|Publication number||US3686795 A|
|Publication date||Aug 29, 1972|
|Filing date||Feb 28, 1967|
|Priority date||Feb 28, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3686795 A, US 3686795A, US-A-3686795, US3686795 A, US3686795A|
|Inventors||Robert L La Barge|
|Original Assignee||Aluminum Co Of America|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (25), Classifications (19)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United StatesPatent La Barge 1 1 b Aug. 29, 1972 54 WINDOWS-AND SIMILAR-PANEL- SUPPORTING STRUCTURES Robert L. La Barge, Richmond, Ind.
Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Feb. 28, 1967- I72] lnvcntor:
1m. 01 -1205: 11/28, E06b 1/32 Field of Search ..49/38 1-402, 475-476, 49/483498, 504,341445, 324, DIG. 1; 74/89, 89.14, 89.18, 425
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 8/1933 Johnson ..49/341 U.S. Cl. .49/345, 49/383, 49/504,
3,308,582 3/1967 Bakke ..49/383 5 Primary ExaminerJ. Karl Bell Attorney-Robert T. Teeter [5 7] ABSTRACT Thermally insulated windows and similar panel structure exposed to, differential temperature conditions on opposite sides may comprise a fixed metal frame and,
insulated therefrom, a movable metal frame supporting a window glass or similar panel. The movable 'frame is displaced into and out of venting association with and thermally insulated relationship to the fixed frame. Thermal insulation serving as Weatherstripping between the frames provides a thermal barrier or break. It may be in connecting attachment to either the venting sash or the fixed frame, and in overlying relationship to the other in closed position.
1 Claim,-30 Drawing Figures PATENTED M1629 1912 SHEET 2 OF 6 INVENTOR. B T' 4. [1954/3622 BY a; q}?
HTT'OPA/EY PATENTEDnusze I972 sum 3 or 6 PATENTEDmsze m2 SHEET B [If 6 R MMLT L W WQW E A W m WINDOWS AND SIMILAR PANEL-SUPPORTING STRUCTURES This invention is addressed in general to thermally insulated window and similar panel supporting structures and is more specifically addressed to improved windows incorporating a fixed metal frame unitarily mounted in perimetrical framing relationship to an opening in an enclosing wall, exposed to differential temperature conditions on opposite sides thereof, in combination with a second metal frame supporting a window glass or similar panel relatively movably displaceable into and out of venting association and thermally insulated relationship of the two metal frames.
Casement type structures including windows, as well as similar unitary venting structures incorporating substitutable opaque or translucent panels for conventional transparent glass window panes or lights, in which the panel-carrying frame structure is movably displaceable in respect to a fixed frame structure defining an opening in an enclosing wall supporting the casement type structure, are typical of structures that may be constructed within the scope of the invention. Such structures are applicable for installation in buildings, automobiles, trucks and busses, as well as in marine vessels and aircraft, and for that matter lend themselves to use wherever projectable casement type venting structures are presently employed.
The relatively high thermal conductivity of metals is probably the most undesirable property limiting their substitution for conventional wood and other less conductive non-metallic structural materials. This recognized characteristic can best be recognized in window and similar panel construction employing metal framing in direct conductive relationship between exposed exterior and interior differential temperature conditions giving rise to the generation and presence of steam, frost and condensation on the elevated temperature or interior surfaces thereof, particularly in northern climates where extreme outdoor and indoor temperature differentials prevail.
Some relief from the deleterious high thermal conductivity of metal window and equivalent panel structures has been accomplished through the introduction of a thermal break or barrier of non-metallic insulating materials in unitary connecting attachment between exterior and interior exposed surfaces of separated metallic framing elements, as for example astaught in US. Pat. No. 3,191,727, granted June 27, 1965. It will be observed, however, that unitary insulated connection between the metal structural members of the stated patent does not provide for operably displaceable separation of the separate metallic members thereof, a desired objective and structural feature essential to projected and relative displacement between fixed and movable metal framing members of casement type venting structures.
It has also been a recognized practice to provide nonmetallic Weatherstripping between movable metal venting sash and fixed metal framing of casement type structures in which the fixed metal members framing the opening in an enclosing wall are in direct conductive interior and exterior exposure, thus defeating the thermal insulating effectiveness of the non-metallic Weatherstripping.
In a still further conventional practice, a fixed metal frame has supportingly surrounded a metal venting sash overlying displaceable association with a relatively fixed metallic frame in which the fixed frame and movable or displaceable metal sash are capable of assuming separated relationship and also thermally insulated relationship in coextensive facial overlying mar- 'ginal edge disposition of the fixed :metal frame-and sash in the closed position thereof.
Another object of the invention is to provide the aforesaid objectively stated structure in which the thermal break insulation is a non-metallic material and serves in addition as a Weatherstripping medium between coextensive overlying marginal areas of the fixed and movable metal frames.
