are smaller than the diameters of the capillaries of the fibers used in the marker-type applicator. The small-size particles pass between the fibers of the fibrous members of the applicator without clogging the capillaries. The use of such ultra-fine particle size dispersions in such markers permits the making of finer and more accurate lines around the eye than with brush-type applicators.
16 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This application is a continuation-in-part application of my copending application Ser. No. 831,069, filed June 6, 1969 and now 0.5. Pat. No. 3,605,764.
An eyeliner that has been developed in the past and described in my copending application, consists of a case or housing, absorbent fibrous members arranged in a parallel manner relative to each other, and a coloring liquid ofv low viscosity which is absorbed through capillary action by the fibrous members. The coloring liquid is transported from the fibrous members within the case, to a tip and absorbent applicator which protrudes from the case. The non-protruding end of the applicator is held within the case and in close contact with the fibrous members. The coloring liquid is also transported from the fibrous member to the applicator within the case or housing, through capillary action.
The transporting of the coloring liquid through capillary action, in this manner, is accomplished. by relying on the condition that the liquid is of very low viscosity and, moreover, does not contain any solid particles which might clog the capillaries. The coloring liquid which is used for this purpose consists essentially of a concentrated solution of urea in water, with the addition of a water-soluble dye. This dye is also a soluble dye. This dye is also soluble in concentrated urea solutions. The urea is used in the solution for the purpose of producing a rapid drying effect of the coloring liquid on the skin without resulting in caking or film-forming.
The capillaries between the parallel fibers within the case or housing are of the diameter which will not permit the passage of liquid coloring substances that are used customarily for eye cosmetics. Such usual coloring substances for eye cosmetics consist of finely ground pigments which are dispersed in a non-irritating vehicle. The common liquid eye cosmetics are usually applied with thin and soft brushes.
It has been found thus far, however, that such fine applicator brushes may be replaced with even finer pointed pen applicators. The use of such pointed pen applicators has the advantage that a finer and more accurate line may be drawn with the tip of the pen, than is possible with a brush. in using such pen applicators, however, it is essential to be limited to liquids which do not clog the capillaries of the fibrous members. It is the purpose of these fibrous members to store, retain and transport the coloring liquid.
Accordingly, it is the object of the present invention to provide an eyeliner composition which may be applied with a substantially fine marker pen tip, and which will not clog the capillaries of fibers arranged parallel to each other within a case or housing.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an eyeliner which will dry rapidly and will not smear or vanish when worn normally by the user.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an eyeliner with the foregoing characteristics and whereby the lines made by the eyeliner may be readily removed with simple non-irritant solutions.
The objects of the present invention are achieved by using a low viscosity dispersion of carbon particles in an aqueous medium. The carbon particles that are used have a size which is smaller than the diameter of the capillaries of the parallelly arranged fibers. The dispersion permits the eyeliner to be ap plied with coloring matter through a fine marker type of pen tip. The carbon particles have a size of substantially 0.2 microns or less, and the particles will pass through the capillaries of the fibers without clogging them. The carbon particles as used in accordance with the present invention, will not settle out or precipitate over a long period of time, once they are retained within the capillaries. This condition applies even to substantially very diluted dispersions. When not retained in capillaries within a case, or when not retained through capillary action, such carbon particles, on the other hand, will settle and form sedimentations in substantially diluted dispersions withili relatively short time intervals.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A marker pen-type eyeliner with a substantially rigid tip, using a dispersion of ultrafine carbon particles in an aqueous solution. The marker has a plurality of elongated fibrous elements housed within a case. The fibrous elements form capillaries which serve to store retain and transport the coloring liquid used for the eyeliner. To prevent clogging of the capillaries the ink is a low-viscosity dispersion of carbon particles in an aqueous solution. The carbon particles have a size of substantially 0.2 micron or less and will not settle out or precipitate over a long period of time once they are held in the capillaries of the fibrous elements. The aqueous vehicle contains fatty acid esters of polyglycols. The marker pen with rigid tip makes it possible to draw fine lines easier than with a hairbrush.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the following description and in the claims, parts will be identified by specific names for convenience, but such names are intended to be as generic in their application to similar parts as the art will permit. Like reference characters denote like parts in the several figures of the drawing, in which FIG. 1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the eyelid liner in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an end view of the applicator tip of the eyelid liner in FIG. 1, and shows three different possible geometric embodiments. 7
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawing, the-low viscosity coloring liquid for application to the eyelid, is retained in elongated fibers 10. The fibers are bunched together and held closely within a case 12. The latter may be made of drawn metal or extruded plastic. The case is sealed at one end 12a and provided with a flange portion 12b at the other end.
