US 3687061 A
The apparatus aspects of the invention consists of packing means mounted at the discharge end of a harvesting wagon particularly one having a movable bottom. Such packing means may consist of such pressure creating means as multiple screws, oscillating vanes or rotary paddles for discharging the crop materials against the mass of animal food being built and imposing pressure thereon. Suitably adjustable braking means are also provided for controlling the pressure required to be imposed against the food mass in order to move the pressure creating means by the reaction thereto.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Eggenmuller et al. 51 Aug. 29, 1972  DEVICE FOR BUILDING UP AND  References Cited REMOVING A FLAT MASS OF GOODS UNITED STATES PATENTS  Inventors: Alfred Eggenmuller, Ulm; Lorenz scherer, oberelchingen; Eugen 2,158,745 5/1939 Dalimata 100/45 N m H i i ll h of 3,229,320 1/ 1966 Cymara ..100/229 A Th lfi Werner w g w 3,348,475 10/ 1967 Fenster et al ..100/177 lenstmen' Germany FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS  $2? Eberhard 52,022 2/1912 Austria ..100/144  Filed: Dec. 19, 1969 Primary Examiner-Peter Feldman ] Appl No; 886,800 Attorney-Woodhams, Blanchard and Flynn ABSTRACT  Form Application Pnonty Data The apparatus aspects of the invention consists of Dec. 21, 1968 Germany ..P 18 16 405.1 packing means mounted at the discharge end of a har- Sept. 27, 1969 Germany ..P 19 48 931.7 vesting wagon particularly one having a movable bottom. Such packing means may consist of such pressure  US. Cl. ..100/65, 100/45, 100/ 145, creating means as multiple screws, oscillating vanes or 100/ 177, 100/ 189, 100/229, 214/17 C rotary paddles for discharging the crop materials  Int. Cl ..AOll 25/16, 865g 3/04 against the mass of animal food being built and impos-  Field of Search........100l35, 103, 145, 179, 177, ing pressure thereon. Suitably adjustable braking means are also provided for controlling the pressure required to be imposed against the food mass in order to move the pressure creating means by the reaction thereto.
22 Clainm, 13 Drawing Figures PATENTEDAum m2 3.681.061 "sum 2 or 5 Fig. 6
PATENTEmuszs nan 338K061 saw u or 5 DEVICE FOR BUILDING UP AND REMOVING A FLAT MASS OF GOODS The invention relates to a device for building up and removing of a flat mass of material, in particular crops, in which the material is received at a collection station by a conveying and pressing device and is then conveyed to a storage location at which the mass of material is built against and supported by a rearwardly spaced wall.
For storing field feed, which is used as dried feed or silage for feeding animals, various methods are known. Dried feed is brought after drying in the field into the barn, or other storing place, from which it is transported into the stable for feeding.
According to another method, dried feed is either chopped in the field or on the farm yard and stored in chopped form. in any case, a barn or other storage means having a roof is required which in most cases requires an expensive construction. Furthennore, the stacking or piling according to this method is done in an expensive and complicated manner which has the result that the removing of the feed is also time and energy consuming.
in most agricultural operations, aside from dried feed, the animals are also fed with silage. According to the working methods known so far, silage feed is produced both in high silos and also in fiat silos. The high silos are in most cases either constructed as massive structures, or as otherwise expensive constructions, and have many problems in the storing and removing of silo feed. These problems can be handled only by heavy manual labor or by the use of additional expensive devices.
The expenses in the case of flat silos are generally lower, but the storing raises numerous problems because the filling is limited in time and such can only be accomplished with multiple working forces and tractors. Furthermore, the density required for silaging can be obtained only under certain conditions so that types of feed which are difficult to silage are frequently associated with high quantity and quality losses. Furthermore, the airtight sealing of the much larger surface in the case of a fiat silo in comparison to a high silo presents difficulties. Also the removal of feed is complicated because until the present there were available for this purpose only devices of limited use. in any case whether high or flat silo, the farmer must, when dried or silo feed is to be stored, provide for two completely different storage places of which each must be built up and emptied according to its own method of operation.