A further object of the invention is to provide a window or panel supporting system "the metal frames of which lend themselves to simplified fabrication from a minimum number of structural metal sections or elements producible in the form of elongate members of indeterminate length, as by rolling, extrusion, continuous casting, sheet metal forming, and similar conventional manufacturing processes, from which desired linear lengths are severable and assembled in abutting framing structures exhibiting and characterized by substantially identically delineated overlying registerable framed areas.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention appertains on consideration of the following description and illustrations, in which:
FIG. 1 is an interior elevational outline of a window or similar structure within the scope of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary cross-section, to slightly enlarged scale, taken on the plane 2-2 of FIG. 1, illustrating a preferred glazed embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross-section, to the slightly enlarged size of FIG. 2, but taken on the plane 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, respectively, are fragmentary crosssections illustrating alternate glazing systems incorporating a common framing member for a displaceable or movable frame of a window within the scope of the invention;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary cross-section of a fixed interiorfrarning structure and mounting of the same in the FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a length of exterior framing member employed in fabricating a movable venting casement frame;
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary exploded isometric view of a mitered corner joint formed between similar interior framing members constituting a fixed interior frame structure;
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary exploded isometric view of a mitered corner joint between similar exterior framing members constituting a venting casement frame structure;
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a length of glazing or panel-securing bead employed in the double glazed projectable casement structures of FIGS. 4 and 6;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a length of glazing or panel-securing bead employed in the single thickness panel projectable casement structure of FIG. 5;
FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a length of filler bead or molding employed in the structure of FIG. 5;
FIG. 15 is a perspective view of a length of strip material employed in securing insulated mounting of interior fixed framing structures within rough openings in enclosing walls;
FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a length of setting block material employed in centering and spacing panels and window lights in casement type structures;
FIG. 17 is a perspective view of a length of panel or glass-receiving edge molding material employed in the casement type structures shown in FIG. 6;
FIG. 18 is a perspective view of a length of adjacent panel spacer strip employed in casement type structures shown in FIG. 6;
FIG. 19 is a perspective view of a length of interior thermal sealing material employed with compact casement type structures as illustrated in association with an interior fixed frame structure in FIGS. 2, 3 and 7;
FIG. 20 is a perspective view of a length of exterior thermal sealing material employed with compact casement type structures illustrated in association with an interior fixed frame structure in FIGS. 2, 3 and 7;
FIG. 21 is a fragmentary, cross-sectional, perspective view of the double glazed venting structure of FIG. 6 provided with one embodiment of an air ventilating system between the spaced single thickness glazing panels thereof;
FIG. 22 is a view similar to FIG. 21 illustrating an alternate air ventilating system;
FIG. 23 is a perspective view of a length of panel or glass-receiving edge molding material substitutable for the edge molding of FIG. 17;
FIGS. 24 and 25 are fragmentary views illustrating actuating mechanism suitable for supporting, projecting and displacing the venting frame structure into and out of thermally sealed relationship with respect to associated fixed frame structure; and
FIGS. 26 through are fragmentary cross-sectional views taken on the planes 26-26, 27-27, 28-28, 29-29 and 30-30, respectively, of FIG. 24.
The present invention embraces displaceable or projectable type structures comprising a unitary displaceable window or panel-supporting frame or sash fabricated from metal, exemplified by a glazed venting window frame structure or similar sash, for installation and association with a cooperating relatively immovable or fixed metal frame structure, to provide a translatable or otherwise displaceably and controllably mounted metallically-framed transom, hopper, projected or casement type window, or similar venting panel structure. Structures and coordinated assemblies satisfying the concept of the invention also incorporate a non-metallic thermal insulation element or elements carried by one or other, or both, of the displaceable and fixed or immovable metal frame structures, serving the purpose of providing a separable thermal break and/or Weatherstripping between the metal frames in the closed and sealed position of the displaceable venting sash with respect to its cooperating fixed metal frame structure. Preferably, the metal frames and nonmetallic thermal breaks are so disposed that the movable or exterior metal frame is not exposed to the interior and the fixed or interior metal frame is not exposed to the exterior. Actuating mechanism is preferably provided for displacing or projecting the movable metal venting frame structure or sash into and out of nonconducting thermal sealing relationship with the fixed or immovable metal frame of casement type venting structures.
Casement type venting structures in the form of glazed window units representative of the invention comprise an inner or interior metal framing structure 10, adapted to be secured within a rough opening in an enclosing wall in thermally insulated relationship thereto, in combination with an outer or exterior glazed metal framing structure 12, adapted to be outwardly movable, and preferably projectable or translatable, away from and out of thermally sealed relationship with the interior fixed framing structure 10 and away from the outwardly directed surface of the enclosing wall surrounding the rough opening therein.
