US 3686520 A
A fluid-electrical generator which employs the concept of pneumatic to electrical energy transformation to generate electrical energy. In the device, air impinges on a metal diaphragm which vibrates or modulates within a magnetic field created by a ring magnet which in turn surrounds a coil. The coil picks up an electromotive force from the action of the diaphragm vibrating in the magnetic field. With the introduction of air, a pressure build-up occurs within the cavity created by the ring magnet and the diaphragm. The pressure builds up until it breaks the magnetic lock and causes the diaphragm to distort and break loose off the top surface of the magnet to allow air to escape around its periphery, thus relieving the pressure. As the pressure escapes, the magnetic force becomes larger than the pressure within the cavity and the magnet re-attracts the diaphragm, thus creating another pressure build-up. As this process continues, it becomes cyclic, thereby creating an alternating current.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Campagnuolo 51 Aug. 22, 1972  FLUID-ELECTRICAL GENERATOR [211 App]. No.2 140,851
Primary ExaminerD. X. Sliney Attorney-Harry M. Saragovitz, Edward J. Kelly, Herbert Berl and Saul Elbaum ABSTRACT A fluid-electrical generator which employs the concept of pneumatic to electrical energy transformation to generate electrical energy. In the device, air impinges on a metal diaphragm which vibrates or modulates within a magnetic field created by a ring magnet which in turn surrounds a coil. The coil picks up an  U.S. ..3l0/l5, 310/27 electromotive force from the action of the diaphragm [5|] Int. Cl. ..1102k 35/06 vibrating i the magne ic'field. With the introduction 58 Field of Search ..310/15, 25, 27; 73/67, 67.4, of air, a pressure p Occurs within the cavity 73/71 4 created by the ring magnet and the diaphragm. The I pressure builds up until it breaks the magnetic lock 5 References Cited and causes the diaphragm to distort and break loose off the top surface of the magnet to allow air to escape UNlTED STATES PATENTS around its periphery, thus relieving the pressure. As the pressure escapes, the magnetic force becomes 2,524,826 10/1950 Paves ..3 10/ 15 X larger than the pressure within the cavity and the g FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS net re-attracts the diaphragm, thus creating another pressure build-up. As this process continues, it 397,454 6/1924 Germany ..3l0/15 becomes cyclic, thereby creating an alternating cup rent.
9 Drawing Figures 9 v lO-1 Patentd Aug. 22, 1972 3,686,520
3 Sheets-Sheet 1 i INVENTOR EARL EAMPAGNVOLD ATTORNEYS Harry Msaragovitz, Edward J. Kelly, Herbert Berl, Saul Elbaum IXXXXX Patented Aug. 22,-1972 3 Sheets-Sheet z IN VE N TO R ARJEAMPAGNVOLO ATTORNEYS Harry M.Sar0govitz, Edward J. Kelly, Herbert BerI, Saul E Ibaum Patented Aug. 22, 1972 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 H5 IOl I02 I03 'IIB i LLL INVENTOR JIW EARL L'AMPAGNVOLO ATTORNEYS Harry M. Saragovifz, Edward J. Kelly, Herbert Berl, Saul E Ibaum FLUID-ELECTRICAL GENERATOR The invention described herein may be manufactured, used and licensed by or for the United States Government for governmental purposes without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
A pneumatic-to-electrical generator or better known as a fluidic generator has been known in the past. Such a fluidic generator produces electrical energy from a pneumatic input by means of a complex transformation system, such as; pneumatic-to-acoustical, acousticalto-mechanical, and mechanical-to-electrical. Due to this three step transformation, the efficiency of such devices is extremely low.
The purpose of the instant device is to achieve a pneumatic-to-electrical transformation which is more efficient than any previous transformation due to the elimination of mechanical linkages in the energy conversion phase.
In the instant device, air impinges on a metal diaphragm, thus triggering it into vibration whereby the diaphragm modulates a magnetic field directly to induce an EMF in a coil located within the magnetic field.
Generally, the apparatus includes a ring magnet, a
central core and a coil wrapped around said central core, both the core and coil being within the magnetic field created by the ring magnet. In the absence of air flowing through the apparatus, the diaphragm is normally held by magnetic attraction to the top surface of the ring magnet, thus occluding the air exit aperture. With the introduction of air, a pressure build-up occurs within the cavity created by the ring magnet and the diaphragm. The pressure builds up until it breaks the magnetic lock and causes the diaphragm to distort and break loose off the top surface of the magnet to allow air to escape around its periphery, thus relieving the pressure. As the air escapes, the magnetic force becomes larger than the pressure within the cavity and the magnet re-attracts the diaphragm to its top surface, thus causing another pressure build-up. As this process continues, it becomes cyclic. and the diaphragm vibrates on top of the magnet.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a unique pneumatic-to-electrical transformation.
within a fluid-electrical generator.
