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Publication numberUS3684318 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 15, 1972
Filing dateMay 22, 1970
Priority dateMay 22, 1970
Also published asCA927232A1
Publication numberUS 3684318 A, US 3684318A, US-A-3684318, US3684318 A, US3684318A
InventorsClarence J Eckert, John W Moulds
Original AssigneeGen Motors Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fuel rail-injector interconnection
US 3684318 A
A solenoid operated fuel injector discharges into an internal combustion engine induction passage adjacent the combustion chamber intake port. Fuel is supplied to the injector through a tubular fuel rail which is received by and clamped in a recess at the top of the injector. A thermistor senses injector tip temperature and controls the duration of energization of the solenoid to compensate for a reduction in fuel delivery at high temperatures.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 15 3,684,318 Eckert et al. 51 Aug. 15, 1972 [54] FUEL RAIL-INJECTOR 3,298,385 l/ 1967 Jackson et a1. ..285/ 189 X INTERCONNECTION 3,560,027 2/1971 Graham ..285/305 X [72] Inventors: Clarence J. Eckert, Rochester; John pi W. Moulds Penfield both OfN Y 1] F121 a eta. ..28 /321 X 2,441,344 5/1948 Bosworth ..285/347 X [73] Assignee: General Motors Corporation,

Detroit, Mich. Primary ExaminerThomas F. Callaghan Filed. y 22 1970 Att0rney.l. L. Carpenter and C. K. Veenstra 21 App1.No.: 39,641 ABSTRACT A solenoid operated'fuel injector discharges into an 52 US. Cl. ..285/189, 285/305, 285/347 internal combustion engine induction Passage adjacent [51] Int. Cl ..Fl6l 41/00 the Combustion chamber intake Fuel is Supplied [58] Field of Search ..285/189 305 306 190 321 e injector through a tubular fuel rail which is 3 received by and clamped in a recess at the top of the injector. A thermistor senses injector tip temperature [56] References Cited and controls the duration of energiz'ation of the solenoid to compensate for a reduction in fuel delivery at UNITED STATES PATENTS high temperatures 2,699,915 1/1955 Goepfrich ..285/305 X 1 Claim, 1 Drawing Figure 2897 99 9: .16 a; Q a! a; s3 76 2 x 70 y 47? I O O [W 4% 520 I18 {20 3:0 W p 16\ [a FUEL RAIL-INJECTOR INTERCONNECTION This invention relates to a common rail type of internal combustion engine fuel injection system and provides an interconnection between the fuel rail and the fuel injector which permits the injector to be quickly and easily assembled to or removed from the engine.

The details as well as other objects and advantages of this invention are set forth below and shown in the drawing which illustrates a solenoid operated fuel injector assembled to an engine and shows the injectorfuel rail interconnection and the thermistor disposed in heat exchange contact with the injector tip; a schematic electrical control circuit for energizing the injector solenoid is also shown.

Referring to the drawing, a fuel injector discharges into an internal combustion engine induction passage 12 below the throttle 14 and against the back of the intake valve 16 for a combustion chamber 18.

lnjector 10 has a body 20 which is rolled over at one end 22 about a nozzle or tip 24. An 0 ring 26 is secured between body 20 and tip 24 to prevent leakage therebetween. A plunger 28 is guided at 30 in a passage 32 through tip 24 and has a head 34 received in a passage 36 through body 20. A central bore 38 through plunger 28 has lateral openings 40 and provides a fuel passage from body passage 36 to tip passage 32. Plunger 28 has a valve member 42 which seats in a discharge orifice 44 in tip 24. As plunger head 34 and plunger 28 are lifted, fuel is discharged through orifice 44 into induction passage 12.

A solenoid 46 wound on a plastic spool 48 is received in injector body 20. An 0" ring 50 provides a seal against fuel leakage between spool 48 and injector body 20. The end 52 of injector body 20 is swaged over and retains an inlet fitting 54. An 0 ring 55 provides a seal against fuel leakage between solenoid spool 48 and inlet fitting 54. lnlet fitting 54 carries a threaded member 56 which may be adjusted to vary the pre-load on a spring 58 biasing plunger head 34 and plunger 28 to seat valve 42 in orifice 44.