A cap 14 has an internal portion 14a recessed to fit over the flange 12b in a suitable manner. When the eyeliner is not in use, the cap 14 is pressed over the flange 12b, so that the recessed portion 14a fits snugly about the flange portion 12b. The cap 14 is made of material similar to that described for the case 12. To use the eyeliner, the cap 14 may be simply snapped off the flange 12b. After use of the eyeliner, the cap may be snapped back on, so that the eyeliner may be fully closed in a convenient manner.
An applicator in the form of a substantially rigid tip 16 is tightly held between the fibrous elements 10 within the case 12, and projects partially past the flange 12b of the case. The fibers 10 may be compressed so that they lie parallel to each other within the case which may be designed to resemble a cigarette-sized or pencil-sized member. The tip 16 contacts intimately the fibers which are pressed together within the case 12. The fibers serve as an ink reservoir in which the fibers, oriented parallel to each other, are saturated or nearly saturated with the colorant. The ink with which the line is drawn on the eyelid, is held and transported by capillary action of the parallel fibers. The tip 16 may have one of several convenient possible cross sections shown in FlG. 2. Thus, the tip 16 may have a fine point extending from a triangular cross section as shown in FlG. 2a, or a semi-circular cross section as shown in FIG. 212. When having a rectangular cross section as shown in FIG. 20, the tip 16 may terminate in a sharply defined line rather than a point.
In accordance with the present invention, carbon particles of 0.2 microns or smaller in size, are used to produce an eyeliner with coloring matter which may be applied with a fine marking pen tip. Dispersions of such carbon particles are used in an aqueous vehicle containing fatty acid esters of polyglycols, such as polyoxyethylene glycol. The fatty acid of such esters is preferably oleic acid. However, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, or stearic acid, etc., may also be used. Another preferred ester is polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate.
In a substantially neutral dispersion, as much as 28 percent of carbon can be dispersed to form a stable master dispersion. A slightly alkaline dispersion can tolerate up to 35 percent carbon and still remain a stable and very liquid master dispersion. Such a dispersion can contain, for example, substantially from 5 to parts by weight, of the fatty acid polyglycol esters, with the balance being constituted of water.
A neutral dispersion with 28 percent of carbon, as above, moreover, can be further diluted to yield dispersions of lower viscosity. The resulting dispersions possess the desired properties and characteristics required for the improved applicator for the eyeliner. Examples of such dispersions are given below:
Examples: FROM 2% per weight or less such as 0.1% of carbon dispersion with 2.8% carbon by weight 98% per weight or more of an aqueous urea solution with 47% urea by weight 55% per weight or more of carbon dispersion (28% solids) 45% per weight or less of aqueous urea solution (47% urea) The preceding dispersions will yield shades ranging from light gray to jet black. In particular, the dispersions are stored and held in a cylindrically shaped ink reservoir which consists of parallelly oriented, tightly compressed fibers 10 which might have a length of, e.g., 115 mm and a diameter of 7mm. The ink reservoir is enclosed in the casing 12. The rigid applicator tip 16 also consists of fibers such as parallelly oriented nylon fibers or felt. The tips might, for example, have a length of 25 mm and a diameter of 2 mm, and be pointed of one side. The fibers may be held together by a binder, at least at the outside of the tip. The non-pointed end of the tip extends through a tightly fitting opening into the casing and is in intimate contact with the ink reservoir. The pointed tip is outside the casing and the dispersions are fed from the ink reservoir into the tip and are applied around the eye by the tip. Such applicator tips are well known in the art and are commercially available.
A borderline blend contains substantially 63 percent carbon master dispersion (28 percent by weight carbon) and 37 percent urea solution (47 percent by weight urea). A blend containing 60 percent by weight master carbon dispersion will flow with difficulty through the capillaries of the ink reservoir. However, such a'blend does not flow with added difliculty through the tip of the applicator. Such a blend of 60 percent master solution with 40 percent of urea solution contains 16.8 percent by weight carbon. Instead of blending the carbon master dispersion with urea solution, the master dispersion can be diluted with just water. Blends which will yield shades from light gray to jet black when applied with the pointed pen tip applicator, described above, can be derived from the fol lowing examples:
dispersion (28% and 50% by weight or more water It has been found that a blend containing approximately 17 percent urea, will flow more readily within the capillaries, than a blend which contains no urea whatsoever. Whereas one might suspect that a dilution of the carbon master dispersion with plain water would serve to increase the flowability within the capillaries, while a dilution with the concentrated urea solution having a solid contents of 47 percent would decrease the flowability, the reverse situation is, in fact, true.