Another object of this invention is to provide a unique construction for a fluid-electrical generator, including a ring magnet and coil by which the vibration of a metal diaphragm modulates within the magnetic field to cause an EMF within the coil.
A further object of this invention is to eliminate mechanical linkages in the energy conversion phase of fluid-electrical generators.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel fluid-electrical generator which also can be used to create mechanical energy in the form of a rotating or oscillating shaft.
These and other objects of this invention will become apparent when reference is had to the following specification and accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. I is a sectional view of one embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2.is a view identical to that of FIG. 1, only showing the diaphragm in a pressure released position;
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of another embodiment employing two ring magnets acting on a single diaphragm;
FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view of another embodiment of this invention showing an alternate means for introducing air into the apparatus;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to that of FIG. 4 showing a diaphragm which is adapted to vibrate solely at one extremity;
FIG. 6 is a double acting generator employing two ring magnets such as those used in FIG. 4 to vibrate a single diaphragm;
FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6 showing a double acting generator where one extremity of a common diaphragm is held in position and the other extremity allowed to vibrate;
FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view of a further embodiment where the vibration of two diaphragms on two adjacent generators imparts an oscillatory rotational motion to a shaft as well as generating EMF into two coils;
FIG. 9 is a cross sectional view of a further embodiment where a diaphragm is used to impart incremental rotary motion to a shaft.
Referring now to FIG. 1, there is shown a generator constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention, designated generally at 2. It consists of a soft iron plate 4 having a raised portion 5 in which is located a tapered bore 6. The bore tapers to mate with an air conduit 3. The plate 4 rests on the top edge of a ring magnet 9 having peripheral sides 7 and 8. The ring magnet 9 has a polarity as indicated in the drawing (FIG. I). Mounted telescopically inside of ring magnet 9 is a non-magnetic diaphragm support member 10 which is tubular in configuration. Member 10 has a series of notches around its upper inner peripheral edges, such as 17, cut in its upper inside edge. A soft iron bottom plate member 11 is attached to the base of ring magnet 9 and is generally circular in configuration. Plate 11 has a central portion 13 having a bore 15 therein which is approximately the same diameter as the enlarged portion of tapered bore 6. Surrounding portion 13 is a coil 14. Resting atop member 10 is a thin metal diaphragm 18. The diaphragm 18 is circular in cross section and has approximately the same diameter, only slightly smaller, as the internal diameter of ring magnet 9.
With the absence of air in the device, the diaphragm 18 is held atop member 10 by the magnetic pull thereof, thus occluding air coming from conduit 3 from entering the lower part of the system. With the introduction of air through conduit 3, the pressure buildup above the diaphragm 18 forces the center of the diaphragm down, as shown in FIG. 2, thus raising the outer peripheral edge thereof. As shown in FIG. 2, the air is thus allowed to escape into the lower portion of the device beneath diaphragm 18 by the space created by the peripheral edge of diaphragm 18 being lifted off the top surface of member 10 until it makes linear contact as at 16 and through .the notches 17 down into the lower cavity of the device whereby the air exits through bore 15 in portion 13 of plate 11. The shape of bore 6 aids the air in flowing outwardly along diaphragm 18. As soon as the air pressure above diaphragm 18 is relieved, the diaphragm tends to resume the position shown in FIG. 1 by the action of the ring magnet on the The device, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, can be madevery simply and cheaply. The simplicity in geometry allows it to be built in any desired size, including microminiaturization size. It is also a high impedance device inasmuch as it requires very small air flows for its operation. Additionally, the pneumatic pressure entering the device is applied directly to the diaphragm, thus eliminating intermediate losses in energy transformation.
Referring now to FIG. 3, there is shown a generator designated generally as 20. A conduit 21 introduces air into the system. The system comprises a soft iron top plate 22 having an outer circular portion 24 and a raised portion 23. Raised portion 23 has a bore 26 therein which is partially tapered and extends as a constant diameter bore up into projecting core portion 25. A coil 38 surrounds portion 25. Directly attached to plate 22 is a ring magnet 27 having a polarity as indicated on the drawing. A similar construction occurs in plate 34 having planar portions 33 and core portion 35. Core portion 35 has a central bore 37 therein which is approximately the same diameter as bore 26. A coil 36 surrounds portion 35 and a ring magnet 32 is mounted atop plate 34 and has a polarity as indicated in the drawing. Mounted between ring magnets 27 and 32'is a C-shaped annular section 28 having an outer peripheral wall 29 and a series of air release apertures 30 mounted around the periphery thereof. Loosely placed within member 28 is a diaphragm 31 which is free to vibrate in a vertical position as indicated by the arrow thereon.