The interior frame 10 is preferably fabricated from an aluminum or aluminum alloy extruded section 14 (FIG. 8) from which lineal lengths are severable to provide opposite equal length similar jamb members 16 (FIGS. 1, 3 and 10) and equal length similar sill and lintel members 18 and 20 respectively, (FIGS. 1, 2, 7 and 10). Oppositely disposed equal lengths of the jamb members 16 are each unitarily connected at their lower ends to opposite ends of the sill member 18, and at their upper ends to opposite ends of the lintel member 20, the opposite jamb member, and sill and lintel members being similarly directionally oriented in a common plane to form the interior unitary rectangular framing structure 10. Various alternate practices may be followed to provide the corner connections in the assembly of the interior framing structure 10, such as welding, bolting, riveting and similar conventional practices or combinations thereof. However, the preferred and illustrated practice comprises the mitered corner connection, illustrated in the exploded isometric view to best advantage in FIG. 10, to be described further hereinafter.
A configuration or form of metal section or member 14 (FIG. 8), from which an interior fixed frame structure 10 can be fabricated, is of generally L-shaped uniform transverse cross section over its axial length and is generally defined by a base web or leg 22 and upstanding leg 24. The upstanding leg 24 is generally inclined upwardly and inwardly at its free end, remote from the base web 22, to provide an extension 26 directionally facing toward the contained angle formed by the legs 22 and 24, and for esthetic reasons may have an exposed concave surface.
The underside of the base web or leg 22, as viewed in MG. 8, may be configurated to provide an undercut or dovetail groove 28, as is the underside of the inclined extension 26 at 30. The terminus or free end of leg 22 is preferably downwardly inclined, angularly stepped at 32, and thickened, and has provided therein an axially extending, laterally open, re-entrant groove 34. The upstanding leg 24 (FIG. 8) of framing member 14 is preferably normal to the base web or leg 22 and may be joggled at 36 to provide an interiorly directed shoulder. In addition, the inclined extension 26 of section 14 terminates in a thickened section which has provided therein a laterally open, axially extending, re-entrant groove 38.
Preferred mitered corner jointure between opposite ends of each of the jambs 16 and opposite ends of each of the sill and lintel members 18 and 20, respectively, illustrated for one upper corner and part of another (FIG. of the interior fixed frame structure 10, includes the use of an angle bracket 40 having its right angularly disposed legs, notched at 42, in sliding engagement within the dovetail grooves 28 of the mitered ends of the sections 14 at each of the four corners of the interior frame 10. Securement of the corner joints is accomplished by staking overlying returns of dovetail 28 into the notches 42 in both legs of each bracket 40 to thereby provide 45 flush mitered jointure of each corner of the frame 10. One or more self tapping screws 44, shown in dotted line construction in FIG. 10, may also be inserted through apertures in each of the legs of bracket 40 into threaded engagement with the leg 22 of each section or member 14. In addition, corner aligning brackets 46 may also be employed in sliding assembly within the dovetail grooves 30 in each of the sections 14 forming each corner joint to thereby insure flush and common plane unidirectional assembly of the sections 14 of the interior frame structure 10.
The exterior frame 12 is also preferably fabricated from an aluminum or aluminum alloy extruded section typified by member 48 (FIG. 9) from which lineal lengths are severable to provide opposite equal length stile members 50 and equal length upper and lower rails 52 (FIGS. 2 and 3). The oppositely disposed stile members 50 are each unitarily connected at their opposite ends to opposite ends of the oppositely disposed upper and lower rail members 52 with the pairs of members 50 and 52 similarly directionally oriented in a common plane to form the exterior frame structure 12. As in the case of the interior frame 10, numerous alternate practices may be followed to provide the corner connections between the members or sections 50 and 52, such as welding, bolting, riveting and similar conventional practices or combinations thereof. However, the preferred and illustrated practice comprises the mitered corner connection, illustrated in exploded isometric view in FIG. 11, to be described further hereinafter.
A configuration of metal section 48 (FIG. 9), from which exterior frame structure 12 may be fabricated, is of generally T-shaped uniform transverse cross-section over its axial length and is generally defined by a head or flange portion 54 and a stem portion 56 normal thereto. One terminus of the head portion 54 of section 48 (the upper one in FIG. 9) is generally inclined inwardly and upwardly at its free end 58 to provide a portion directionally facing toward the contained angle formed by the head portion 54 and extending stemportion 56. The inclined portion may have an exposed concave surface, and its free end is marginally thickened and provided with an axially extending, laterally open, re-entrant groove 60 inwardly facing in the same direction as the stem 56 and remote from the exposed concave surface 58, as viewed in FIG. 9.