Furthermore an oblong silo which is closed on all sides is known in which the harvested material is fed by mechanical conveying means to a large filling opening of the silo. The removal is done through a large discharge opening. In the case of this oblong silo, there exists the disadvantage that the conveying means move partly back and forth in order to be able to stack the harvested material in the silo. This on the one hand requires a considerable time and on the other hand makes the formation of an even mass of material difficult due to the movement of the harvested material.
The purpose of the invention is now to produce an economical method and one which is independent of any building, which can be used in many ways for building up and removing a flat mass of material and the device therefor.
This purpose is attained according to the invention in such a manner that the conveying and pressing device functions only to conduct the material to a point immediately adjacent thereto, hence operates only to build up the mass of material and hence the speed of movement of the conveying and pressing device, the amount and feeding of material and pressure in the mass of materials are adjusted to one another.
According to this method quantities of food can be produced in any length and can be stored side-by-side without requiring any buildings or silos. The density required for the storage capability is obtained if the pressing density of the mass of food, the speed with which the mass is built up, the pressure in the mass and the amount fed thereto are adjusted to one another. This makes possible the selection of the proper amount of pressing desired for different types of food.
The device for performing the method of the invention is characterized in that the mass of food is first shaped by channel means which is arranged on a carriage or on sliding guides and at which the pressing members are provided and that at least at the remote end of the mass there is provided a boundary wall.
With this device, it is possible for example to press the loose material which has been delivered by a wagon to form a mass of food which requires only a small amount of space in the case of dried feed and in the case of silage it obtains the required density. In some cases it is advantageous if for the support surface there is provided a solid base, for example a concrete plate, on which the carriage runs in guide rails for supporting the forming channel with the pressing members.
Each desired pressing density of the mass of food can be obtained according to one characteristic of the invention by making the speed of forward movement of the forming channel corresponding to the desired pressing of the mass of food regulatable with the help of an adjustable brake or by making the speed of forward movement of the forming channel controllable automatically by means of a stepless gearing or a stepping mechanism or the like. In order to protect the thus produced masses of food against weather, according to a further characteristic of the invention during the production of a mass of dried food a rolled or folded foil of plastic or the like is arranged on the forming channel which foil pulls off during the forming process from the forming channel and covers the mass of food from above.
In this method one can also store partially cured hay and can dry same after the forming or pressing of the mass, if underneath the mass a ventilation in form of a channel or the like is provided. If the crops are to be fermented to silage, then according to the invention during the formation of a silo-type food mass in the forming channel a correspondingly folded or rolled foil of plastic or the like is arranged, said foil being pulled off during the forming process from the forming channel and enclosing the mass of food in an airtight manner. By providing the air tight seal a loss of fermenting food can be maintained within low risk limits.
If necessary, the mass of food can also be limited on both sides by sidewalls or supports. The sidewalls can here, if necessary, be constructed with a corresponding upper covering also for heat insulation.
According to a further development of the invention it is also possible for removing food from the mass formed according to this method to provide a removing cutter running on a carriage or on sliding guides whereby means for folding or rolling up of the cover foil are provided on the removing cutter.
In the case of feeding in an open stall a feed fence movable on a carriage or on guides can be provided, with which feed fence the feeding takes place directly from the mass of food. Of course, the feed fence will also have thereon means for folding or rolling up the cover foil.
It is also possible to manually remove feed from the mass of food if for the removal by hand a frame movable on rollers or the like is provided which is provided with means for receiving, for example folding, the foil and in the case of a silage type of food mass has a covering at the removing end of the mass. During manual removal, of course, the frame is not needed if one rolls up the foil by hand.
According to another possible embodiment of the invention, the forming channel can consist of an entry zone which is open in upward direction, a pressing channel following thereafter and a mouthpiece connected to said pressing channel whereby in the forming channel one or more worms are arranged, same being inclined upwardly directed and partly projecting into the mouthpiece. Through the inclined upwardly directed position of the worms there is produced a force component which is directed in an upwardly inclined direction longitudinally of the worm and at the same time there is provided a horizontal force component. With the inclined upwardly directed force component a complete and even filling and pressing of the silo mass of material is obtained while through the horizontal force component the conveying and pressing device is moved independently as the mass is built up.