The system as shown in FIG. 3 is redundant inasmuch as the diaphragm breaks loose, air,'as indicated by the arrow flow, exhausts through apertures 30 in annular member 28. Air can also be introduced through bore 37, as indicated by the arrows and escape through aperture 30, although air coming through only one core portion is sufficient. Acting on the diaphragm is the magnetic pull of both ring magnets which can be adjusted so that the magnetic power of one is greater than the other, thus allowing the system to be inoperative until a predetermined pressure is achieved within, for instance, the chamber above diaphragm 31. Members 34 and 22 are constructed of soft iron and achieve some degree of polarity in use, such as is indicated in the drawing.
Such a design can be used to provide electrical power on flying vehicles, such as bombs, projectiles, rockets, etc. It can be included with electrical circuits to act as fuzes. Since a definite pressure is required to break the magnetic lock, it can be used as a velocity indicator inasmuch as no output will occur until some minimum velocity is achieved. This would be a desirable safety feature in some applications.
Referring now to FIG. 4, an alternate embodiment of the energy generator is shown generally designated as 40. It consists of a soft iron plate member 41 having a raised central core portion 42 with a top surface 47 thereon. A series of apertures such as 43 are located in plate 41 around its central core portion. A coil 44 surrounds central core portion 42. Mounted atop the plate member is a ring magnet 45 having a level top surface 46 which is slightly higher than surface 47 of portion 42. A thin metal diaphragm 48 rests atop the device and is held in place by the attraction of ring magnet 45.
A circular member 49 having a flange 50 and raised portion 51 thereon is mounted below plate member 41. A conduit 52 is coupled to the raised portion 51 of member 49 in any suitable manner. The area between the bottom of plate 41 and the top of member 49 creates a stagnation-chamber. Air enters through the conduit and into the stagnation chamber whereupon it escapes through apertures such as 43up into'the area described by ring magnet 45 in diaphragm 48. As the pressure builds, the diaphragm 48 will tend to break away from the top surface 46 of the ring magnet, thus allowing air to escape. As the pressure decreases, the magnet will again attract diaphragm 48 onto its upper edge and a cyclic operation will commence.
The frequency of such operation is then a function of the stagnation chamber volume, the thickness of the diaphragm and the strength of the magnetic ring 45. The diaphragm attraction to the magnetic assembly is also governed by an additional pneumatic effect called the flapper valve efiect. Such an effect occurs when the diaphragm 48 breaks away from ring magnet 45, thus creating a low pressure region in the central portion of the diaphragm directly above surface 47 which also tends to pull the diaphragm toward the magnet. This effect may be of a secondary nature compared to the magnetic strength but aids in pulling the diaphragm 48 back onto the top surface 46 of magnet 45. The fluctuation of diaphragm 48 thus creates or induces a EMF into coil 44 by its motion.
Referring now to FIG. 5, there is shown an apparatus similar in construction to that shown in FIG. 4 but designed to operate in a slightly different manner. It is generally designated as 60. It consists of a soft iron plate 61 having a series of apertures 63 therein and a central circular core portion 64 surrounded by a coil 71. Mounted atop plate 61 is ring magnet 62 having a polarity as indicated in the drawing. A chamber member 65 is mounted below plate member 61 and has a thickened portion 67 which terminates in a upstanding portion 68. Diaphragm has a portion thereof inserted within portion 68 and locked in place by screw member 69. Member 65 has a raised portion 66 with a bore therein which is designed to mate with an air conduit. This arrangement operates as a clapper valve." The motion of diaphragm 70 is governed as in FIG. 4, by means of the rise and fall of the air pressure in the stagnation chamber which is defined by the area described member 65 and lower portion of plate 61. Again, an EMF is generated in coil 71 by the vibratory action of the diaphragm.
