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Publication numberUS3681490 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 1, 1972
Filing dateJul 22, 1969
Priority dateJul 22, 1969
Publication numberUS 3681490 A, US 3681490A, US-A-3681490, US3681490 A, US3681490A
InventorsDavid R Melrose, Ronald Lowdon Strait Patterson, Hugh Charles Reed
Original AssigneeNat Res Dev
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Artificial insemination of pigs
US 3681490 A
Abstract
A process for the artificial insemination of female pigs, which comprises the step of introducing into the environment of the female pig immediately prior to testing for oestrus response at least one compound selected from 5 alpha -androst-16-en-3-one and 3 alpha -hydroxy-5 alpha -androst-16-ene. In a preferred process the compound is administered in the form of a spray of liquid droplets bearing the steroid compound.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

IJnited States Patent Melrose et al. 45 Au 1, 1972 [54] ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF PIGS Chemical Abstracts (2) Vol. 69, entry 7568m, 1968 [72] Inventors: David R. Melrose, Reading; Ronald Nyhan The Vetermary Record 656- 658, June 13, 1964 Lowdon Straiton Patterson, M 1 Th V R d v l 78 N 5 Crickham near Wedmore; Hugh 1 g 19e66 etermary ecor O Charles Reed, Brent of Selby, all of England Primary Examiner-Richard L. Huff {73] Assignee: Nationale Research Development Attorney-Finnegan, Henderson and Farabow Corporation, London, England 22 Filed: July 22,1969 [57] ABSTRACT A process for the artificial insemination of female [21] Appl' 843789 pigs, which comprises the step of introducing into the environment of the female pig immediately prior to [52] US. Cl. ..424/2,424/238, 424/242, testing for oestrus response at least one compound 424/9 selected from 5a-androst-l6-en-3-one and 3a-hydrox- [51] Int. Cl. ..A61k 27/00 y-5a-androst-l6-ene. In a preferred process the com- [58] Field of Search ..424/238, 242, 2 pound is administered in the form of a spray of liquid droplets bearing the steroid compound. [56] References Cited Chemical Abstracts (1) Vol. 69, entry 74223w, 1968 OTHER PUBLICATIONS 19 Claims, No Drawings ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF PIGS The practice of artificial insemination of female pigs is becoming a matter of increasing importance to the pig breeder. As more pigs are raised intensively for pork and bacon production, it is necessary to keep more boars on the farm to serve the increasing number of sows. This is undesirable because the pedigree of the breeding boars may be low, there is a danger of transmitting disease and hereditary weakness, and the cost of purchase, housing and raising tested boars is substantial.

Artificial insemination offers the pig breeder the important opportunity of improving his stock by the use of top quality semen obtained from approved boars.

In the female pig, the optimum time during the period of oestrus for artificial insemination is relatively short and is usually judged subjectively by the response of the sow to pressure on her back. The majority of sows will give a positive result to this test in the absence of a boar, in which case insemination can be easily carried out. However, about 20 percent of sows will not respond, thereby negating attempts at insemination. The sight, sound or smell of the entire male is apparently necessary to stimulate the oestrus response in these particular animals.

In view of the disadvantages of using boars, or using crude body fluids derived from boars, chemical compounds with physiological activity which stimulate the oestrus response in sows are of major interest and importance. It has now been found that two closely related steroid compounds have the desired activity.

In a process for the artificial insemination of female pigs, the present invention provides the step of introducing into the environment of the female pig immediately prior to testing for oestrus response at least one compound selected from 5a-androst-l6-en-3-one and 3a-hydroxy-5 a-androstl 6-ene.

The steroid compound is preferably introduced into the air the pig is breathing, conveniently by keeping the pig in an enclosed space and spraying the steroid compound into this enclosed space to introduce a large number of very small particles or liquid droplets bearing the steroid compound. It has been found that very soon after inhaling the particles or droplets bearing the steroid compound the pig will give a positive response to the back pressure test almost immediately if in oestrus indicating that it is timely to attempt artificial insemination. As mentioned above, if artificial insemination is attempted in the conventional manner, about percent of the pigs do not respond to the back pressure test, and in these cases it is not possible to establish the optimum time to attempt insemination and attempts are usually unsuccessful unless the time is right. By using the process of the present invention about half of the 20 percent will give a response to the back pressure test. The present invention thus enables artificial insemination of pigs to be carried out in a more efficient and expeditious manner than is possible at present.

A further feature of the invention provides a composition for determining the time of oestrus in a process for the artificial insemination of female pigs comprising 5a-androst-l6-en-3-one and/or 3a-hydroxy-5a-androst-l6-ene, together with an inert carrier which will enable the steroid compound to be presented to the pig and detected by the sense of smell.

Preferably the composition is administered in the form of a spray which may be apowder, but is preferably a liquid, particularly an aerosol spray which may be delivered from an aerosol container, and accordingly a preferred composition according to the invention is one in which the inert carrier comprises an aerosol propellent.

Any of the customary propellants, compatible with the steroid compounds, may be used, for example the various Freons and Arctons, that is to say the various perhalogenated lower alkanes. The steroid compounds may be introduced into the aerosol propellant in a small quantity of an organic solvent, preferably a volatile solvent such as diethyl ether. Only very small quantities of the steroid compounds are required for inhalation by the pig and successful results have been obtained with aerosols containing about to 1,000 #g. per 100 g. of propellant which are sprayed to release about 2 g. of mixture for every pig, that is to say about 2 to 20 pg. of steroid compound.

The following Examples are given to illustrate the compositions and process of the invention:

EXAMPLE 1 5a-androst-l6-en-3-one is introduced in 0.5 ml. diethyl ether into a few milliliters (about 10 ml.) of Freon 12-11 (a 50/50 mixture by volume of dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane) contained in an open aerosol can. A further 1.5 ml. ether is added to this composition to give a total volume of ether equal to 2.0 ml., a quantity common to all formulations. The weight of the mixture is made up to 50 g. with more propellant, the aerosol can is sealed in the conventional way, and fitted with a valve designedto deliver a fine spray when operated. This aerosol can is designated A4 and contains pg. 5aandrost-l6-en-3-one in 50 g. propellant. A similar aerosol is formulated containing l50p.g. 3a-hydroxy-5 a-androstl 6-ene and designated 8.5.

The back pressure test is applied to all sows and gilts negative, now give a positive response. A series of control experiments are run in which a few drops of a mixture of boar preputial fluid and urine are placed on the snout of the female. This practice is not to be recommended for the reasons of hygiene discussed earlier, and it is found that in this control positive results to the back pressure test are obtained only in about 25 percent of the previously negative sample.

The following figures show the number of positive results obtained from previously negative sows and gilts when tested with the control and steroid compositions, expressed as a ratio of the number tested.

control composition EXAMPLE 2 Steroid Composition A.8

Control Composition 22/40 /40 We claim:

1. In a process for the artificial insemination of female pigs, which includes the step of testing for oestrus response prior to attempted insemination, the improvement which comprises the step of introducing into the environment of the female pig immediately prior to testing for oestrus response at least one compound selected from 5a-androst46-en-3-one and 3ozhydroxy-Sa-androstl 6-ene.

2. A process according to claim 1, in which the compound is administered in the form of a spray of liquid droplets bearing the steroid compound.

3. A process according to claim 1, in which the quantity of steroid compound used is from 2 to 20 pg.

4. The process according to claim 1, wherein the compound is Sa-androstl 6-en-3-one.

5. The process according to claim 4, wherein the compound is introduced into the environment of the female pig with an inert carrier comprising a perhalogenated lower alkane aerosol propellant.

6. The process according to claim 1, wherein the compound is Sa-hydroxy-Sa-androst-l6-ene.

7. The process according to claim 6, wherein the compound is introduced into the environment of the female pig with an inert carrier comprising a perhaiogenated lower alkane aerosol propellant.

8. A composition for determining the time of oestrus in a process for the artificial insemination of female pigs, which comprises at least one steroid compound selected from Sor-androstl 6-en-3-one and 3a-hydroxy- 5a-androst-l6-ene and an inert carrier which will enable the steroid compound to be presented to the pig and detected by the sense of smell.

9. A composition according to claim 8, in which the inert carrier is a sprayable powder.

10. A composition according to claim 8, in which the inert carrier comprises a volatile organic solvent present in bulk.

11. A composition according to claim 8, in which the inert carrier is a sprayable liquid.

12. A composition according to claim 8, in which the inert carrier comprises an aerosol propellant present in bulk and the composition is maintained under a superatmospheric pressure.

13. A composition according to claim 12, in which the aerosol propellant is a perhalogenated lower alkane.

14. A composition according to claim 12, comprising from to 1000 pg. of the compound per 100 g. of

aerosol propellant.

15. An aerosol container containing a composition according to claim l2.

16. The composition according to claim 8, wherein the compound is 3a-hydroxy-Sa-androstl 6-ene.

17. The composition according to claim 16, wherein the inert carrier comprises a perhalogenated lower alkane aerosol propellant.

18. The composition according to claim 8, wherein the compound is Sa-androstl 6-en-3-one.

19. The composition according to claim 18, wherein the inert carrier comprises a perhalogenated lower alkane aerosol propellant.

UNiTsn STATES PATENT FFFECi l Patent No. 2, 681, 490 Dated August 1, 1972 Inventor(s) David R. Melrose et al It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

The third coinventor, listed as "Hugh Charles Reed", should be -Hugh Charles Brent Reed".

The residence of the third co-inventor, listed as "Brent of Selby",

should be --Selby.

The assignee of the invention, listed as "Nationale Research Development Corporation", should be --National Research Development Corporation.

Column 3, the table at the end of Example 2 should be:

--Steroid Composition A. 8 Control Composition July 21, 1969 Great Britain ---35201 Signed and sealed this 15th day of May 1973.

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD MJLETC HERJR, ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Attestlng Officer Commissioner of Patents :ORM PO-105O (10-69) USCOMM'DC 60376-P59 U.S. GOVERNMEN PINTIHG OFFICE: i969 O-366-33l UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CER'lllFlCATE m (IQRRECTWN Patent 3,681 ,490 Da August 1 1972 Inventor(s) Davld R Melrose t al It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

The third co-inventor, listed as "Hugh Charles Reed", should be -'LIugh Charles Brent Reed".

The residence of the third co-irlventor, listed as "Brent of Selby",

should be Selby-.

The assignee of theinvention, listed as "Nationals Research Dei elopment Corporation", should be -National Research Development Corporation. I

Column 3, the tablev at the end of Example 2 should be:

"Steroid Composition A. 8 Control Composition On cover sheet insert v (30) Foreign Application Priority Data This certificate supersedes Certificate of Correction issued May 15, 1973.

Signed and sealed this 3rd day of July 1973.

'ORM Po-1o50 ([0459) (SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. Rene Tegtmeyer Attesting Officer Acting Commissioner of Patents USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 w uis. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I969 0*366-334.

Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Chemical Abstracts (1) Vol. 69, entry 74223w, 1968
2 *Chemical Abstracts (2) Vol. 69, entry 7568m, 1968
3 *Melrose, The Veterinary Record, Vol. 78, No. 5, pp. 159 168, 1966
4 *Nyhan, The Veterinary Record, Vol. 76, No. 24, pg. 656 658, June 13, 1964
Referenced by
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US5939570 *Jun 4, 1997Aug 17, 1999Pherin CorporationEstrenes for inducing hypothalamic effects
US5965552 *Dec 15, 1998Oct 12, 1999Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Administering androsta-4,16-dien-3-ol for treating tension, reducing anxiety; administering to the vomeronasal organ of individual
US5969168 *Sep 29, 1994Oct 19, 1999Pherin CorporationStimulate autonomic activity
US6352980Sep 21, 1999Mar 5, 2002Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Estrenes for inducting hypothalamic effects
EP1881836A1 *Jun 29, 2005Jan 30, 2008Phero Tech Inc.Method for preparing and using water-based steroid pheromone compositions
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/9.1, 514/178
International ClassificationA61K31/16
Cooperative ClassificationA61K31/16
European ClassificationA61K31/16