According to a further characteristic of the invention, the worms are constructed so that they have an inclination decreasing from the entry zone to the mouthpiece whereby at least a part of the last worm flight is reversely bent and the worm end ends in a conical tip. By means of the decreasing inclination a sufficient density of the material within the pressing channel is obtained that it reaches the mouthpiece prepressed and thus can be built up to a solidly compressed mass with a minimum of air pockets. The reversely bent last portion of the worm flight effects a better distribution of the material entering into the mouthpiece. The conical tip at the worm end takes care of the centering of the flexibly supported worm and reduces friction between worm end and pressed goods.
According to a further characteristic of the invention the worms are arranged in oppositely directed pairs whereby the walls enclosing the respective worms are interrupted between two adjacent worms rotating in feeding direction by an opening which is enlarged toward the worm end. The slot-shaped opening in the wall between two worms each has the advantage that during conveying or pressing of long-fiber material nothing gets caught at the walls.
In order to assure a free flow of the material, guide ribs having preferably a helical shape are provided at the walls of the pressing channel, same commencing at the entry end thereof.
If green food with a high aqueous content is stored as silo feed, during compressing through the worms in the pressing channel a considerable amount of the liquid in the goods is pressed out. In order to prevent the liquid, which is damaging for silage, from penetrating into the food mass, openings are provided in the bottom of the pressing channel at the lowermost place openings for the discharge of excessive fluid. This fluid can be collected in suitable containers or it can directly be discharged into the discharge channel.
The stored mass of food assumes a somewhat flat form in its airtight enclosure, for example, a tube. It is therefore advantageous if the mouthpiece is constructed such that its form corresponds approximately to the natural cross-section of the stored mass. Furthermore, the mouthpiece for receiving a plastic tube should be free on all sides and is provided with a projecting edge at its end and a tube holder positioned adjacent thereto so that during the filling of the the the material can slide from the mouthpiece freely and continuously.
It is also advantageous if the limit wall provided at the end has approximately an inclined and/or arcshaped form which corresponds to the natural form of the stored mass. For an airtight closing, the plastic tube can be tied shut, rolled in or welded shut at the ends of the mass of material. One or more ventilating pipes or relief pressure valves assure discharge of the excess pressure which forms during the fermentation.
According to another characteristic of the invention, the pressing device can also be constructed in such a manner that instead of arranging worms in the forming channel, one or more inclined and upwardly directed press plungers may be used.
The pressing device can be driven directly by an electric motor with a step-down gearing or by the tractor power take ofi shaft through a drive shaft if the speed reduction is chosen such that the rotational speed of the rotational speed of the output of the stepdown gearing corresponds to the rotational speed of the P.T.O. shaft of the tractor. Also the drive can be effected by a hydraulic motor fed by the tractor hydraulic supply. Furthermore, the pressing device can also be driven by the tractor P.T.O. shaft through a transmission gearing arranged on the harvesting wagon through which an additional drive or a second tractor is not required.
The invention is illustrated in the drawings and discussed in the following description.
The invention will be described more in detail in connection with exemplary embodiments illustrated in the drawings, in which:
FIG. I is a schematic side-elevational view of the ap paratus of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a top view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a front view of the apparatus of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the food mass in the case of feed;
FIG. 5 illustrates a removing means;
FIG. 6 is a top view of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 illustrates a removing cutter with a feed fence;
FIG. 8 illustrates a feed fence directly at the food mass;
FIG. 9 illustrates the manual removal of the food mass;
FIG. 10 is a schematic side view of the apparatus according to another embodiment of the invention,
FIG. 1 l is a front view;
FIG. 12 is a top view of the apparatus according to FIG.
FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view along the line A-A of FIG. 1 1.
From a wagon l, for example an automatic loading wagon having a movable bottom, the feed is conveyed into a stufl'ing or pressing device 2. The pressing device 2 consists of a receiving chamber 3 in which pressing tools 4 are arranged which press the feed into a forming channel and consists of a carriage with rollers 6. The forming channel 5 has in cross-section the shape of the mass of material 7 to be produced.