FIG. 6 shows a generator which employs the teachings of the embodiment of FIG. 4 on either side of a diaphragm 97. Generally, a soft iron plate member 81 rests atop a ring magnet 85 which has a polarity as indicated in the drawings, said plate having a central core portion 83 around which is mounted a coil 84 and a series of apertures 82 therein. A similar but oppositely disposed plate member 86 is mounted beneath plate member 81 and has apertures 88 and central raised portion 87 thereon. A ring magnet 89 is mounted atop plate 86 and has a polarity as indicated in the drawing.
Surrounding both magnets and plate members is a case 90 having a bottom surface 91 with a raised portion 92 thereon and a top portion 94 having a raised portion 95 thereon. Both raised portions 91 and 94 have tapered bores therein which are adapted to mate with air conduits 93 and 96, respectively. The spaces betweenplate 81 and surface portion 94 and plate 86 and portion 91 create stagnation chambers. To insure a definite volumetric size for air pressure build up, annular rings, such as 98, may be used to seal the ring magnets against the inner wall of the casing 90. An aperture or apertures such as 99 may be located around the periphery of the casing and are adapted to let air escape as diaphragm 97 vibrates as designated by the arrow in FIG. 6. Like the devices shown in FIG. 3, air may be introduced through both conduits 93 and 96 or only one. The volume of the stagnation chamber and strength of the magnets will determine the frequency of vibration of diaphragm 97 between the two central core portions 87 and 83. Thus, the frequency of vibration and consequently the amount of EMF generated in the coils can be regulated by the relative volumes of the stagnation chambers as well as the strength of the ring magnets 85 and 89. Thus, both a minimum velocity or pressure build up can be built into the system as well as a predetermined frequency of vibratory modulation of the diaphragm.
FIG. 7 shows a generator designated generally as 100 which is similar in construction to the generator previously described in FIG. 6. It consists of soft iron plates 101 and 106, having respective central core portions 102 and 107, apertures 103 and 108, and coils 104 and 110. A pair of ring magnets 105 and 108 are mounted atop both plates and have polarity as indicated in the drawing. A casing member 111 has a bottom portion 112 and an upper portion 115, both portions creating stagnation chambers between themselves and the plate members 106 and 101, respectively. Raised portions 1 l3 and 1 16 on the casing portions are adapted to mate with conduits 1 14 and 116 respectively. Casing member 111 has a notch 118 on one side thereof in which a portion of a diaphragm 119 is held. On the op posite peripheral wall is located an aperture 120. This arrangement may be required in lieu of the arrangement shown in FIG. 6 due to the fact that the diaphragm may be required to be biased more on one side than the other. The diaphragm 119 in FIG. 7 vibrates in a manner similar to diaphragm 70 in the embodiment shown in FIG. 5. This same manner of vibration may be achieved, however, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 6, by pneumatically changing the input areas of one of the stagnation chambers, thus having always unequal pressures at either side of the diaphragm.
The arrangement shown in FIG. 7 can also be biased by the spring constant of the diaphragm by choosing the proper separation between the upper and lower transducers, or generators.
FIG. 8 shows still another embodiment which is designated generally as 130. It consists of soft iron members 131 and 138 having central core portions 133 and 142, apertures 132 and 139 and beveled top surfaces on their central core portions 134 and 143, respectively. Surrounding the soft iron plate members 131 and 138 are a pair of ring magnets 136 and 140, respectively. Both the ring magnets have their upper portions cut at an angle so as to create a beveled upper surface such as 137 on magnet 136 and surface 141 on magnet 140. This surface is slightly higher, in both cases, than the surfaces 134 and 143 of core portions 133 and 142, respectively. Coils and 144 surround core portions 134 and 143, respectively. A casing member 145 is mounted beneath core portions 131 and 138 and has a pair of air entrance portions 146 and a central supporting section 148. Thus,- two stagnation chambers are created, one beneath each plate member. A support member 149 rotatably supports a shafi 150, in any suitable manner, said shaft having a pair of diaphragms 151 and 152 fixedly secured thereto by any suitable means, such as brazing, etc. The diaphragm configuration in this embodiment is in the form of a double butterfly valve held in position by a pivoting rod. The diaphragm can be biased by any one of the previous methods. The diaphragm on each side moves like an oscillating butterfly valve flapper, thus inducing an EMF in both coil 135 and coil 144. The pivoting rod undergoes oscillatory rotational motion at the same frequency of the diaphragms. The rod can also be used to provide a mechanical input for any type of system, such as a gear mechanism.