Instead of blending the carbon master dispersion-(28 percent carbon) with either urea solution or plain water, it is also possible to use water solutions of thickening agents. It is essential, however, that such thickening agents be present only in small quantities and that they be of low viscosity. Examples of such agents are methyl cellulose, havinga methoxyl content from substantially 27.5 percent to substantially 31.5 percent and being of IO cps (centipoise) grade. This implies that a 2 percent by weight aqueous solution of the methyl cellulose ether has a viscosity of 10 cps at 20 C. Blends can be made with such methyl cellulose solutions containing preferably one-half to 1 percent methyl cellulose.
Other thickening agents can be used in place of methyl cellulose, provided that they will produce solutions with viscosities which are substantially similar to those enumerated in the preceding examples using methyl cellulose. Such other thickening agents may include CMC, or polyvinyl alcohol, for example.
Unlike what one might suspect, the gray shades are obtained' through the use of high percentages of the carbon master dispersion, such as 60 percent, as well as through the use of very low percentages of the master solution. Those blends which fall within these limits, produce very black shades. 1
With carbon particles of the very small size such as 0.2 microns or smaller, a relatively large surface area is realized when compared to the surface area obtainable with the use of larger particles. Dispersions of such finely divided particles, furthermore, dry almost as rapidly as concentrated urea solutions. Concentrated urea solutions have the characteristic that they crystallize rapidly with subsequent quick release of water and drying. However, the quick drying of solutions with smallsize carbon particles, is due to the large surface area of the carbon particles and their quick water release.
When a line is marked on the skin with a concentrated urea solution containing a dyestufisoluble therein, the line will dry within approximately 4 seconds. At the same time, a line marked with a blend of urea solution and carbon master dispersion (28 percent carbon), will dry within approximately 4-6 seconds under similar conditions. A blend with water and carbon master dispersion 28 percent carbon) will dry within 5-7 seconds, depending upon the amount of carbon present in the blend. The drying time is also dependent upon composition, fabrication, and shape of the applicator tip. Thus, the applicator tip may be designed and fabricated to produce very fine lines, thin lines,.or relatively broad lines. A very fine line tends to dry more rapidly than a relatively. broad line. A fine line may be drawn more readily and easier with a pen tip than with a hair brush.
When using the blend with compositions described in the preceding examples, smooth and cake-free lines result upon drying, when the lines are applied through a marker or applicator of the type noted above. Whereas the marked lines on the skin will withstand running water, they can be readily removed through wiping action applied gently with water and cotton. A relatively more rapid removal of the lines can be accomplished through the use of water and soap or urea solutrons.
To produce brown-colored lines on the skin, a caramel solution may be used. Such a caramel solution may contain, for example, 5-10 percent caramel in water. Darker shades may be obtained by adding carbon master dispersion (28 percent carbon) of 5 percent or more, depending on the shade desired.
What is claimed is:
1. An eyeliner comprising, in combination, a casing; absorbent fibrous members within said casing; coloring liquid of substantially low viscosity absorbed by said fibrous members by capillary action, and being a dispersion of carbon particles substantially less than 0.2 microns in an aqueous vehicle containing fatty acid esters of polyglycols; an applicator member with rigid applicating tip protruding from said casing and pressed between fibrous members substantially surrounding the portion of said tip within said casing, said casing being sealed for retaining said liquid therein, whereby a fine line may be drawn close to the eyelid leaving the eye free from irritation and sensitive areas, said line drawn close to the eyelid drying while leaving the skin free from crystals; and cap means attachable to said casing for covering said applicating tip protruding from said casing when not in use.
2. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said polyglycol fatty acid esters comprise esters of polyoxyethylene glycol.
3. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fatty acid esters comprise the esters oleic acid.
4. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fatty acid esters comprise the esters linoleic acid.
5. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fatty acid esters comprise the esters palmitic acid.
6. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fatty acid esters comprise the esters stearic acid.
7. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein'said ester comprises polyoxethylene sorbitan monooleate.
8. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said dispersion comprises FROM 9. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said dispersion comprises 50% by weight or more water.
10. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 including thickening agents.
11. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 including a solution of caramel in water for producing brown-colored lines.
12. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 including capillary means for retaining and transporting said solution, the size of said carbon particles being smaller than said capillaries.
13. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1, wherein said fibrous members are parallely oriented and have a length exceeding substantially mm.
14. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fibrous members are cellulose acetate.
15. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fibrous members are acrylic fibers.
16. The eyeliner as defined in claim 1 wherein said fatty acid esters comprise the esters of the group of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid.