|Publication number||US3683212 A|
|Publication date||Aug 8, 1972|
|Filing date||Sep 9, 1970|
|Priority date||Sep 9, 1970|
|Also published as||CA956278A, CA956278A1, DE2144892A1, DE2144892B2, DE2144892C3|
|Publication number||US 3683212 A, US 3683212A, US-A-3683212, US3683212 A, US3683212A|
|Inventors||Steven I Zoltan|
|Original Assignee||Clevite Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (314), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Zoltan  PULSED DROPLET EJECTING SYSTEM  Inventor: Steven I. Zoltan, Shaker Heights,
 Assignee: Clevite Corporation  Filed: Sept. 9, 1970  Appl. No.: 70,838
 U.S. Cl ..3l0/8.3, 259/DIG. 44, 310/8, 310/8.l, 310/8.5, 3l0/9.1, 310/9.6, 346/75,
 Int. Cl ..H0lv 7/00, H04r 17/00  Field of Search ..3l0/8-8.3, 8.5, 310/8.6, 8.7, 9.1, 9.4, 9.6; 259/1 R, DIG. 41,
DIG. 44; 417/322; 346/75, 140
[ 1 Aug. 8, 1972 I OTHER PUBLICATIONS Ultrasonics-October 1967, pp. 214- 218, Article by E. G. Lierke entitled Ultrasonic Alomizer Incorporating a Self-Acting Liquid Supply.
Primary Examiner-J. D. Miller Assistant ExaminerMark O. Budd Attorney-Eber J. Hyde  ABSTRACT An electro-acoustic transducer is coupled to liquid in a conduit which terminates in a small orifice. Preferably, the acoustic impedance of the supply portion of the conduit is large compared with the acoustic impedance of the orifice. The liquid is under small or zero static pressure. Surface tension at the orifice prevents liquid flow when the transducer is not actuated. An electrical pulse with short rise time causes sudden volume change at the transducer, thereby creating an acoustic pressure pulse having sufficient amplitude to overcome the surface tension at the orifice and eject a small quantity of liquid therefrom. The expelled liquid is replaced by forward flow of liquid in the conduit under the influence of capillary forces in the orifice.
6 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PAIENTEDAus 8 m2 sum 2 0r '3 FIG.2b
INVENTOR. STEVEN l. ZOLTAN FIG.4
ATTORNEY STEVEN I. ZOLTAN ATTORNEY 1 PULSED DROPLET EJECTING SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION developed which employ a stream of ink droplets. The 1 ink under static pressure is expelled through a small orifice. The emerging stream of ink breaks up into droplets which tend to be of non-uniform size and spacing. It has been found that ultrasonic vibrations of suitable frequency applied to the nozzle or to the ink supply tend to regularize the spacing and size of the droplets. In some applications, such as character printers and facsimile recorders, it is necessary to prevent, controllably, some of the droplets from reaching the record medium. In U.S. Pat. No. 3,298,030 to Lewis and Brown, the unwanted droplets are deflected electrostatically away from the record medium into an ink dump. In U.S. Pat. No. 3,416,153 to Hertz et al, the ink jet is propelled through an opening in a shield to the record medium. When droplets are not wanted, the stream is dispersed by an electric field so that it is intercepted by the shield. These methods of droplet generation and control are relatively complicated and expensive. Streams of ink droplets may be developed without employing static pressure. In U.S. Pat. No. 2,512,743 to Hansell, a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer vibrates at a mechanical resonance frequency of the transducer. The pressure to eject the droplets is said to result from cavitation in the ink, with the quantity of ink expelled being controlled by modulating the ultrasonic power source.
In U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,360 to Williamson, a magnetostrictive transducer rod vibrates at a frequency well above the fundamental length mode resonance of the rod, presumably at a length mode overtone. One end of the vibrating rod is coupled to the ink adjacent to a flexible nozzle. The flexibility of the nozzle and a non-circular orifice provide a check valve action so that ink is expelled during each expansion stroke of the rod. The ink stream may be modulated by modulating the high frequency power source which drives the transducer.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The principal object of this invention is to provide a system which ejects a small quantity of liquid only upon electrical command.
Another object is to provide such a system which does not require a pressurized liquid supply.
Another object is to provide a system which ejects liquid upon electrical command, the quantity at each command being controllable.
According to the invention a reservoir supplies liquid through a conduit to an orifice which has acoustic impedance. A supply portion of the conduit, which communicates with the reservoir, is adapted for flow of liquid in both directions and has acoustic impedance at least as high as the acoustic impedance of the orifice. The conduit has a second portion located between the supply portion and the orifice. Means are provided for causing a droplet to be expelled from the orifice upon command comprising an electroacoustic transducer coupled to the liquid in the second portion of the conduit, and means for applying an electrical pulse to the transducer each time it is desired to have a droplet expelled from the orifice.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a system according to the invention partly in section and partl schematic. 0 3
FIG. 1a shows a modification of the system of FIG. 1.
FIG. lb shows another modification of the system of FIG. 1.
FIG. 2 shows one of many alternate circuit arrangements suitable for use in this invention.
FIG. 1a shows a modification of the circuit of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2b shows another modification of the circuit of FIG. 2.
FIG. 3 shows another suitable circuit arrangement.
FIG. 4 is a partial, sectional view illustrating a modified transducer-orifice arrangement.
FIG. 5 shows another transducer-orifice arrangement.
FIG. 6 is a sectional view of still another transducerorifice arrangement.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, a reservoir shown schematically at 1 contains ink or other liquid 2. A conduit indicated generally be reference characters 4 communicates with liquid 2 in the reservoir and is filled with the liquid. A small orifice 5 in conduit 4 is provided for exit of liquid, shown as droplets 7.
Conduit 4 comprises a length of small bore tubing 8, electroacoustic transducer 10, and orifice plate 11. Tube 8 may extend to the reservoir, or, as shown, conduit 4 may include a larger diameter portion 6, such as plastic tubing, connecting tube 8 with the reservoir.
Transducer 10 comprises a length of small diameter piezoelectric ceramic tubing 13. The diameter may, for example, be about 0.05 inch. Tube 13 is provided with electrode 14 on the inner surface and electrode 16 on the outer surface. The electrodes, as shown, do not extend to the ends of tube 13, but full length electrodes may be employed if desired. Tube 13 is polarized radially.
A thin wire 17 is wrapped around tube 13 in contact with outer electrode 16 and soldered thereto, as shown at 19. Wire 17 thus serves as one electrical terminal of the transducer.
Tube 8, made of any suitable metal, such as copper or stainless steel, is cemented into the end of ceramic tube 13 by means of conductive epoxy 9 which contacts inner electrode 14. Thus, tube 8 serves as the second electrical terminal for the transducer.
For orifice plate 11, it is convenient to use a jewel watch bearing. Such jewels are readily available at low cost and have accurately controlled dimensions in the range suitable for the present use. Orifice 5 may, for example, have diameter and length on the order of 0.06 millimeter. Jewel 11 may be attached to the end of transducer 10 by means of an epoxy adhesive 12.
Transducer 10 operates by virtue of the wellknown piezoelectric effect. When a d-c voltage is applied between the electrodes the length and the inside diameter of the tube both increase or decrease slightly, de-
pending on the polarity in relation to the polarity of the polarizing d-c voltage used during manufacture. The response is nearly instantaneous, being retarded very slightly by inertia reaction.
When it is-desired to have a small quantity of liquid expelled from orifice 5, a short rise time voltage pulse is applied to the transducer at terminals 8 and 17, the polarity being selected to cause contraction of the transducer. The resulting sudden decrease in the enclosed volume causes a small amount of liquid to be expelled from orifice 5. Some liquid also is forced by the pressure pulse back into tube 8, but the amount is relatively small, due to the high acoustic impedance created by the length and small bore of the tube.
From the foregoing, it may be seen that the system of this invention ejects a small quantity of liquid on command. The command signal is the short rise time pulse.
-By means of simple circuitry, command pulses may be supplied to cause ejection of a succession of small quantities of liquid according to any desired time pattern, limited only by the maximum response speed of the system. In FIG. I a train of command pulses corresponding to exiting droplets 7 is illustrated at 22.
Static pressure on the liquid is not required. However, small positive or negative pressure does not interfere with operation, the chief requirement being that such static pressure alone must not be great enough to overcome the surface tension of the liquid at orifice otherwise liquid may run out, or air may enter the system under quiescent conditions.
When the actuating electrical pulses have energy below the level required to overcome the surface tension at the orifice, droplets are not expelled, but under stroboscopic illuminationthe liquid can be observed bulging out of the orifice momentarily during each pulse. At somewhat higher drive energy levels, well developed single droplets are expelled, one for each pulse. At still higher energy levels, additional liquid is expelled in the form of additional, separate droplets, or the total amount of liquid expelled at each drive pulse may take the form of long cylinders of liquid with rounded ends. Thus, the quantity of liquid expelled at each pulse can be controlled by controlling the energy in the driving pulse. This enables use of the invention in recorders required to print with controlled shading, i.e., with gray scale, without the necessity of producing multiple ink spots per picture element.
Considerable latitude is available in the design of systems according to this invention. The interacting design variables are numerous and, as yet, a mathematical design technique has not been developed. However, the following guide lines and example should enable those skilled in electroacoustics to arrive at a satisfactory design.
To avoid wasting an excessive part of each transducer pulse in driving liquid from the transducer toward the reservoir, it is desirable to have relatively high acoustic impedance looking from the transducer into the supply portion of the conduit, as provided by small bore tube 8 in FIG. 1. However, this is not a requirement. Satisfactory performance may be obtained without providing any constriction in the conduit. A suitable arrangement is shown in FIG. la.
In FIG. la, liquid from a reservoir, not shown, is supplied to transducer 10' by plastic hose 6' which is forced over the end of the transducer. Electrical connection to the inner electrode 14 is provided by extending the electrode over the end of ceramic tube 13 to the outer surface, as shown at 14'. Thin wire conductor 17' is secured to electrode extension 14' by solder 19' and acts as a terminal for the transducer. With this arrangement, somewhat higher amplitude electrical pulses are required to expel liquid.
FIG. lb shows a modification of the construction of FIG. la in which the supply line acoustic impedance is made at least as high as the impedance of the exit orifice, not including the efiect of surface tension at the orifice. The modification consists in cementing to the inlet end of the transducer 10' a jewel 1 1 having opening 5' with the same dimensions as exit orifice 5.
Although the arrangements of FIGS. 1a and lb are satisfactory, generally it is desirable to provide higher acoustic impedance at the transducer inlet. In the construction of FIG. 1, this is accomplished by use of small bore tube 8. Other alternatives include a thin slit, or a porous member, or other acoustic resistance, at the transducer inlet through which the liquid must pass. Furthermore, some advantage would accrue when using a tube such as 8 in FIG. 1, by adding an acoustic resistance at the inlet end dimensioned to act as a matched acoustic termination for the tube as a transmission line. This would reduce, or eliminate, acoustic resonance effects in tube 8. However, excellent results have been obtained without such termination.
The change in volume within transducer 10, when the latter is pulsed, must exceed the volume of liquid to be ejected at orifice 5. The ceramic composition and the dimensions of tube 13 and the energy of the actuating pulses are factors that may be traded in arriving at a suitable design. Good results have been attained with transducer volume change calculated to be about four times the volume of the liquid to be expelled. For a fully electroded thin wall tube, unrestrained by end clamping or acoustic load, the fractional volume change due to the piezoelectric effect is approximately:
where (AV/ V) volume change per unit volume d piezoelectric strain constant E applied voltage t= thickness of tube wall Care must be taken to measure wall thickness t in units consistent with the units used in expressing (1 usually MKS units. THe negative sign indicates contraction when the applied voltage has the same polarity as the original polarizing voltage.
Another requirement is that the rate of change of volume must be sufficient in relation to the acoustic impedance loading the transducer to develop enough pressure to overcome the surface tension at orifice 5.
A variety of simple circuits may be used to apply suitable command pulses to the transducer. FIG. 2 shows one example in which the capacitance of the transducer is used as part of the pulse shaping circuit. In FIG. 2, transducer 10 is shown schematically in cross section. The encircled polarity signs indicate that the ceramic tube employed in this example was polarized during manufacture with the inner electrode positive, and the outer electrode negative. A d-c supply 20, shown for simplicity as a battery, has the negative terminal connected to the inner electrode 14. The positive tenninal of supply 20 is connected through series resistors 23, 25 to the outer electrode 16. Resistor 23 has a relatively high resistance and resistor 25 has a relatively low resistance.
Transistor 26 is used as a switch. Collector 32 is connected to the junction between resistors 23 and 25, and the emitter 34 is connected to the negative side of supply 20. Control pulses 31 may be applied between base 28 and emitter 34 via terminals 29.
Under quiescent conditions, the switch is open and the transducer capacitance is charged to the voltage of supply 20. Since the polarity of the applied voltage is the opposite of the original polarizing polarity, the transducer is in an expanded state.
When a pulse 31 is applied to terminals 29, transistor 26 switches to a low value of collector-emitter resistance for the duration of the pulse. This permits the capacitance of the transducer to discharge rapidly through low resistance 25 and the transistor ON resistance. The transducer responds by contracting suddenly, expelling a small quantity of liquid at orifice S, as previously described.
When pulse 31 falls approximately to zero, transistor 26 turns off, allowing the transducer capacitance to recharge through resistors 23, 25 to the voltage of supply 20. Due to the higher value of resistor 23, the charging takes place relatively slowly. The transducer responds by expanding slowly, while liquid from tube 8 replaces the liquid expelled, as previously described. Thus, in response to control pulses 31, the circuit provides short rise time command pulses having relatively long decay times, as shown at 33. For best results, the decay time should be at least four times the rise time.
Some improvement in performance is obtained by adding an inductance 36 in series with the collector of the transistor, as shown in FIG. 2a, or in series with the transducer, as shown in FIG. 2b.
For a transducer having capacitance of about 5,000 picofarads an inductance in the range of l to millihenries has given good results. A typical wave form for the pulse voltage applied to the transducer is shown at 33.
An example of a satisfactory system design is summarized in the following table, referring to the construction of FIG. 1:
Ceramic tube 13 Length 12.7 millimeters lnside diameter .76 millimeters Wall thickness .25 millimeters Composition lead zirconate-lead titanate type having the following published nominal Liquid Water base ink having viscosity and surface tension similar to water Drive circuit FIG. 2b
Supply 50 volts Transistor 26 M1 421 Resistor 25 200 ohms Resistor 23 1000 ohms Inductor 36 2 millihenries Control pulse 31 Amplitude 3 milliamperes Duration 20 microseconds Droplets Diameter of ink spot .13 millimeter Exit velocity 1 to 2 meter/second Repetition rate up to 50,000/second For definitions of the characteristics listed for the ceramic material, reference may be made to: lRE Standards of Piezoelectric Crystals Measurements of Piezoelectric Ceramics. Proceedings of the [RE Vol. 49, No. 7,July 1961 (IEEE 179l961).
With the circuit of FIG. 2 there is a limit to the supply voltage 20 beyond which depolarization of the ceramic may result. The limit depends on the composition of the ceramic material and on the wall thickness of tube 13. FIG. 3 illustrates a circuit arrangement that does not have these limitations but requires additional components.
In FIG. 3 the positive terminal of supply 20 is connected to the inner electrode 14 of transducer 10 and the negative terminal is connected through transistor switch 26 and resistor 25 to outer electrode 16. When the transistor is off, no voltage appears at the transducer. When the transistor is on, the voltage of supply 20 is applied to the transducer with the same polarity used during polarization of the ceramic tube, thus, depolarization due to the excessive voltage cannot take place. Blocking capacitor 35 couples the control pulses applied at terminals 29 to the transistor base 28. Diode 37 permits the normal quiescent charge to be reestablished at capacitor 35 as the control pulse falls to zero.
Under quiescent conditions transistor 26 is turned off and, therefore, transducer 10 has no charge. When a control pulse 31 occurs, transistor 26 turns on and the capacitance of transducer 10 charges rapidly through low resistance 25 and the ON resistance of the transistor. This requires a low impedance supply at 20. The transducer responds by contracting rapidly, expelling liquid through the orifice. As pulse 31 falls to zero, transistor 26 is turned off and the capacitance of the transducer discharges relatively slowly through large resistance 23. The transducer responds by expanding slowly while the expelled liquid is replaced. An inductance may be connected in series with the transistor or transducer as in FIGS. 20 or 2b.
1f the liquid is corrosive to the electrode material of the ceramic tube, the construction of FIG. 4 may be employed. In this case, the small bore liquid supply tube 38 extends through transducer tube 13. It is shown necked down at the end to form nozzle shaped orifice 39. However, a watch jewel, such as 11 in FIG. 1, or other orifice arrangement may be used. Transducer tube 13 surrounding the conduit is in stress transmitting engagement with the wall of the conduit by virtue of epoxy cement 40 and, therefore, the transducer is coupled to the liquid within the conduit. This arrangement results in reduced sensitivity because of the stiffness of conduit tube 38, and, therefore, higher pulse energy is required to expel liquid and it is advantageous to use a circuit such as shown in FIG. 3.
It is not necessary that the liquid flow through the transducer. For example, in FIG. 5, conduit 42 comprises small bore supply section 8 enlarged at the end thereof for attachment of orifice plate 11. A T extension 41 couples to one end of transducer 10. The other end of transducer 10 is closed by cap 43. When a command pulse is applied, the transducer contracts suddenly, expelling liquid from the transducer into conduit 42. The resulting acoustic pressure pulse overcomes surface tension at orifice 5, causing ejection of liquid such as droplet 7. The high acoustic impedance of supply portion 8' retards flow back toward the reser- VOll'.
This invention is not limited to the use of tubular piezoelectric transducers. Different geometries and constructions may be used, as well as different transducer principles. One variation is to replace piezoelectric ceramic tube 13 of FIGS. 1,4, 5 with a tube formed from an electrostrictive material having little or no remanent polarization. In this case, a pulse of either polarity will cause the same volume contraction, and a circuit such as shown in FIG. 3 would be used.
Magnetostrictive transducers also may be employed. One way to do this is to use magnetostrictive material in forming tube 38 of FIG. 4. Transducer tube 13 then is replaced by an energizing winding magnetically coupled to the tube. To eject liquid, a short rise time current pulse is applied to the winding.
As another example, FIG. 6 shows a sectional view of a transducer-conduit assembly employing a thin piezoelectric ceramic disc 44. It is clamped around the periphery between O-ring gaskets 46, 47 within a housing made up of members 49, 50. A small cross section annular passageway 51 is formed around the disc by the inner walls of body members 49, 50, O-rings 46, 47, and the exposed edge of disc 44. A small bore liquid supply tube 8 is secured in opening 52in body member 50. The opening communicates with annular passageway 51. Tube 8 may extend to a liquid reservoir or may be coupled thereto by larger tube 6. A second opening 54 also communicates with annular passageway 51 and terminates at orifice plate 11. Thus, a liquid conduit is formed by supply tubes 6 and 8, opening 52, two parallel portions of annular passageway 51, opening 54, and orifice plate 11.
Ceramic disc 44, exposed to the liquid only at the rim, acts as an electroacoustic transducer coupled to the liquid. Flexible lead wires 55, 56 are soldered to the electrodes 58, 59 of disc 44 and act as terminals for the transducer.
When it is desired to expel liquid from orifice 5 a short rise time voltage pulse is applied to terminal wires 55, 56. This results in sudden expansion of the diameter of transducer 44, displacing liquid from annular passageway 51. The resulting acoustic pressure pulse expels liquid from orifice 5. As the pulse slowly goes to zero, liquid is pulled into annular passageway 51 from tube 8 to replace the liquid previously expelled.
Although many different circuit arrangements may be constructed to drive transducer 44, it is convenient to use a circuit similar to the circuit of FIG. 2. In this case, however, the negative side of supply 20 is connected to the electrode of transducer 44 that was negative during polarization. With this polarity, the quiescent voltage applied to transducer 44 holds the disc in diameter contracted condition. When transistor 26 is turned on by a pulse at terminals 29 the capacitance of the transducer discharges rapidly through the transistor and low resistance 25. The transducer responds by expanding suddenly to the diameter it had prior to connection of power supply 20 and expels liquid, as previously described. When the control pulse falls to zero, the transducer recharges to the voltage of supply 20, contracting in diameter as it does so.
While there have been described what are at present considered to be the preferred embodiments of this invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the invention, and it is aimed, therefore, in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A system adapted upon pulsing to expel a small quantity or a succession of small quantities of liquid in controlled manner, comprising:
a reservoir containing said liquid;
a conduit connected to said reservoir and communicating with the liquid therein and filled with said liquid under low or zero static pressure, said conduit having an exit orifice which is sufficiently small that surface tension in the absence of pulsing prevents said liquid from flowing therefrom;
a tubular transducer of given diameter surrounding said conduit in stress transmitting engagement therewith and thereby coupled to the liquid therein adjacent said orifice, said transducer being adapted to contract radially to displace a small quantity of said liquid overcoming said surface tension to expel a small quantity of said liquid through said orifice and to expand to said given diameter prior to a subsequent contraction;
electrical circuit means connected to said transducer for applying thereto an electrical pulse of a given polarity and with short rise time to cause said transducer to contract rapidly, and upon decay of said pulse to allow said transducer to expand;
said conduit during operation of said system at all times being open from said reservoir to said orifice whereby the liquid within said transducer is replaced by liquid from said reservoir to make up for said expelled liquid upon said termination of said pulse.
2. A system as described in claim 1 in which the transducer is a piezoelectric transducer.
3. A system as described in claim 1 in which the transducer comprises a tubular piezoelectric member which changes internal volume in response to an electrical signal, said tubular member surrounding said second portion of said conduit in stress transmitting engagement therewith.
4. A system as described in claim 1 in which the transducer is an electrostrictive transducer.
5. A system as described in claim 1 in which the transducer is a magnetostrictive transducer.
6. A system as described in claim 1 wherein said means for applying an electrical pulse includes means for adjusting the energy of said pulse according to the quantity of liquid that is desired to be expelled during said pulse.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2512743 *||Apr 1, 1946||Jun 27, 1950||Rca Corp||Jet sprayer actuated by supersonic waves|
|US3150592 *||Aug 17, 1962||Sep 29, 1964||Stec Charles L||Piezoelectric pump|
|US3215078 *||Aug 31, 1964||Nov 2, 1965||Stec Charles L||Controlled volume piezoelectric pumps|
|US3270672 *||Dec 23, 1963||Sep 6, 1966||Union Oil Co||Pump apparatus|
|US3371233 *||Jun 28, 1965||Feb 27, 1968||Edward G. Cook||Multifrequency ultrasonic cleaning equipment|
|US3427480 *||Jun 16, 1966||Feb 11, 1969||Sonoptics Corp||Piezoelectric cleaning device|
|US3441875 *||Aug 15, 1967||Apr 29, 1969||Branson Instr||Electrical switching circuit using series connected transistors|
|US3452360 *||Jul 28, 1967||Jun 24, 1969||Gen Precision Systems Inc||High-speed stylographic apparatus and system|
|1||*||Ultrasonics October 1967, pp. 214 218, Article by E. G. Lierke entitled Ultrasonic Alomizer Incorporating a Self Acting Liquid Supply.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3750564 *||Jan 19, 1972||Aug 7, 1973||Olympia Werke Ag||Electrostatic capillary apparatus for producing an imprint|
|US3800170 *||Mar 16, 1973||Mar 26, 1974||Ibm||Low power dissipation high voltage crystal driver|
|US3823408 *||Nov 29, 1972||Jul 9, 1974||Ibm||High performance ink jet nozzle|
|US3828357 *||Mar 14, 1973||Aug 6, 1974||Gould Inc||Pulsed droplet ejecting system|
|US3832579 *||Feb 7, 1973||Aug 27, 1974||Gould Inc||Pulsed droplet ejecting system|
|US3852773 *||Feb 28, 1974||Dec 3, 1974||Olympia Werke Ag||Ink ejection printing devices|
|US3859012 *||Aug 10, 1972||Jan 7, 1975||Coulter Electronics||Fluid ejecting mechanism|
|US3864685 *||Mar 29, 1974||Feb 4, 1975||Rca Corp||Replaceable fluid cartridge including magnetically operable fluid jet devices|
|US3869986 *||Jan 16, 1974||Mar 11, 1975||Pitney Bowes Inc||Ink jet postage printing apparatus|
|US3893131 *||Sep 4, 1973||Jul 1, 1975||Xerox Corp||Ink printer|
|US3903526 *||Oct 5, 1973||Sep 2, 1975||Cotter William L||Recording apparatus|
|US3965376 *||Jul 12, 1974||Jun 22, 1976||Gould Inc.||Pulsed droplet ejecting system|
|US3972474 *||Nov 1, 1974||Aug 3, 1976||A. B. Dick Company||Miniature ink jet nozzle|
|US3974508 *||Dec 16, 1974||Aug 10, 1976||Gould Inc.||Air purging system for a pulsed droplet ejecting system|
|US4020759 *||Mar 31, 1975||May 3, 1977||Vlisco B.V.||Method and apparatus for marking a web|
|US4025928 *||Apr 19, 1976||May 24, 1977||Gould Inc.||Unitary ink jet and reservoir|
|US4060812 *||Nov 15, 1976||Nov 29, 1977||International Business Machines Corporation||Nozzle for an ink jet printer|
|US4065775 *||Dec 11, 1975||Dec 27, 1977||Gould Inc.||Ink jet with uniform density trace control for recorders|
|US4095238 *||Sep 17, 1976||Jun 13, 1978||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Piezoelectric drive element for the printer heads used in ink-operated mosaic printer units|
|US4104646 *||Dec 10, 1976||Aug 1, 1978||Olympia Werke Ag||Ink ejection|
|US4112433 *||May 26, 1977||Sep 5, 1978||Xerox Corporation||Meniscus dampening drop generator|
|US4126867 *||Aug 29, 1977||Nov 21, 1978||Silonics, Inc.||Ink jet printer driving circuit|
|US4136346 *||Aug 22, 1977||Jan 23, 1979||Gould Inc.||Recorder pen with ink jet writing device|
|US4158847 *||Apr 5, 1978||Jun 19, 1979||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Piezoelectric operated printer head for ink-operated mosaic printer units|
|US4209794 *||Jun 23, 1978||Jun 24, 1980||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Nozzle plate for an ink recording device|
|US4223998 *||Jul 6, 1976||Sep 23, 1980||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Piezo-electric actuating element for recording heads|
|US4233610 *||Jun 18, 1979||Nov 11, 1980||Xerox Corporation||Hydrodynamically damped pressure pulse droplet ejector|
|US4245225 *||Nov 8, 1978||Jan 13, 1981||International Business Machines Corporation||Ink jet head|
|US4245227 *||Nov 13, 1979||Jan 13, 1981||International Business Machines Corporation||Ink jet head having an outer wall of ink cavity of piezoelectric material|
|US4266232 *||Jun 29, 1979||May 5, 1981||International Business Machines Corporation||Voltage modulated drop-on-demand ink jet method and apparatus|
|US4278983 *||May 23, 1979||Jul 14, 1981||Gould Inc.||Ink jet writing device|
|US4282535 *||Oct 24, 1979||Aug 4, 1981||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Circuit arrangement for the operation of recording nozzles in ink mosaic recording devices|
|US4308546 *||Nov 5, 1979||Dec 29, 1981||Gould Inc.||Ink jet tip assembly|
|US4339763 *||Nov 26, 1980||Jul 13, 1982||System Industries, Inc.||Apparatus for recording with writing fluids and drop projection means therefor|
|US4352570 *||Jun 19, 1980||Oct 5, 1982||Applied Plastics Co., Inc.||Vibratory treatment apparatus and method|
|US4354197 *||Oct 3, 1980||Oct 12, 1982||Ncr Corporation||Ink jet printer drive means|
|US4364068 *||Jan 30, 1981||Dec 14, 1982||Exxon Research & Engineering Company||Ink jet construction and method of construction|
|US4379246 *||May 9, 1980||Apr 5, 1983||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Polymeric piezoelectric drive element for writing jets in mosaic ink printing devices|
|US4379303 *||Jul 29, 1981||Apr 5, 1983||Hitachi, Ltd.||Ink-jet recording head apparatus|
|US4387383 *||Nov 12, 1981||Jun 7, 1983||Ncr Corporation||Multiple nozzle ink jet print head|
|US4389657 *||Nov 3, 1980||Jun 21, 1983||Exxon Research And Engineering Co.||Ink jet system|
|US4393384 *||Jun 5, 1981||Jul 12, 1983||System Industries Inc.||Ink printhead droplet ejecting technique|
|US4395719 *||Jan 5, 1981||Jul 26, 1983||Exxon Research And Engineering Co.||Ink jet apparatus with a flexible piezoelectric member and method of operating same|
|US4418353 *||Jun 7, 1982||Nov 29, 1983||Ncr Corporation||Ink control for ink jet printer|
|US4442443 *||Jun 18, 1982||Apr 10, 1984||Exxon Research And Engineering Co.||Apparatus and method to eject ink droplets on demand|
|US4459600 *||Nov 25, 1981||Jul 10, 1984||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Liquid jet recording device|
|US4459601 *||Jan 4, 1982||Jul 10, 1984||Exxon Research And Engineering Co.||Ink jet method and apparatus|
|US4475113 *||Mar 4, 1983||Oct 2, 1984||International Business Machines||Drop-on-demand method and apparatus using converging nozzles and high viscosity fluids|
|US4509059 *||Jun 1, 1982||Apr 2, 1985||Exxon Research & Engineering Co.||Method of operating an ink jet|
|US4520375 *||May 13, 1983||May 28, 1985||Eaton Corporation||Fluid jet ejector|
|US4528578 *||Dec 5, 1983||Jul 9, 1985||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.||Ink-jet printer damping|
|US4528579 *||Dec 5, 1983||Jul 9, 1985||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.||Ink-jet printer damping|
|US4530464 *||Jul 11, 1983||Jul 23, 1985||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Ultrasonic liquid ejecting unit and method for making same|
|US4531138 *||Dec 16, 1983||Jul 23, 1985||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Liquid jet recording method and apparatus|
|US4533082 *||Oct 14, 1982||Aug 6, 1985||Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, Limited||Piezoelectric oscillated nozzle|
|US4546361 *||Oct 26, 1983||Oct 8, 1985||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.||Ink jet printing method and device|
|US4558332 *||Mar 18, 1983||Dec 10, 1985||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet printer|
|US4560997 *||Jun 29, 1983||Dec 24, 1985||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method and apparatus for forming a pattern|
|US4595854 *||Apr 25, 1984||Jun 17, 1986||Nec Corporation||Drive circuit for piezoelectric stack|
|US4599626 *||Aug 2, 1984||Jul 8, 1986||Metromedia, Inc.||Ink drop ejecting head|
|US4604654 *||Jul 26, 1985||Aug 5, 1986||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Image forming method and apparatus|
|US4605167 *||Jan 17, 1983||Aug 12, 1986||Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, Limited||Ultrasonic liquid ejecting apparatus|
|US4611219 *||Dec 20, 1982||Sep 9, 1986||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Liquid-jetting head|
|US4625221 *||Apr 5, 1985||Nov 25, 1986||Fujitsu Limited||Apparatus for ejecting droplets of ink|
|US4630072 *||Jan 22, 1985||Dec 16, 1986||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.||Jet printing apparatus|
|US4641153 *||Sep 3, 1985||Feb 3, 1987||Pitney Bowes Inc.||Notched piezo-electric transducer for an ink jet device|
|US4641155 *||Aug 2, 1985||Feb 3, 1987||Advanced Color Technology Inc||Printing head for ink jet printer|
|US4646106 *||Feb 3, 1984||Feb 24, 1987||Exxon Printing Systems, Inc.||Method of operating an ink jet|
|US4651175 *||Nov 12, 1985||Mar 17, 1987||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Printer|
|US4680595 *||Nov 6, 1985||Jul 14, 1987||Pitney Bowes Inc.||Impulse ink jet print head and method of making same|
|US4692773 *||Jan 2, 1986||Sep 8, 1987||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Image forming method using image forming elements having different concentrations and pitches|
|US4695854 *||Jul 30, 1986||Sep 22, 1987||Pitney Bowes Inc.||External manifold for ink jet array|
|US4698644 *||Oct 27, 1986||Oct 6, 1987||International Business Machines||Drop-on-demand ink jet print head|
|US4703333 *||Jan 30, 1986||Oct 27, 1987||Pitney Bowes Inc.||Impulse ink jet print head with inclined and stacked arrays|
|US4713701 *||Mar 24, 1986||Dec 15, 1987||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Picture producing apparatus using multiple dot forming units and recording materials of different concentrations|
|US4713746 *||Dec 23, 1986||Dec 15, 1987||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method for forming pictures|
|US4714964 *||Dec 23, 1986||Dec 22, 1987||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Intermediate gradient image forming method|
|US4716418 *||Nov 19, 1984||Dec 29, 1987||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Apparatus and method for ejecting ink droplets|
|US4723129 *||Feb 6, 1986||Feb 2, 1988||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Bubble jet recording method and apparatus in which a heating element generates bubbles in a liquid flow path to project droplets|
|US4727379 *||Jul 9, 1986||Feb 23, 1988||Vidoejet Systems International, Inc.||Accoustically soft ink jet nozzle assembly|
|US4727436 *||Dec 23, 1986||Feb 23, 1988||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method and apparatus for producing a picture|
|US4740796 *||Feb 6, 1986||Apr 26, 1988||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Bubble jet recording method and apparatus in which a heating element generates bubbles in multiple liquid flow paths to project droplets|
|US4746929 *||Jan 16, 1987||May 24, 1988||Xerox Corporation||Traveling wave droplet generator for an ink jet printer|
|US4772911 *||Jun 16, 1987||Sep 20, 1988||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Image formation apparatus|
|US4783670 *||Feb 26, 1987||Nov 8, 1988||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.||Ink jet print head and manufacture thereof|
|US4828886 *||Nov 4, 1987||May 9, 1989||U.S. Philips Corporation||Method of applying small drop-shaped quantities of melted solder from a nozzle to surfaces to be wetted and device for carrying out the method|
|US4834637 *||Jul 24, 1986||May 30, 1989||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.||Manufacture of tubular elements for ink jet printers|
|US4877745 *||Mar 14, 1989||Oct 31, 1989||Abbott Laboratories||Apparatus and process for reagent fluid dispensing and printing|
|US4901092 *||Sep 30, 1988||Feb 13, 1990||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet recording head using a piezoelectric element having an asymmetrical electric field applied thereto|
|US4959659 *||Jun 27, 1988||Sep 25, 1990||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Color picture forming apparatus and method|
|US4972211 *||Mar 27, 1989||Nov 20, 1990||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet recorder with attenuation of meniscus vibration in a ejection nozzle thereof|
|US5119116 *||Jul 31, 1990||Jun 2, 1992||Xerox Corporation||Thermal ink jet channel with non-wetting walls and a step structure|
|US5172141 *||Nov 13, 1989||Dec 15, 1992||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet recording head using a piezoelectric element having an asymmetrical electric field applied thereto|
|US5179311 *||Feb 28, 1991||Jan 12, 1993||Nikon Corporation||Drive circuit for ultrasonic motors|
|US5182572 *||Apr 15, 1991||Jan 26, 1993||Dataproducts Corporation||Demand ink jet utilizing a phase change ink and method of operating|
|US5204689 *||Jun 5, 1991||Apr 20, 1993||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet recording head formed by cutting process|
|US5285215 *||Oct 27, 1987||Feb 8, 1994||Exxon Research And Engineering Company||Ink jet apparatus and method of operation|
|US5349852 *||Nov 15, 1991||Sep 27, 1994||Deka Products Limited Partnership||Pump controller using acoustic spectral analysis|
|US5517223 *||Dec 29, 1993||May 14, 1996||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Inkjet printing method and apparatus|
|US5526844 *||May 18, 1995||Jun 18, 1996||Deka Products Limited Partnership||Flow conrol system|
|US5533389 *||Sep 15, 1994||Jul 9, 1996||Deka Products Limited Partnership||Method and system for measuring volume and controlling flow|
|US5558504 *||Nov 14, 1994||Sep 24, 1996||Mydata Automation Ab||Magnetostrictive pump for applying pastes and adhesives|
|US5560247 *||Sep 15, 1993||Oct 1, 1996||Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Exhaust gas sampling device for outboard motor|
|US5560543 *||Sep 19, 1994||Oct 1, 1996||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Heat-resistant broad-bandwidth liquid droplet generators|
|US5575310 *||Jan 24, 1996||Nov 19, 1996||Deka Products Limited Partnership||Flow control system with volume-measuring system using a resonatable mass|
|US5625397 *||Nov 23, 1994||Apr 29, 1997||Iris Graphics, Inc.||Dot on dot ink jet printing using inks of differing densities|
|US5628411 *||Dec 1, 1994||May 13, 1997||Sortex Limited||Valve devices for use in sorting apparatus ejectors|
|US5646662 *||Jun 3, 1992||Jul 8, 1997||Seiko Epson Corporation||Recording head of an ink-jet type|
|US5681757 *||Apr 29, 1996||Oct 28, 1997||Microfab Technologies, Inc.||Process for dispensing semiconductor die-bond adhesive using a printhead having a microjet array and the product produced by the process|
|US5725825 *||Jul 9, 1996||Mar 10, 1998||Minolta Co., Ltd.||Method of producing piezoelectric element|
|US5757391 *||Apr 26, 1996||May 26, 1998||Spectra, Inc.||High-frequency drop-on-demand ink jet system|
|US5772106 *||Dec 29, 1995||Jun 30, 1998||Microfab Technologies, Inc.||Printhead for liquid metals and method of use|
|US5810988 *||Oct 1, 1996||Sep 22, 1998||Board Of Regents, University Of Texas System||Apparatus and method for generation of microspheres of metals and other materials|
|US5823428 *||Dec 8, 1994||Oct 20, 1998||The Technology Partnership Plc||Liquid spray apparatus and method|
|US5838350 *||Mar 31, 1994||Nov 17, 1998||The Technology Partnership Plc||Apparatus for generating droplets of fluid|
|US5927547 *||Jun 12, 1998||Jul 27, 1999||Packard Instrument Company||System for dispensing microvolume quantities of liquids|
|US5933165 *||Mar 17, 1995||Aug 3, 1999||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet recording apparatus and method using ink jet head having U-shaped wiring|
|US5943075 *||Oct 27, 1997||Aug 24, 1999||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University||Universal fluid droplet ejector|
|US5975682 *||Aug 7, 1997||Nov 2, 1999||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Standford Junior University||Two-dimensional fluid droplet arrays generated using a single nozzle|
|US6003388 *||Sep 17, 1997||Dec 21, 1999||The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration||System for manipulating drops and bubbles using acoustic radiation pressure|
|US6050679 *||Feb 13, 1996||Apr 18, 2000||Hitachi Koki Imaging Solutions, Inc.||Ink jet printer transducer array with stacked or single flat plate element|
|US6079283 *||Jan 22, 1998||Jun 27, 2000||Packard Instruments Comapny||Method for aspirating sample liquid into a dispenser tip and thereafter ejecting droplets therethrough|
|US6083762 *||Jan 16, 1998||Jul 4, 2000||Packard Instruments Company||Microvolume liquid handling system|
|US6112605 *||Apr 30, 1999||Sep 5, 2000||Packard Instrument Company||Method for dispensing and determining a microvolume of sample liquid|
|US6114187 *||Jan 8, 1998||Sep 5, 2000||Microfab Technologies, Inc.||Method for preparing a chip scale package and product produced by the method|
|US6203759||Apr 7, 1998||Mar 20, 2001||Packard Instrument Company||Microvolume liquid handling system|
|US6296811 *||Dec 10, 1998||Oct 2, 2001||Aurora Biosciences Corporation||Fluid dispenser and dispensing methods|
|US6325475||Apr 21, 1997||Dec 4, 2001||Microfab Technologies Inc.||Devices for presenting airborne materials to the nose|
|US6367925||Feb 28, 2000||Apr 9, 2002||Microfab Technologies, Inc.||Flat-sided fluid dispensing device|
|US6378988||Mar 19, 2001||Apr 30, 2002||Microfab Technologies, Inc.||Cartridge element for micro jet dispensing|
|US6394598||May 16, 2000||May 28, 2002||Binney & Smith Inc.||Ink jet marker|
|US6412912 *||Mar 2, 2001||Jul 2, 2002||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet printer mechanism with colinear nozzle and inlet|
|US6416169 *||Nov 24, 2000||Jul 9, 2002||Xerox Corporation||Micromachined fluid ejector systems and methods having improved response characteristics|
|US6416170 *||Mar 2, 2001||Jul 9, 2002||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Differential thermal ink jet printing mechanism|
|US6422431||Feb 1, 2001||Jul 23, 2002||Packard Instrument Company, Inc.||Microvolume liquid handling system|
|US6422698||Apr 28, 1997||Jul 23, 2002||Binney & Smith Inc.||Ink jet marker|
|US6428147 *||Mar 2, 2001||Aug 6, 2002||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet nozzle assembly including a fluidic seal|
|US6457795||Apr 24, 2000||Oct 1, 2002||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Actuator control in a micro electro-mechanical device|
|US6460971 *||Mar 2, 2001||Oct 8, 2002||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet with high young's modulus actuator|
|US6513894||Nov 20, 2000||Feb 4, 2003||Purdue Research Foundation||Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser|
|US6521187||Jan 21, 2000||Feb 18, 2003||Packard Instrument Company||Dispensing liquid drops onto porous brittle substrates|
|US6537817||Oct 13, 2000||Mar 25, 2003||Packard Instrument Company||Piezoelectric-drop-on-demand technology|
|US6550691||May 22, 2001||Apr 22, 2003||Steve Pence||Reagent dispenser head|
|US6592825||Feb 1, 2001||Jul 15, 2003||Packard Instrument Company, Inc.||Microvolume liquid handling system|
|US6727497||Mar 23, 2001||Apr 27, 2004||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Charge reduction in electrospray mass spectrometry|
|US6746105||Jun 4, 2002||Jun 8, 2004||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd.||Thermally actuated ink jet printing mechanism having a series of thermal actuator units|
|US6797945||Mar 29, 2002||Sep 28, 2004||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Piezoelectric charged droplet source|
|US6906322||Mar 29, 2002||Jun 14, 2005||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Charged particle source with droplet control for mass spectrometry|
|US6927786||Nov 3, 2003||Aug 9, 2005||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet nozzle with thermally operable linear expansion actuation mechanism|
|US6935724||Nov 3, 2003||Aug 30, 2005||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet nozzle having actuator with anchor positioned between nozzle chamber and actuator connection point|
|US7001013||Dec 12, 2002||Feb 21, 2006||Brother International Corporation||Nanostructure based microfluidic pumping apparatus, method and printing device including same|
|US7002609||Nov 7, 2002||Feb 21, 2006||Brother International Corporation||Nano-structure based system and method for charging a photoconductive surface|
|US7021745 *||Mar 2, 2001||Apr 4, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet with thin nozzle wall|
|US7045934 *||Apr 11, 2002||May 16, 2006||Ernest Geskin||Method for jet formation and the apparatus for the same|
|US7066578||Jun 24, 2005||Jun 27, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having compact inkjet nozzles|
|US7078679||Nov 26, 2003||Jul 18, 2006||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Inductive detection for mass spectrometry|
|US7101023||Jun 24, 2005||Sep 5, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having multiple-sectioned nozzle actuators|
|US7137686||Jun 12, 2006||Nov 21, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having inkjet nozzle arrangements incorporating lever mechanisms|
|US7178903 *||Feb 24, 2005||Feb 20, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet nozzle to eject ink|
|US7198359 *||Dec 27, 2004||Apr 3, 2007||Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Inkjet head and inkjet printer|
|US7207654||Nov 3, 2003||Apr 24, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet with narrow chamber|
|US7208727||Aug 31, 2004||Apr 24, 2007||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Electrospray systems and methods|
|US7216957||Aug 10, 2006||May 15, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Micro-electromechanical ink ejection mechanism that incorporates lever actuation|
|US7258253||Apr 30, 2004||Aug 21, 2007||Aurora Discovery, Inc.||Method and system for precise dispensation of a liquid|
|US7278712||Jan 16, 2007||Oct 9, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement with an ink ejecting displaceable roof structure|
|US7287827||Apr 16, 2007||Oct 30, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead incorporating a two dimensional array of ink ejection ports|
|US7287836||Dec 8, 2003||Oct 30, 2007||Sil;Verbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet printhead with circular cross section chamber|
|US7357471||Oct 27, 2004||Apr 15, 2008||Perkinelmer Las, Inc.||Method and apparatus for fluid dispensing using curvilinear drive waveforms|
|US7380690||Jan 15, 2004||Jun 3, 2008||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Solution jet type fabrication apparatus, method, solution containing fine particles, wiring pattern substrate, device substrate|
|US7401901||Feb 18, 2005||Jul 22, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having nozzle plate supported by encapsulated photoresist|
|US7431446||Oct 13, 2004||Oct 7, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Web printing system having media cartridge carousel|
|US7461923||Oct 20, 2006||Dec 9, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having inkjet nozzle arrangements incorporating dynamic and static nozzle parts|
|US7468139||Feb 18, 2005||Dec 23, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Method of depositing heater material over a photoresist scaffold|
|US7497555||Sep 25, 2006||Mar 3, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet nozzle assembly with pre-shaped actuator|
|US7518108||Nov 10, 2005||Apr 14, 2009||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Electrospray ionization ion source with tunable charge reduction|
|US7524031||Sep 24, 2007||Apr 28, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead nozzle incorporating movable roof structures|
|US7533967||Feb 15, 2007||May 19, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement for an inkjet printer with multiple actuator devices|
|US7598518||Mar 7, 2006||Oct 6, 2009||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Organic transistor with light emission, organic transistor unit and display device incorporating the organic transistor|
|US7607756||Jan 21, 2004||Oct 27, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead assembly for a wallpaper printer|
|US7628471||Nov 17, 2008||Dec 8, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet heater with heater element supported by sloped sides with less resistance|
|US7717543||Oct 28, 2007||May 18, 2010||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead including a looped heater element|
|US7738261||Nov 16, 2007||Jun 15, 2010||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Functional device fabrication apparatus and functional device fabricated with the same|
|US7753492||Nov 27, 2008||Jul 13, 2010||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Micro-electromechanical fluid ejection mechanism having a shape memory alloy actuator|
|US7775655||Aug 24, 2008||Aug 17, 2010||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printing system with a data capture device|
|US7802871||Jul 21, 2006||Sep 28, 2010||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet printhead with amorphous ceramic chamber|
|US7850282||Nov 17, 2008||Dec 14, 2010||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement for an inkjet printhead having dynamic and static structures to facilitate ink ejection|
|US7900850||Feb 14, 2006||Mar 8, 2011||Roland Zengerle||Microdosing apparatus and method for dosed dispensing of liquids|
|US7909897||Nov 28, 2007||Mar 22, 2011||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Droplet impingement chemical reactors and methods of processing fuel|
|US7931353||Apr 28, 2009||Apr 26, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement using unevenly heated thermal actuators|
|US7950777||Aug 16, 2010||May 31, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ejection nozzle assembly|
|US7950779||Nov 15, 2009||May 31, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead with heaters suspended by sloped sections of less resistance|
|US7989763||May 7, 2009||Aug 2, 2011||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Electrospray systems and methods|
|US8020970||Feb 28, 2011||Sep 20, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead nozzle arrangements with magnetic paddle actuators|
|US8025366||Jan 3, 2011||Sep 27, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead with nozzle layer defining etchant holes|
|US8029101||Jan 12, 2011||Oct 4, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink ejection mechanism with thermal actuator coil|
|US8029102||Feb 8, 2011||Oct 4, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead having relatively dimensioned ejection ports and arms|
|US8061812||Nov 16, 2010||Nov 22, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ejection nozzle arrangement having dynamic and static structures|
|US8075104||May 5, 2011||Dec 13, 2011||Sliverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead nozzle having heater of higher resistance than contacts|
|US8083326||Feb 7, 2011||Dec 27, 2011||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement with an actuator having iris vanes|
|US8113629||Apr 3, 2011||Feb 14, 2012||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd.||Inkjet printhead integrated circuit incorporating fulcrum assisted ink ejection actuator|
|US8123336||May 8, 2011||Feb 28, 2012||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead micro-electromechanical nozzle arrangement with motion-transmitting structure|
|US8186790||Mar 16, 2009||May 29, 2012||Purdue Research Foundation||Method for producing ultra-small drops|
|US8393714||Nov 14, 2011||Mar 12, 2013||Zamtec Ltd||Printhead with fluid flow control|
|US8603205||Feb 1, 2011||Dec 10, 2013||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Droplet impingement chemical reactors and methods of processing fuel|
|US8678299 *||Oct 27, 2009||Mar 25, 2014||Korea Institute Of Machinery & Materials||Hollow actuator-driven droplet dispensing apparatus|
|US8721056||Feb 1, 2010||May 13, 2014||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Continuous multi-nozzle inkjet recording apparatus|
|US8926071||May 17, 2011||Jan 6, 2015||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Liquid-jet recording apparatus including multi-nozzle inkjet head for high-speed printing|
|US9068566||Jan 20, 2012||Jun 30, 2015||Biodot, Inc.||Piezoelectric dispenser with a longitudinal transducer and replaceable capillary tube|
|US9193157||Sep 13, 2012||Nov 24, 2015||Stratasys Ltd.||Controlling density of dispensed printing material|
|US20030192955 *||Apr 11, 2002||Oct 16, 2003||Ernest Geskin||Method for jet formation and the apparatus for the same|
|US20040090493 *||Nov 3, 2003||May 13, 2004||Kia Silverbrook||Ink jet with narrow chamber|
|US20040090494 *||Nov 3, 2003||May 13, 2004||Kia Silverbrook||Ink jet nozzle having actuator with anchor positioned between nozzle chamber and actuator connection point|
|US20040091285 *||Nov 7, 2002||May 13, 2004||Howard Lewis||Nano-structure based system and method for charging a photoconductive surface|
|US20040113980 *||Dec 12, 2002||Jun 17, 2004||Howard Lewis||Nanostructure based microfluidic pumping apparatus, method and printing device including same|
|US20040113986 *||Dec 8, 2003||Jun 17, 2004||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet printhead with circular cross section chamber|
|US20040130599 *||Dec 8, 2003||Jul 8, 2004||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet printhead with amorphous ceramic chamber|
|US20040169137 *||Nov 26, 2003||Sep 2, 2004||Westphall Michael S.||Inductive detection for mass spectrometry|
|US20040201648 *||Jan 15, 2004||Oct 14, 2004||Takuro Sekiya||Solution jet type fabrication apparatus, method, solution containing fine particles, wiring pattern substrate, device substrate|
|US20040207688 *||Jan 21, 2004||Oct 21, 2004||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead assembly for a wallpaper printer|
|US20050006417 *||Apr 30, 2004||Jan 13, 2005||David Nicol||Method and system for precise dispensation of a liquid|
|US20050032242 *||Aug 30, 2004||Feb 10, 2005||Aurora Discovery, Inc.||Fluid dispenser and dispensing methods|
|US20050046687 *||Oct 13, 2004||Mar 3, 2005||Kia Silverbrook||Web printing system|
|US20050054208 *||Aug 31, 2004||Mar 10, 2005||Fedorov Andrei G.||Electrospray systems and methods|
|US20050073554 *||Nov 3, 2003||Apr 7, 2005||Kia Silverbrook||Ink jet nozzle with thermally operable linear expansion actuation mechanism|
|US20050088468 *||Oct 27, 2004||Apr 28, 2005||Perkinelmer Las, Inc.||Method and apparatus for fluid dispensing using curvilinear drive waveforms|
|US20050140727 *||Feb 18, 2005||Jun 30, 2005||Kia Silverbrook||Inkjet printhead having nozzle plate supported by encapsulated photoresist|
|US20050140744 *||Dec 27, 2004||Jun 30, 2005||Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Inkjet head and inkjet printer|
|US20050140745 *||Feb 24, 2005||Jun 30, 2005||Kia Silverbrook||Ink jet nozzle to eject ink|
|US20050162475 *||Feb 18, 2005||Jul 28, 2005||Kia Silverbrook||Method of depositing heater material over a photoresist scaffold|
|US20050237362 *||Jun 24, 2005||Oct 27, 2005||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having multiple-sectioned nozzle actuators|
|US20050243133 *||Jun 24, 2005||Nov 3, 2005||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having compact inkjet nozzles|
|US20060147313 *||Feb 14, 2006||Jul 6, 2006||Roland Zengerle And Hermann Sandmaier||Microdosing apparatus and method for dosed dispensing of liquids|
|US20060208962 *||Mar 7, 2006||Sep 21, 2006||Takuro Sekiya||Organic transistor, organic transistor unit and display device|
|US20060232630 *||Jun 12, 2006||Oct 19, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having inkjet nozzle arrangements incorporating lever mechanisms|
|US20060256161 *||Jul 21, 2006||Nov 16, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet printhead with amorphous ceramic chamber|
|US20060268065 *||Aug 10, 2006||Nov 30, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Micro-electromechanical ink ejection mechanism that incorporates lever actuation|
|US20070019034 *||Sep 25, 2006||Jan 25, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet nozzle assembly with pre-shaped actuator|
|US20070035582 *||Oct 20, 2006||Feb 15, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead having inkjet nozzle arrangements incorporating dynamic and static nozzle parts|
|US20070040872 *||Aug 9, 2006||Feb 22, 2007||Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.||Inkjet head|
|US20070044589 *||Oct 30, 2006||Mar 1, 2007||Takuro Sekiya||Solution jet type fabrication apparatus, method, solution containing fine particles, wiring pattern substrate, device substrate|
|US20070102634 *||Nov 10, 2005||May 10, 2007||Frey Brian L||Electrospray ionization ion source with tunable charge reduction|
|US20070109360 *||Jan 16, 2007||May 17, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement with an ink ejecting displaceable roof structure|
|US20070139471 *||Feb 15, 2007||Jun 21, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd.||Nozzle arrangement for an inkjet printer with mutiple actuator devices|
|US20070195129 *||Apr 16, 2007||Aug 23, 2007||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead incorporating a two dimensional array of ink ejection ports|
|US20070289992 *||Oct 2, 2006||Dec 20, 2007||Aurora Discovery, Inc.||Method and system for precise dispensation of a liquid|
|US20080049072 *||Oct 28, 2007||Feb 28, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead including a looped heater element|
|US20080117238 *||Nov 16, 2007||May 22, 2008||Ricoh Company, Ltd||Functional device fabrication apparatus and functional device fabricated with the same|
|US20080181846 *||Nov 28, 2007||Jul 31, 2008||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Droplet impingement chemical reactors and methods of processing fuel|
|US20080303851 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 11, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Electro-thermally actuated printer with high media feed speed|
|US20080303867 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 11, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Method of forming printhead by removing sacrificial material through nozzle apertures|
|US20080309712 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with actuators close to exterior surface|
|US20080309713 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with low droplet ejection velocity|
|US20080309714 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with low volume ink chambers|