Additional structural delineation of the uniformtransverse cross-sectional profile of the member or section 48 of the exterior framing structure 12 includes the provision of upstanding axially extending spaced ribs 62, 64, 66 integral with the upper surface of the stem 56 (FIG. 8) and generally inwardly inclined thereto. The ribs 62, 64 and 66 form axially extending channels therebetween and are terminated in flat terminal head flanges 68, 70 and 72, respectively, preferably in a common plane. Also in the uniform cross-sectional profile of section 48 are rearwardly directed axially extending notch configurations 76 and 78, immediately below the terminal head flanges 70 and 72, respectively, a re-entrant laterally open groove 80 at the base of the rib 62, and a corner bracket-receiving groove 82 on the inner face of the upper head flange 54 of section 48, the purpose of which structural features will appear hereinafter.
FIG. 11 is illustrative of preferred mitered corner jointure of the stile and rail members of section 48, in a unitary assembly of the. exterior framing structure 12. Therein it will be observed that each mitered corner employs an angle bracket 84 having one each of its angularly disposed legs slidingly received in one each of the grooves 82 in mitered end abutment of two lengths of the section 48. Unitary Securement of each corner joint is thereafter accomplished by threaded connec tors, such as the self-tapping screws 86, extended through drilled apertures 88 in stem portion 56 of each rail member 52 into threaded engagement within the aforementioned axially extending laterally open grooves 60 and 80 in the stile members 50 in registry with one each of the apertures 88.
It will be observed that the unitarily assembled interior and exterior frame structures 10 and 12, in registering overlying relationship, as viewed in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, delineate equal and similar rectangular enclosed areas.
Three embodiments of glazed exterior frame structure or sash 12 are illustrated in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, it being understood that translucent or opaque panels can be substituted for ordinary window glazing in the illustrations now to be described. To simplify illustration and description of glazing practices selected for purposes of describing the scope of the invention, the fragmentary sectional views depicted in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 have been confined to a single framing section 48 in each view, with the understanding that all four sides of the frame structure 12 are similar.
In FIG. 4, setting or spacer blocks 90 (FIG. 16) of thermal insulating material, such as wood, plastic, or the like, are set in place at spaced intervals around the perimeter of a marginal edge fused, spaced double walled, evacuated window pane or light 92, the setting blocks being supported in flat bearing contact against the terminal flat head flanges 68 and 70 and adhesively secured thereto, if desired. A thermal insulating, preferably pressure active adhesive type tape material 94, such as a vinyl or similar material, may be adhesively secured to the inwardly directed flat marginal surface 96 of each section 48 (FIG. 9) in marginal area bearing contact with the outwardly directed surface of the window pane 92, and the glazing may be secured by a resilient synthetic resinous plastic molding or glazing bead 98 (FIG. 12) of generally V-shape'in transverse cross-section. Material 94 may be an extruded plastic or rubber shape and may be held in place mechanically, if desired; Head 98 may be formed from stainless steel sheet or other low thermally conductive metal, if desired.
It will be observed that the glazing bead 98 (FIG. 12), before installation in FIG. 4, provides a horizontal leg 100, having an underside tapered projection or extension 102, in contiguous integral interconnection with an upwardly inclined leg 104 terminating in a flat terminal extension 106. The glazing bead or strip 98 is preferably an extruded section and flexibly resiliently responds, on. introduction of its leg 100 within the channel formed between the ribs 64 and 66, with the tapered extension 102 within the notch 78, to urge the leg 104 and flat terminal extension 106 thereof in bearing perimetrical contact against the rear surface of the glazing pane'92. The bead 98 insures a substantially vibration-free, thermally insulated installation of the glazing panel 92, outof direct thermally conductive support against the metal frame section or member 48 of the exterior frame or sash structure 12. It will be observed in this connection that some distortion, and particularly in respect to the leg 100 (FIG. 12) of the glazing bead 98, occurs on installation of the bead 98, the legs 100 and 104 being resiliently separated from their initial position.
The second glazing embodiment, illustrated in FIG. 5, differs from that of FIG. 4 in that it pertains to a single thickness window pane or light 108. In this embodiment, the window pane or'panel 108 is marginally edge spaced and supported by means of spaced setting blocks 90 supported and adhesively secured, if desired, against the flat head flange 68 of the rib 62 of each of the metal sections 48 of the exterior sash or frame structure 12, the outer face of the pane 108 desirably being in bearing contact against the inwardly directed thermal insulation tape 94. A resilient glazing bead 110 is provided and is preferably of generally uniform wishbone transverse cross-section (FIG. 13) having a base flange 1 l2 marginally beveled at 1 14 and incorporating an intermediate integral upstanding web 116 inclined away from the beveled edge 114. The web 116 is preferably thickened by the rearwardly projecting localized rib 188 which may serve as a pry ledge to aid in disassembly of the glazing bead 110.