When solenoid 46 is energized, the force across an air gap 60 between plunger head 34 and the extension 61 of inlet fitting 54 raises plunger head 34 and plunger 28 to permit fuel flow through orifice 44. A flange 62 on plunger 28 engages a spacer disc 64 to limit upward movement of plunger 28.

Inlet fitting 54 has a longitudinal passage 66 which connects with passage 36 to deliver fuel to nozzle or tip 24. A pair of transverse openings 68 connect with longitudinal passage 66, and outwardly concave recesses 70 surround openings 68. A pair of tubular fuel rail members 72 are received in recesses 70 and have end surfaces 74 which abut the bases 76 of recesses 70. A pair of 0" rings 78 provide seals between the peripheral walls 80 of recesses 70 and the circumferential surfaces 82 of fuel rail members 72 to prevent fuel leakage therebetween.

Radially enlarged beads 84 on fuel rail members 72 are engaged by a retainer clamp 86. Legs 88 of clamp 86 overlie recesses 70 and have fingers 90 which embrace fuel rail members 72 and abut beads 84 to prevent withdrawal of fuel rail members 72 from recesses 70. A leg 92 of clamp 86 overlies the end 94 of inlet member 54 and has an aperture 96. The shank 97 of retainer screw 98 extends through aperture 96 and is secured to inlet member 54 while the head 99 of screw 98 overlies leg 92. An 0" ring 100 is secured between inlet member 54 and retainer screw prevent fuel leakage therebetween.

It will be appreciated that assembly of a fuel rail member 72 to injector 10 is a relatively easy task, requiring only insertion of fuel rail member 72 into recess 70, fitting of retainer clamp 16 over member 72 and inlet fitting 54, and securing of retainer screw 98.

In operation, a fuel pump 102 supplies fuel from a tank 104 through fuel rail 72to longitudinal passage 66 within injector inlet fitting 54. When injector plunger 28 is lifted by solenoid 46, fuel passes through the wire cloth filter 106 and the longitudinal injector passages to the engine. Excess fuel is discharged through a pressure regulator 108 back to fuel tank 104.

lnjector 10 has a grommet 110 surrounding tip 24 and sealing tip 24 in the engine. A clamp ring 112 is received in a recess 114 of injector body 20. A washer l 16 and a clamp l 18, secured by screws 120, retain injector 10 in place. One of the screws also retains a spring clamp 122 which holds a thermistor 124 against injector body 20 and in heat exchange contact with injector nozzle or tip 24. Thermistor 124 controls fuel metering as explained below.

As mentioned-above, fuel is metered by controlling the duration of time solenoid 46 is energized to operate injector 10. To energize solenoid 46, a signal generator 126, which nominally may be considered as a normally open switch, provides a negative voltage pulse during each cycle of the engine. This pulse is differentiated by a capacitor 128 into a negative going voltage spike which is delivered to the base 130 of a transistor 132. Transistor 132 thus ceases to conduct, and the voltage at its collector 134 increases to render atransistor 136 conductive. The voltage at the collector 138 of transistor 136 then drops and an amplifying transistor 140 stops conducting. The voltage at the collector 142 of transistor 140 is thereby increased, and solenoid 46 is energized to operate injector l0.

As transistor 136 starts conducting, current passes through aprimary winding 144. Primary winding 144 is coupled, through a core 146 positioned by a manifold absolute pressure responsive transducer 148, with a secondary winding 150. As current changes in primary winding 144, a voltage is induced in secondary winding 150 which biases base 130 of transistor 132 in a negative direction and holds transistor 132 in a non-conductive state. Over a period of time the rate of change of current in primary winding 144 drops, and the voltage induced in secondary winding 150 reduces sufficiently to render transistor 132 conductive and terminate energization of solenoid 46.