|US20080309723 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with large array of droplet ejectors|
|US20080309724 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with small volume droplet ejectors|
|US20080309725 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet printhead with filter structure at inlet to ink chambers|
|US20080309726 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with ink supply channel feeding a plurality of nozzle rows|
|US20080309727 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with ink supply from back face|
|US20080309746 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printing system with a data capture device|
|US20080316263 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 25, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with high density array of droplet ejectors|
|US20080316264 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 25, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with nozzles in thin surface layer|
|US20080316265 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 25, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with high density array of droplet ejectors|
|US20080316266 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 25, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with small nozzle apertures|
|US20080316267 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 25, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead integrated circuit with low power operation|
|US20080316268 *||Aug 24, 2008||Dec 25, 2008||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Printhead with low power drive pulses for actuators|
|US20090066761 *||Nov 17, 2008||Mar 12, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet heater with heater element supported by sloped sides with less resistance|
|US20090073230 *||Nov 17, 2008||Mar 19, 2009||Sliverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle arrangement for an inkjet printhead having dynamic and static structures to facilitate ink ejection|
|US20090207208 *||Apr 28, 2009||Aug 20, 2009||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Nozzle Arrangement Using Unevenly Heated Thermal Actuators|
|US20090309908 *||Mar 16, 2009||Dec 17, 2009||Osman Basarah||Method for Producing Ultra-Small Drops|
|US20100060698 *||Nov 15, 2009||Mar 11, 2010||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Inkjet Printhead With Heaters Suspended By Sloped Sections Of Less Resistance|
|US20100102093 *||Oct 27, 2009||Apr 29, 2010||Korea Institute Of Machinery & Materials||Hollow Actuator-Driven Droplet Dispensing Apparatus|
|US20100194829 *||Feb 1, 2010||Aug 5, 2010||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Continuous multi-nozzle inkjet recording apparatus|
|US20110073188 *||Sep 30, 2009||Mar 31, 2011||Marcus Michael A||Microvalve for control of compressed fluids|
|US20110073788 *||Sep 30, 2009||Mar 31, 2011||Marcus Michael A||Microvalve for control of compressed fluids|
|US20110142753 *||Feb 1, 2011||Jun 16, 2011||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Droplet impingement chemical reactors and methods of processing fuel|
|USRE35737 *||Dec 14, 1995||Feb 24, 1998||Vidoejet Systems International, Inc.||Accoustically soft ink jet nozzle assembly|
|USRE40529 *||Aug 3, 2001||Oct 7, 2008||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Ink jet recording apparatus and method using ink jet head having u-shaped wiring|
|DE2560574C2 *||Jul 17, 1975||Feb 19, 1987||Konishiroku Photo Industry Co. Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, Jp||Title not available|
|DE2708924A1 *||Mar 2, 1977||Nov 3, 1977||Gould Inc||Tintenstrahlschreiber|
|DE2715189A1 *||Apr 5, 1977||Nov 17, 1977||Gould Inc||Tintenversorgungssystem fuer tintenstrahlschreiber|
|DE3139160A1 *||Oct 1, 1981||Apr 15, 1982||Canon Kk||Tintenstrahlaufzeichnungsverfahren und -geraet|
|DE3402680A1 *||Jan 26, 1984||Aug 2, 1984||Canon Kk||Fluessigkeitsspritz-aufzeichnungsvorrichtung|
|DE10337484A1 *||Aug 14, 2003||Mar 24, 2005||Gerhard Birkle||Mikrodosiervorrichtung und Verfahren zur dosierten Abgabe von Flüssigkeiten|
|DE10337484B4 *||Aug 14, 2003||May 25, 2005||Gerhard Birkle||Mikrodosiervorrichtung und Verfahren zur dosierten Abgabe von Flüssigkeiten|
|DE19938239B4 *||Aug 12, 1999||Nov 25, 2004||Hirschmann, Karl-Heinz, Prof.Dr.||Mikropumpe zum Fördern, Dosieren und Plazieren von Flüssigkeiten|
|EP0048942A2 *||Sep 22, 1981||Apr 7, 1982||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Electric-circuit arrangement for controlling writing jets|
|EP0048942A3 *||Sep 22, 1981||May 18, 1983||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Electric-circuit arrangement for controlling writing jets|
|EP0067948A1 *||May 5, 1982||Dec 29, 1982||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for producing liquid drops on demand|
|EP0090663A1 *||Mar 30, 1983||Oct 5, 1983||Fujitsu Limited||Method and apparatus for ejecting droplets of ink|
|EP0099730A2 *||Jul 13, 1983||Feb 1, 1984||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Ultrasonic liquid ejecting unit and method for making same|
|EP0099730A3 *||Jul 13, 1983||May 22, 1985||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Ultrasonic liquid ejecting unit and method for making same|
|EP0101862A2 *||Jul 13, 1983||Mar 7, 1984||International Business Machines Corporation||Ink jet drop-on demand printing head|
|EP0101862A3 *||Jul 13, 1983||Dec 27, 1985||International Business Machines Corporation||Ink jet drop-on demand printing head|
|EP0116018A1 *||Jan 24, 1984||Aug 15, 1984||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.p.A.||Manufacture of tubular elements for ink jet printers|
|EP0126325A3 *||Apr 25, 1984||Nov 4, 1987||Nec Corporation||Drive circuit for piezoelectric stack|
|EP0208336A1 *||Jan 24, 1984||Jan 14, 1987||Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.p.A.||Assembly of tubular elements for ink-jet printers|
|EP0277703A1||Jan 8, 1988||Aug 10, 1988||Xaar Limited||Droplet deposition apparatus|
|EP1637330A1||Jul 15, 1998||Mar 22, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd||Thermal actuator with corrugated heater element|
|EP1640162A1||Jul 15, 1998||Mar 29, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd||Inkjet nozzle arrangement having paddle forming a portion of a wall|
|EP1647402A1||Jul 15, 1998||Apr 19, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd||Ink jet nozzle arrangement with actuator mechanism in chamber between nozzle and ink supply|
|EP1650030A1||Jul 15, 1998||Apr 26, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd||Nozzle chamber with paddle vane and externally located thermal actuator|
|EP1650031A1||Jul 15, 1998||Apr 26, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd||Ink jet nozzle with slotted sidewall and moveable vane|
|EP1652671A1||Jul 15, 1998||May 3, 2006||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd||Ink jet nozzle having two fluid ejection apertures and a moveable paddle vane|
|EP2527888A1||Jan 28, 2002||Nov 28, 2012||Rolic AG||Optical device and method for manufacturing same|
|WO1982001246A1 *||Sep 29, 1981||Apr 15, 1982||Ncr Co||Ink jet printer|
|WO1996002392A1 *||Jun 20, 1995||Feb 1, 1996||Spectra, Inc.||High frequency drop-on-demand ink jet system|
|WO1999021720A1 *||Oct 26, 1998||May 6, 1999||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Juni Or University||Universal fluid droplet ejector|
|WO2000064678A1 *||Apr 20, 2000||Nov 2, 2000||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd.||Actuator control in a micro electro-mechanical liquid ejection device|
|WO2000064804A1||Apr 20, 2000||Nov 2, 2000||Silverbrook Research Pty. Ltd.||Thermal actuator shaped for more uniform temperature profile|
|WO2001017781A1||Aug 31, 2000||Mar 15, 2001||The Research Foundation Of The State University Of New York At Buffalo||Acoustic fluid jet method and system for ejecting dipolar grains|
|WO2004002743A1||Aug 29, 2002||Jan 8, 2004||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Ink jet nozzle arrangement configuration|
|WO2011041105A1||Sep 15, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Eastman Kodak Company||Microvalve for control of compressed fluids|
|WO2011041214A1||Sep 24, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Eastman Kodak Company||Microvalve for control of compressed fluids|
|WO2013038413A3 *||Sep 13, 2012||May 10, 2013||Stratasys Ltd.||Controlling density of dispensed printing material|
|U.S. Classification||310/328, 366/127, 347/47, 417/322, 310/317, 261/DIG.480, 347/68|
|International Classification||H04R17/08, B41J2/045|
|Cooperative Classification||B41J2/04581, H04R17/08, Y10S261/48, B41J2/04541|
|European Classification||B41J2/045D58, B41J2/045D34|