Installation of the glazing bead 110 entails introduction of base flange 112 thereof within the channel 80,.
8 resilient urging, substantially vibration free thermally insulated installation of the window pane 108 within its exterior frame structure 12 in similar non-direct thermal conductive relationship to that described for the glazing system of FIG. 4.
A resilient synthetic resinous plastic filler strip or bead (FIG. 14) is desirably employed to enclose the otherwise exposed ribs 64 and 66 of the single pane assembly of FIG. 5, which would otherwise be unsightly and act as dirt-collecting surfaces, and would allow warm moist interior air to condenseon exposed cold ribs 64 and 66. Filler strip 120 is illustrated in FIG. 14 before resilient snap-installation in FIG. 5, and is preferably of uniform cross-sectional generally channel-shaped resilient synthetic resinous plastic material produced as an extrusion. Filler bead 120 comprises a lower flange 122, and an upper-substantially parallelflange 124 downwardly directed at its free terminal end at 126. The lower flange 122 is provided on its underside with an inwardly projecting tapered extension 128 and the flanges 122 and 124 are connected by a web comprising upper and lower generally parallel straight portions 130 and 132, respectively, and an intermediate inclined connecting portion 134. Comparison of the filler bead strip 120 in FIG. 14, before snap-installation in FIG. 5, with its position in FIG. 5, will reveal that the lower flange 122, with its tapered extension 128 within the notch 78 in rib 66, is angularly deflected to resiliently urge the depending portion 126 thereof into bearing contact against the rear surface of the glazing pane 108.
FIG. 6 is illustrative of a third glazing system in which an outer single glazing pane or light 136 is installed in the precise manner described for FIG. 5 and a second inwardly spaced glazing panel or light 138 is also provided. The second panel 138 is desirably marginally edge framed within a relatively rigid, synthetic resinous, uniform transverse cross-section, generally channel-shaped, extruded edge molding 140 (FIG. 17), having oppositely disposed upwardly converging flanges 142 and 144 for engaging opposite flat surfaces of the second glazing panel 138 adjacent the marginal perimetrical edge thereof (FIG. 6). The inner surfaces of the flanges 142 and 144 may, if desired, be configurated to provide oppositely disposed inwardly directed ribs 145 to reduce-the effective depth of the channel molding 140 thereby providing greater separation of edge of glazing panel 138 from cold surface 70 of extrusion which results in greater degree of thermal insulation. The upper edge of the flange 142 is outwardly offset to provide an interior laterally open groove 146 beyond and above the entrance throat to edge molding 140 and also provides an upwardly directed forwardly extending wing portion 148. The opposite flange 144 may be terminated in a rearwardly and downwardly inclined wing portion 150 which provides a marginal gripping edge, opposite the marginal wing portion 148 which provides a shelf to align gasket-spacer 152.
Installation of the inwardly spaced single glazing pane or light 138 as in FIG. 6 requires providing a thermal insulation spacer member 152 (FIG. 18) between coextensive facing surfaces of the glazing panes 136 and 138, as well as employing the same glazing bead or strip 98 employed in FIG. 4.
The spacer member 152 is preferably an extruded section of uniform transverse cross-sectional configuration (FIG. 18) made from a relatively soft synthetic resinous plastic thermal insulating material in indeterminate lengths of the same. The member 152 is axially hollow to permit maximum compressibility; isserrated on opposite lateral faces at 154 to provide effective compressive contact against the facing surfaces of the glazing panes 136 and 138 in FIG. 6; and is provided with an integral downwardly depending and contiguously angularly upwardly and inwardly extending lower marginal edge flange configuration 156, as initially extruded, for resilient interlocking engagement of the flange configuration 156 within the laterally open groove 146 of the edge molding member 140 of FIG. 17, when located as illustrated in FIG. 6.
Final securement of the glazing pane 138 in the installation of FIG. 6 is accomplished by employing the glazing strip or bead 98, in the same manner as described for the glazed installation illustrated in FIG. 4.
Reference is now made to FIGS. 2, 3, 7, l and 15 in support of a description of the installation of the interior fixed metal frame structure heretofore described. It will be observed that a generally angular shaped bracket element 160 (FIG. is employed for this purpose and element 160 is preferably selected in the form of a substantially rigid synthetic resinous plastic extrusion of relatively high thermal insulation quality from which continuous lengths or individual clip angles may be severed, the latter being illustrated in FIG. 10.