In order to control the duration of time solenoid 46 is energized, thermistor 124 controls the impedance in the circuit of primary winding 144. Thus thermistor 124, together with resistors 152, 154, and 156, controls the current supplied to primary winding 144. The resistance of thermistor 124 decreases as the temperature of injector tip 24 increases; this increases the current flow through primary winding 144 to lengthen the time that solenoid 46 is energized.

in a fuel injection system where pressure regulator 108 maintains a pressure of 40 psi in fuel rail 72, it is suggested that thermistor 124 be selected so that its resistance starts to decrease at 140 F. and so that the duration of energization of solenoid 46 increases linearly to a duration at 200 F. about 24 percent greater than the duration of 140 F. This will permit delivery of the proper amount of fuel through injector despite a decrease in fuel density due to formation of vapor bubbles.

From the foregoing it will be appreciated that this invention provides a construction which permits rapid assembly of the fuel rail and the injector,

We claim:

1. In a fuel injection system: a fuel injector comprising a housing having a longitudinal passage for discharging fuel to an engine, a transverse passage extending into said housing adjacent one end thereof for admitting fuel to said longitudinal passage, and an outwardly concave recess surrounding said transverse passage, said recess having an annular radially inwardly extending base and a peripheral wall; an 0 ring received in said recess and sealingly engaging said peripheral wall; a tubular fuel rail received in said recess for delivering fuel to said transverse passage,

said fuel rail comprising an annular radially extending end surface abutting said base of said recess, a radially enlarged bead displaced axially from said end surface, said bead having an external diameter smaller than said recess and a circumferential surface disposed between said end surface and said bead and received by and sealingly engaging said O ring; said O"-ring substantially filling the space formed by said base, said bead, said peripheral wall and said circumferential surface a clamp member comprising a strip having first and second legs extending at right angles one to the other, said first leg overlying said recess and having finger portions embracing said fuel rail and abutting said bead on the side thereof opposite said end surface to thereby prevent withdrawal of said fuel rail from said recess, said second leg overlying said end of said injector and having an aperture therethrough; and a fastener having a head portion overlying said second leg and a shank portion threadedly received through said aperture by said housing, thereby securing said clamp member to said housing.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2441344 *May 14, 1945May 11, 1948Weatherhead CoCoupling
US2699915 *Dec 29, 1953Jan 18, 1955Skinner Chuck CompanyValve bracket
US3215455 *May 25, 1961Nov 2, 1965Daimler Benz AgPlug-in connections
US3282612 *Nov 29, 1965Nov 1, 1966Younger Gilbert WTube retainer
US3298385 *Sep 22, 1965Jan 17, 1967Well Completions IncConstant circulating coupling device
US3560027 *Feb 20, 1967Feb 2, 1971Gra Tec IncCoupling assembly
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3937499 *Sep 23, 1974Feb 10, 1976The Weatherhead CompanyMounting for nonmetallic valves
US7726418Aug 16, 2004Jun 1, 2010Coupler Development LimitedMethod and apparatus for adding a tubular to drill string with diverter
US8016033Jul 25, 2008Sep 13, 2011Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Continuous flow drilling systems and methods
US8720545Sep 7, 2011May 13, 2014Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Continuous flow drilling systems and methods
DE2905842A1 *Feb 15, 1979Sep 13, 1979Bendix CorpDrosselgehaeuse
EP1217193A2 *Oct 16, 2001Jun 26, 2002Caterpillar Inc.Electronic control of engine braking cycle
U.S. Classification285/189, 285/347, 285/305
International ClassificationF02M55/00, F02M63/00, F02M51/08, F02M51/06, F02M61/14
Cooperative ClassificationF02M2051/08, F02M51/0675, F02M55/00, F02D2200/0606, F02M2200/507, F02M61/145
European ClassificationF02M55/00, F02M51/06B2E2A, F02M61/14B