At the start of the pressing, the feed exiting from the forming channel 5 is pressed against a wall 8 against which, upon further working of the pressing tools 4 and feeding of feed from the wagon 1, the desired pressing takes place. Such pressing is maintained by a braking drum 9 arranged on the pressing device 2 and a rope l0 anchored in the wall 8. If the pressing effect exceeds the value adjusted with the braking drum 9, same gives way and the pressing device 2 moves simultaneously with the exiting of the food mass 7 from the forming channel. This regulating and adjusting of the pressing effect can also be done automatically by means of a stepless gearing in a shift mechanism, or the like not illustrated in detail in the drawings. In this manner it is possible to form and press a food mass of any desired length.
For a smooth and trouble free operation, it will be necessary in some cases to permit the carriage with the rollers 6 to run on guide rails 11 which are installed on solid ground, for example a concrete plate 12.
During the pressing or the forming process of the mass of food 7, same can, in the case of dried feed, be covered from above simultaneously with a foil 13 (FIG. 4) and in the case of silo feed can be enclosed airtight by the foil 13 (FIG. 3). The foil 13 is pulled over the forming channel 5 in a folded or rolled manner and is held resiliently against unintended sliding off by a suitable device. At the beginning of the pressing process the end of the foil 13 is secured on the wall 8 by a conventional closing means 15 (for example a Seeger closing means) which, for the production of a silo food mass forms also an airtight seal. The airtight seal can also be obtained by closing the foil end 13, for example by means of tying; then the wall 8 is not needed. The foil 13 can also consist of two parts which have conventional means for a zipperlike connection at their longitudinal sides, which means assure an airtight seal. An airtight seal can also be obtained by providing the guide rails 11 with a suitable slot into which the longitudinal sides of the foil 13 are guided in a zipperlike manner (for example Seeger closing means). In this case there is required only one foil part having a profile suitable provided on the longitudinal sides.
It is possible to harvest with the mass of material handled according to the new method partially cured hay and to later dry it to dried feed. In this case suitable ventilation, for example in form of a channel 32, is provided under the food mass which channel is either permanently installed in the bottom or is produced during the pressing process by suitable means.
In order to be able to harvest partially cured hay in steps, the channel can be divided for example by slide plate or the like through which a steplike ventilation or drying of the feed is made possible.
FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate a removing cutter 16 which is adjusted to the food mass 7. The removing cutter 16 consists of the separating tools 17 which extend over the width of the food mass 7 and which guide the feed to two worms l8 conveying to the center from which the feed is conveyed by a conveyor wheel onto a conveyor belt 20 and from there into a wagon 21. The removing cutter, differing from the embodiment illustrated in the drawings, can also be constructed with one or more up and down moving or back and forth moving vertical cutting rollers or the like, in place of a single cutting roller arranged over the entire removing zone.
Means 22 are provided at the removing cutter 16 which means receive the cover foil 13 during the removing feed movement. Thus, the cover foil 12 can be used many times. At the end of the food mass 7 a frame (not illustrated in the drawings) can be provided on which the rolled-up or folded foil 13 is stored between uses. The frame can be constructed like the forming channel 5 so that the foil 13 can be moved without difficulty and without requiring special means from the frame onto the forming channel 5 or vice versa. The removing cutter 16 is arranged on a frame with rollers 23 and is provided with a suitable device 24 which, corresponding to the cutting process, moves the removing cutter 16.
As illustrated in FIG. 7, the removing cutter 16 can in a modified form also take over the conveying of the silo feed into a food trough 25 from which the animal 26 eats the food. In order to protect the silo food from spoiling when it is not taken out or fed to the animals, the removing cutter 16 is covered by walls 27 as far as possible to all sides and is provided at the removing or feed opening with a closing slide plate 28 which prevents penetration of air as much as possible.
FIG. 8 illustrates a construction of a feed fence 29 which is also arranged on a carriage with rollers 23 and is moved directly to the food mass 7 for feeding. The feed fence 29 is also provided with means 22 for receiving the cover foil 13. Furthermore, an upwardly tiltable flap 30 is provided at the feed fence 29, which flap, when in upwardly tilted position, protects the animal 26 against rain and, in downwardly tilted position, prevents air penetration to the food mass 7.