Referring now to FIG. 9, there is shown an embodiment identical, substantially, with that shown in FIG. 5 and generally designated as 160. A ring magnet rests atop a soft iron plate member 161, said plate member having apertures 162, a central core portion 163 and a coil 164 surrounding said central core portion. Casing member 166 is mounted below member 161 and has a raised portion 167 thereon to mate with an air conduit entrance tube. Thus, a stagnation chamber is created beneath plate member 161. An extension portion 168 extends up from casing member 166 and has a notch therein 169 adapted to receive an edge of diaphragm 170. The diaphragm is adapted to oscillate in the same manner as diaphragm 70 in FIG. 5, and the vibrating edge thereof can be used to engage a ratchet 171, the teeth being shown in exaggerated detail, which drives a rod 172 and gear 173. The gear 173 is adapted to be prevented against reverse rotation by a latching member 174. All these components may be supported on a member such asl75.
All the devices disclosed can be used to generate electrical power for fuzing applications or other systems where electrical signal is required from a pneumatic system. In addition, some of these devices can be built such that one can also obtain a mechanical motion, such as illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9, necessary to align a firing pin into a system.
While the various devices and embodiments have been shown as generally circular in configuration, it is obvious that these can be non-circular and the ring magnet can be instead a pair of equal strength magnets,
on each edge of a rectangular plate. The diaphragm itself may be made in any configuration. The diaphragms of the assembly shown in FIG. 8 may beused to drive rotate in an oscillatory fashion two separate rods instead of the one rod 150 shown in that embodiment. Air pressure can be introduced into only one or both sides of the embodiments shown in FIGS. 3, 6 and 7 and the thickness of the diaphragms in any of the embodiments may be varied. Also, the strength of the magnets in any of the redundant systems, such as shown in FIGS. 3, 6, and 7, can be varied to achieve any frequency or minimum pressure desired. Air can be supplied continuously into each system or in a pulsating fashion to achieve other results. The diaphragms may be free to vibrate across their entire surfaces or one portion may be biased as described.
It should be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact details of construction shown and described herein for obvious modifications will occur to persons skilled in the art.
What is claimed is:
l. A fluid-electric generator comprising at least one ring magnet, at least one polarized magnetic field core means within said ring magnet, at least one armature coil disposed in the field of said ring magnet, a diaphragm means adjacent one end of said ring magnet and attracted thereto, chamber means associated with said core means and adapted to allow air to enter said generator, said diaphragm disposed within the magnetic field of said magnet so as to allow the air pressure within said generator to build up until it overcomes the attraction of said ring magnet whereupon said diaphragm begins to vibrate thereby intermittently allowing said air to escape said chamber means, said diaphragm vibration inducing an alternating voltage in said armature coil.
2. A generator as in claim 1 wherein there is a second ring magnet disposed adjacent said diaphragm means, said second ring magnet having a second polarized magnetic field core means therewithin with a second armature coil disposed in the field of said core means, a second chamber means associated with said second core means and adapted to admit air into said generator, said diaphragm disposed within the magnetic field of both said ring magnets so as to vibrate therebetween and to alternately allow air within each of said chamber means to intermittently escape, thereby producing an alternating voltage in both of said coils.
3. A generator as in claim 2 wherein each said chamber means has a series of apertures therein to allow air pressure to impinge on said diaphragm.
4. A generator as in claim 2 wherein each said core means has a central aperture associated with said chamber means to allow air pressure to impinge on said diaphragm.
5. A generator as in claim 2 wherein one portion of said diaphragm is biased against vibratory movement.
6. A generator as in claim 5 wherein said diaphragm portion is biased by a difference in volume of said two chamber means.
7. A generator as in claim 5 wherein said diaphragm portion is biased mechanically against movement.
8. A generator as in claim 1 and including a second diaphragm ring magnet, polarized magnetic field core means, armature coil and chamber means disposed adjacent said first diaphragm, ring magnet, core means, fi ia ni%ini%i, ii fiifi dfiii figii g rixifi y secured to a rod means whereby vibration of said diaphragms imparts an oscillatory rotary motion to said rod thereby creating a mechanical energy and an electrical voltage in said coils.
9. A generator as in claim 1 wherein one portion of said diaphragm is biased against movement.
10. A generator as in claim 9 including a toothed ratchet assembly having a shaft means, an unbiased portion of said diaphragm in engagement with said assembly whereby the incremental vibration of said diaphragm will cause said shaft means to rotate, and means preventing reverse rotation of said shaft means.
1 1. A generator as in claim 9 wherein said diaphragm portion is biased by a difierence in the volume of said chamber means.
12. A generator as in claim 9 wherein said diaphragm portion is biased against movement mechanically.