Clip angle portions of the element 160 have been il- ,lustrated in FIG. 10 having the depending extension 162 of the horizontal leg 164 thereof installed within the dovetail groove 28 in contact against the undercut sloping surface of rib 166 (FIG. 8) of the jamb, sill and lintel forming sections 14 of the inner frame structure 10 and the terminal chamfered edge 168 of the horizontal leg 164 thereafter engaged by inward overlying deflection of the relatively thin marginally depending rear flange 170 of section 14 to thus provide unitary structural attachment of element 160 to the interior frame structure 10. Localized inward overlying deflection of the flange 170 suffices in FIG; 10 in respect to a short clip length of element 160, it being understood 7 that individual clip lengths would be repeated for the sill, lintel and each of the jambs, as often as required for proper stability in fixedly mounting an interior frame structure 10 within a rough opening in an enclosing wall receiving the same, the vertical leg 172 of each clip element 160 acting as a nailable or otherwise securable tab for attaching and centering the interior frame structure 10 within the rough opening in an enclosing wall, as best illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. The tadpole tail 188 of Weatherstripping 178 provides a seal against sheathing 174. This tail 188 is conformable enough that it accommodates for mismatch in sheathing joints and will even accommodate any mismatch created by vertical leg 172 of clip 160 with minimum air leakage. This tail 188 is designed to have interference fit with sheathing 174 as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3.
If desired, the clip element 160 may be provided in opposite mitered end lengths commensurate with the perimetrical length of the dovetail groove 28 of an as sembled inner frame structure 10 receiving the same.
Even employing the aforesaid longer mitered end lengths of the clip element 160, removal of its angularly depending extension 162 would be required of those end portions thereof coextensive with the legs of the angle corner brackets 40 (FIG. 10) to avoid interference therewith.
The provision of thermal insulation interrupting direct thermal conductivity between the exterior frame structure 12 and interior frame structure 10 in the closed position of the exterior frame 12 is most important. Reference to FIGS. 2, 3, 7, 19 and 20 will reveal interior and exterior thermal insulating and sealing members 176 and 178, respectively, which are preferably supported and carried 'by the interior fixed frame structure 10.
The interior member 176 (FIG. 19) is preferably a compressible synthetic resinous plastic extrusion of axially tubular configuration, to increase its compressibility, and is provided with an integral arrow shaped axially coextensive extended mounting flange .180 for collapsible introduction into and unitary resilient securement with interior wall areas of the laterally open groove 38 of each section 14 constituting the jambs l6, sill l8 and lintel 20 of the fixed interior frame structure 10 preferably in contiguous perimetrical continuity therewith. The exposed face of member 176 opposite its arrow head configuration 180 is provided with two or more outwardly projecting integral fins over the axial length thereof, two outwardly diverging fins 182 and an intermediate fin 184 insuring desirable compressive area of bearing contact of the member 176 against a coextensive underlying surface area of the interiorly facing glazing pane brought into surface contact thereagainst in the closed thermally sealed condition of the exterior translatable or movable frame structure 12 (FIGS. 2 and 3).
The exterior thermal insulating and sealing member 178 is also preferably selected as a compressible synthetic resinous plastic extrusion of axially tubular configuration to increase and improve its compressibility. The exterior outline and configuration of the member 178 includes provision of an axially coextensive integral arrow shaped inwardly extended mounting flange 186 for collapsible introduction into and unitary resilient securement with interior wall areas of the laterally open groove 34 of each section 14 constituting the jambs 16, sill 18 and lintel 20 of the interior frame structure 10 in the same manner described for member 176.
Additional features of member 178 include its exterior configuration to provide the downwardly depending tapered fin portion 188, serrations 190, and outwardly extending fins 192, the latter insuring a maximum overlying compressible sealing contact against a coextensive abutting surface area of the exterior frame structure 12; the serrations 190 ensuring a maximum overlying compressible sealing contact against coextensive abutting surface areas of finishing trim and/or sill defining structure 194 (FIG. 3) surrounding the installed casement type structures of the invention; and the depending fin 188, inwardly inclined against the sheathing 174, serving as a moisture and air seal surrounding the rough opening in an enclosing wall receiving the installed casement structure therewithin. In this connection, the fin 188 may be notched to accommodate mounting clips 160 but is otherwise sufficiently flexible in the selection of the material of the sealing member 178 to accommodate irregularities in its un derlying coextensive outwardly directed surfaces immediately adjacent and perimetrically surrounding the rough enclosing wall opening receiving the fixed interior frame structure 10. If desired, conventional compatible adhesives may be applied to the underside of the fin 188 without interfering with the compressible and flexible characteristics of the exterior sealing member 178.
Conventional metallic siding 196 has been shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 7 of the illustrations. It will be understood that brick veneer, wood, or equivalent exterior construction materials may be employed without detracting from the construction, installation and advantages of the casement type structures of the invention. Also, the aforementioned joggled shoulder 36 (FIG. 8) will serve as a locating or strike line for accurate installing of an interior sill 198 (FIG. 2) and interior walls 200 (FIG. 3).
The perspective views in FIGS. 21 and 22 are illustrative of the glazing system previously described in terms of FIG. 6, but incorporating two modifications for air circulation between the exterior and interior glazing panes 136 and 138 thereof.
In FIG. 21 external air inlet apertures 202 are provided at spaced intervals along the horizontal length of section 48 above its inwardly directed stem 56 in the lower rail 52 of the exterior movable frame structure 12. The similar upper rail 52 of the casement structure frame 12, inverted in respect to FIG. 21, is similarly apertured. Sweeping updraft air circulation of outside air entering the apertures 202 in the lower rail 52 and its discharge through the similar apertures in the upper similar rail (not shown) is established between the glazing panels 136 and 138 through the spaces between the spaced setting blocks 90 (not shown) under the lower and above the upper marginal edges of the outer glazing pane 136, through notches 204 provided in upstanding web 116 of glazing bead 110, and notches 206 in a slightly modified form of the edge molding 140 of FIG. 17, illustrated in FIG. 23 and identified by the reference numeral 208.
It will be observed that the edge molding 208 (FIGS. 21, 22 and 23) is substitutable for that illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 17 and eliminates the need for the thermal insulation member 152 (FIG. 18). This is accomplished by outward extension of the wing portion 210 (FIG. 23) and elimination of the laterally open groove 146 (FIG. 17) to insure thermal insulating engagement of axially extending wing portion 210 against a coextensive perimetrical area of the inwardly directed surface of the outer glazing pane 136 in FIGS. 21 and 22. The inner glazing bead 98 of FIG. 6 has been omitted in FIGS. 21 and 22 to simplify and avoid repetition therein.
In the modified (air circulating) form of the glazing installation illustrated in FIG. 22, tubing 212 has been frame structure 12 for admitting sweeping updraft external air between the glazing panes or panels 136 and 138 otherwise installed as described for FIG. 21.
Operating or actuating mechanism for projectably displacing and translating or moving the exterior frame 12 into and out of thermally sealed relationship with the fixed interior frame structure 10 is fragmentarily illustrated in FIGS. 24 through 30, with the frame structures illustrated in broken line construction in FIGS. 24 and 25.
The operating or actuating mechanism and linkage includes a torque bar or shaft 214 rotatably supported at opposite shouldered ends 215 thereof, the lower end shoulder and mounting of the torque bar being shown in FIG. 26, in suitably shaped preferably steel plate brackets 216, one each secured adjacent the mitered ends of the inner surface of head flange 54 of each of the lower and upper rail members 52 on the same side of the stern portion 56 thereof and locating the axis of the torque shaft 214 parallel to one of the stiles 50 exteriorly hidden by head flange 54 thereof. A thermal insulating strip 218 is preferably positioned and secured between the underside of the stem portions 56 and each of the steel brackets 216, as best illustrated in FIGS. 26, 27 and 28. r
A housing 220 is secured to the inwardly directed and exposed face of the sill 18 (FIGS. 1, 24 and 25) and encloses a gear segment 222 rotatably actuatable therein by a manually operable worm 224 journalled in the housing in engagement with the gear segment. The gear segment 222 carries an arm 226 suitably secured or formed integral therewith and extending outwardly away therefrom through a suitable slot in the upstanding leg 24 of the sill 18. The housing 220 is extended inwardly beyond the axis of rotation of its gear segment 222 to also enclose a pivot pin 228 (FIG. 29) for one end of a link 230 having its opposite end secured to the lower end of the torque shaft 214 (FIG. 26).
A second actuating link 232 is pivotally connected at one of its extremities at 234 (FIG. 27) to the outer extremity of the gear arm 226, outwardly remote to the axis of rotation of the gear segment 222, extends away therefrom over the link 230 and is pivotally attached thereto at 236 (FIG. 28) with its opposite extremity in pivotal attachment at 238 (FIG. 30) to a third link 240 underlying the link 232. The opposite end of link 240 is pivotally secured at 242 (FIG. 28) to the undersurface of bracket 216 inwardly spaced from the journalled end of torque shaft 214 thereto.
The several views of FIGS. 26 through 30 have been selected to illustrate the above-identified gear segment 222 and interconnected linkage members in the closed position of the exterior venting frame structure 12, in the thermally sealed position thereof in respect to fixed frame structure 10. They clearly reveal complete concealment of the linkage within the enclosed space, shown to best advantage in FIGS. 2 and 3, defined below the inwardly projecting stem 56 of the lower rail member 52 of exterior movable venting sash 12 and outwardly directed base web or leg 22 of interior fixed frame structure 10. It will be manifest that a slightly modified form of the actuator housing 220, eliminating the worm 224, will be employed in mounted attachment to the interior directed and exposed face of the lintel member 20, identified in FIG. 1 at 244, to rotatably support an outwardly extending single operating link or arm 230, without need for the previously described integrated gear segment 222, arm 226 and link 232. Otherwise, the bracket 216 and pivotally interconnected and similarly mounted link 230, as previously described, will be provided below the inwardly directed stem 56 of the upper rail member 52 of the exterior venting sash 12 with the upper link 230 pin connected to the upper reduced end of the torque shaft 214 and responding to rotation of the same.