FIG. 9 illustrates a device for manually removing feed which consists of a frame 33 movable on rollers 31, at which frame there are also provided means 22 for receiving the cover foil 13 and a seal flap 30 to prevent air penetration in the case of nonremoval of food FIGS. 10 to 12 illustrate a further possible embodiment of the invention:
The feed is moved from a wagon l, for example an automatic loading wagon having a movable bottom into a stuffing or pressing device 2 constructed as a forming channel. The forming channel 2 consists of an entry zone 34 which is open on top, a pressing channel 35 following thereafter and a mouthpiece 36 connected to said pressing channel. The device can be supported or driven on support wheels 6. Several conveying or pressing worms 37 are supported in the forming channel. The worms show an inclination which decreases from the fill-in part 34 to the mouthpiece 36 through which the goods introduced into the entry zone 34 are compressed in the pressing channel 35 and thus reach the mouthpiece 36 in a prepressed stage. The last worm 37 is done by an electric motor 41 through a step-down gearing 42, a miter gear 43 which, if necessary, can have a further reduction of speed and a gearing 44 associated with the respective worm, which gearing can be constructed as an angle drive. The drive of the worms 37 is set so that adjacent pairs thereof are oppositely driven. Thus, for example the two won'ns 37a and the two worms 37b rotate oppositely directed to one another. Through this an intensive conveying of the material is obtained which is supported by the preferably helically shaped ribs 45 starting at the walls of the pressing channel of the entry zone 34. The walls of the pressing channels 35 are each interrupted between the two worms 37a and 37b means of an opening. The opening 46 has a shape which is enlarged toward the mouthpiece for minimizing the danger of plugging an further minimizes the danger of long-fiber materials being caught. At the bottom of the pressing channel 35, at the deepest zone, outlet openings 47 are provided through which the fluid which is discharged from the goods during pressing is discharged into a channel 48 from which the fluid is guided into a reservoir not illustrated in detail in the drawings) or directly into the sewer system.
The mouthpiece 36 is constructed as a projecting housing so that it is free to all sides in order to be able to receive a plastic tube 49 thereon. The end of the mouthpiece 36 is provided with a projecting edge 50 and a tube holder 51 positioned besides said mouthpiece. The tube holder 51 can for example be constructed as a tube-shaped, resilient clamp and permits the plastic tube 49 during filling to slide evenly and trouble free off from the mouthpiece 36. The shape of the mouthpiece 36 is such that it corresponds to the natural cross-section of the stored mass. The boundary wall 8 is constructed arc-shaped in the illustrated embodiment which corresponds mostly to the sack-shaped plastic tube which is tied shut at the end. Differing from the form illustrated in the drawings, the boundary wall 8 could be constructed in a straight form under a certain angle of inclination if, for the airtight seal, the plastic tube is rolled up at its end or is welded shut. In order to be able to discharge the gases which are produced during fermentation and cause an excess pressure in the mass of food, a ventilating pipe 54 is provided at the end of the mass. The ventilating pipe 54 can be provided with a flap 55 in order to prevent penetration of air into the mass of food. In place of the ventilating pipe, a conventional relief pressure valve can also be used. It is also possible, if necessary, to provide several ventilating pipes or relief pressure valves over the entire length of the food mass. In order to obtain a good ventilation it is also possible to form an air channel 56 in the mass of food during pressing thereof.
At the start of the pressing operation, the feed which exists from the mouthpiece 36 is pressed against the boundary wall 8 through which, by a further working of the conveying or pressing worms 37 and feeding of feed from the wagon 1, the desired pressing is obtained. This is maintained at an even value by the braking drum arranged at the pressing device and a rope 57 anchored in the wall 8. lf the pressing effect exceeds the value for which the braking drum is adjusted, same gives way and the device moves simultaneously with the exiting of the feed mass 52 from the forming channel or the mouthpiece 36.
in the illustrated embodiment, the device is, as above discussed, driven by an electric motor 41. The gearing 42 is chosen so that the input rotational speed of the miter gear 43 corresponds approximately to the rotational speed of the tractor P.T.O. shaft. The miter gear 43 is hereby provided with a stub shaft 58 so that the device can be directly driven by the tractor P.T.0. shaft through a drive shaft. If the device is supposed to be driven at the same time by the tractor pulling the wagon, a transmission gearing is needed which is not illustrated in detail in the drawings.
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. A device for building up and removing a stored mass of material, in particular crop material, comprising:
crop conveying and pressing means movably supported on said guide means;
feeding means for feeding said crop material to said crop conveying and pressing means;
control means for controlling the speed of movement of said crop conveying and pressing means along said guide means in response to the amount of material fed by said feeding means; and
storage means including flexible cover means for receiving said mass of material and for storing said mass of material in an aintight manner, said crop conveying and pressing means conveying said crop material to said storage means and pressing said crop material in said storage means.
2. A device according to claim 1, wherein said crop conveying and pressing means includes a forming channel for forming said mass arranged on guide means and wherein said forming channel includes pressing members for pressing said crop material into said storage place, and a support plate at the end of the mass defining a boundary wall.
3. A device according to claim 2, wherein the guide means supporting the forming channel and the pressing members runs on guide rails.
4. A device according to claim 3, wherein the speed of forward movement of the forming channel along said guide rails is regulatable corresponding to the desired pressing of the mass with the help of an adjustable brake.
5. A device according to claim 4, wherein the speed of forward movement of the forming channel is automatically controllable.
6. A device according to claim 2, wherein said flexible cover means includes a rolled or folded cover foil adapted to be pulled off from the forming channel during the forming process to cover the mass from above.
7. A device according to claim 2, wherein a ventilation means is provided under the mass.
8. A device according to claim 6, wherein the foil closes off the mass airtight or covers same from above.
9. A device according to claim 1, wherein the conveying and pressing device consists of an upwardly open fill-in part, a pressing channel following thereafler and a mouthpiece connected to said pressing channel, and that in the pressing device one or several inclined upwardly directed worms which partly project into the mouthpiece are arranged.
10. A device according to claim 9, wherein the worms have an inclination decreasing from the feed zone to the mouthpiece, whereby at least one part of the last worm path is bent back, and that the worm end ends in a conical tip.
11. A device according to claim 9, wherein the worms are arranged in oppositely directed pairs and the wall enclosing the respective worm is interrupted between two adjacent worms rotating in feeding direction by an opening which is enlarged toward the worm end.
12. A device according to claim 9, wherein the worms preferably discharge into the upper half of the mouthpiece cross-section.
13. A device according to claim 9, wherein preferably helically shaped guide ribs are provided at the walls of the pressing channel starting at the feed zone.
14. A device according to claim 9, wherein openings are provided in the base of the pressing channel at the lowermost point for the discharge of excessive fluid.
15. A device according to claim 9, wherein the mouthpiece has approximately the shape which corresponds to the natural cross-section of the supported silo mass of goods.
16. A device according to claim 9, wherein the mouthpiece is free to all sides for receiving a plastic cover foil and at its end a projecting edge and adjacent thereto a cover holder arranged for holding said cover foil.
17. A device according to claim 2, wherein the boundary wall has approximately an inclined and/or archshaped form which corresponds to the natural form of the stored silo mass of material.
18. A device according to claim 16, wherein the plastic cover foil constructed as a covering is tied shut, rolled in or welded shut at the ends of the silo mass of material and one or several ventilating pipes or relief pressure valves are provided for relieving the pressure within the mass.
19. A device according to claim 1, wherein the forming channel the pressing device has one or several inclined upwardly divided press plungers.
20. A device according to claim 19, wherein the drive of the pressing device is done directly by an electric motor with a step-down gearing or a hydraulic motor fed by the tractor hydraulic system or by the tractor power take off shaft through a drive shaft.
21. A device according to claim 20, wherein the pressing device is driven by the tractor power take ofi shaft through a transmission gearing arranged on a harvesting wagon.
22. A device for building up and removing a stored mass of material, in particular crop material, comprismg:
crop conveying and pressing means movably suprted on sai u'de means fedmng means o r ceding sai'd crop material to said crop conveying and pressing means;
control means for controlling the speed of movement of said crop conveying and pressing means along said guide means in response to the amount of material fed by said feeding means; and
storage means for receiving said mass of material, said storage means includes ventilation means for ventilating said mass of material, said crop conveying and pressing means con-veying said crop material to said storage means and pressing said crop material in said storage means.