In addition, operating handles 246 (FIG. 1) in the form of conventional oscillatable hook-shaped members pivotallycarried on the interior surface of opposite stiles 16 of the interior fixed frame structure with their hooked ends extending through apertures therein into and out of clamping engagement against interior surfaces of the outer venting sash 12 in registry therewith, are provided for securing the exterior vent in thermally sealed and Weatherstripping relationship in respect to the interior frame 10 in closed positionsof the casement type structures herein described. Also, a conventional screen 248 may be provided and installed, as illustrated in FIG. 7.
It will be observed from the hereinabove description and appended illustrations that direct conductive-thermal contact between the exterior exposed metal venting frame 12 and interior air or the interior fixed metal frame It) is obviated by the interposed perimetrically coextensive inner and outer compressible non-metallic sealing members 176 and 178. Similarly, direct conductive thermal contact between the metal of the exterior venting sash or frame 12 and the panels supported and carried thereby is obviated by the nonmetallic thermal conductivity characteristics of g the setting blocks 90, synthetic resinous tape 94, one or more of the resilient synthetic resinous plastic glazing strips or beads 98 and 110, with or without the resilient synthetic plastic filler strip or bead 120, and the compressible synthetic resinous plastic edge molding members 140, 208, with or without the compressible synthetic resinous plastic spacer member 152, and the glass itself. In addition, the interior fixed metal frame 10 is supported within the depth or thickness of the enclosing wall receiving the same out of direct contact therewith by means of the mounting member or clip 160 of rigid non-metallic synthetic resinous plastic.
Negligible direct thermal conductivity can be introduced between the interior and exterior metal frame structures 10 and 12 through the use of metal supporting and actuating links 230, 232, 240 and metal brackets 216 supporting a metal torque shaft 214. This can be overcome by employing non-metallic bushings surrounding the pivoted and fixed connections between the links and torque shaft. Nylon and similar rigid type synthetic resinous materials can be employed for such bushings and thereby serve to interrupt direct thermal contact at points of connection between the named links and exterior frame 12, torque shaft 214, and brackets 216.
The glazing or substitutable panel installations described hereinabove, with particular reference to the resilient glazing beads or strips 98, 110, and filler molding 120, readily respond in installation and removal to permit replacement and cleaning of the panels supported by the exterior venting sash 12 from the interior of the enclosing wall supporting casement structure fallifig within the scope of the inve Iion.
T ere are numerous commercia y available thermal insulating materials from which the non-metallic several thermal break and mounting members may be fabricated and employed in the practice of the hereinabove illustrated and described invention. Rigidity, resilience, and compressibility are properties which are readily met by suppliers of such non-metallic thermal insulating materials in satisfaction of the stated characteristics designated hereinabove. Synthetic resinous plastic, as hereinabove employed, is by definition meant to include available plastics otherwise meeting the characteristics stated therefor in their described environment and are interchangeable with natural and/or synthetic rubber compositions exhibiting similar characteristics.
Having thus described the invention in terms of the selected and representative illustrations appended hereto, what is claimed is:
l. A metallic window and similar panel construction comprising separate interior and exterior metallic and thermally conductive frames adapted for installation in an enclosing wall and a rigid non-metallic thermal break connecting member attached to said interior frame to support it out of thermally conductive direct contact with the enclosing wall, said exterior frame supporting a closure panel and being supportingly carried by a first elongate link member pivotally attached at its opposite ends to said interior and exterior frames, a second elongate link member pivotally attached at one end thereof to said exterior frame and at its opposite end to a third elongate link member which crosses said first link member and having its opposite end pivotally attached to the end of an oscillatable arm member and pivotal connection between said first and said third link members where they cross whereby oscillation of said arm member pivotally opens and closes said exterior frame with respect to said interior frame, said window further having thermal insulation associated with coextensive overlying surfaces of the frames in closed condition thereof.
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|U.S. Classification||49/345, 49/504, 49/DIG.100, 49/383|
|International Classification||E06B3/96, E06B3/976, E06B3/30, E06B7/12|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S49/01, E06B3/308, E06B3/9636, E06B7/12, E06B3/325, E06B3/9765|
|European Classification||E06B3/32B, E06B7/12, E06B3/30B, E06B3/96K, E06B3/976B|