US 3687117 A
A continuous combustion engine having axially reciprocating, radially spaced pistons each axially reciprocating in a non-harmonic motion each piston having multiple power strokes per revolution and complete combustion at maximum compression and constant volume prior to the power stroke.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
RCMERSTROKE EXHAUST INTAKE F 1 11* R-J Y:
Knitted States yatent 1151 3,687,117 Panariti 1 Aug. 29, 1972  COMBUSTION POWER ENGINE Primary Examiner-Wendell E. Burns 72 Inventor: vikmr Min-S111 Panariti, 111 lmmo- Behrinser, Eugene L, Bernard,
pedal Heights Drive, ormond Martin J. Brown, James N. Dresser, W. Brown Mor- Beach, Fla. 32074 ton, Jr., John T. Roberts, Malcolm L. Sutherland and Filed. g 7 1970 Morton, Bernard, Brown, Roberts & Sutherland  Appl. No.2 62,123  ABSTRACT 1 A continuous combustion engine having axially U-S- R, g, 123/58 2 reciprocating ina non-harmonic motion each piston  Int. Cl Fozb 57/00F02b 75/26 having multiple power strokes per revolution and  Field SE E I R 43 A 1 AA 58 R complete combustion at maximum compression and 123A 58 43 58 58 constant volume prior to the power stroke.
 References GM 4 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,389,873 9/1921 Hult ..l23/43 AA FUEL 75 WATER f s v 77 39 r GLOW I 1 I l LFLUG 1 I f COMPRESSION COMBUSTION PATENTEDAUBZQ I972 SHEET 1 OF 6 4 r/ ATTORNEYS PATENTEDmczs 1912 3,687.1 17
sum 2 or e BY /W fir/Aw A ORNEYS VIKTOR M. PANARITI PATENTEDnusze m2 SHEEI 3 BF 6 FIGS INVENTOR VIKTQR M. PANARITI BY I ATTORNbYS PATENTEUAUB 29 m2 SHEEI b 0F 6 N @E u mm mm why m PATENTEUAUGZQ I972 SHEET 5 BF 6 FIG/4.
INVENTOR VIKTOR M. PANARITI ATTORNEYS PATENTEU M1829 I972 SHEET 8 0F 6 COUSTION POWER ENGINE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the invention The invention relates to a structure for a combustion engine as well as a new operating and new thermal cycle for combustion engines.
2. The Prior Art There are broadly three types of combustion engines in operation today. These are the reciprocating engine, the free piston engine and the turbine.
The reciprocating engine operates on either a twocycle or four-cycle stroke with the piston connected, via a connecting arm, to a crankshaft. Power is delivered to the crankshaft during the expansion cycle following ignition and combustion within the cylinder.
Various types of free-piston engines including the Wankel engine are also known. In these engines the piston is not attached to a crankshaft, or in the case of a Wankel engine a rotor moves in an eccentric path to perform the same compression and expansion functions as pistons in conventional engines.
The third major class of engines is turbines where the gas expansion does not occur within a completely sealed chamber as in the prior two instances.
There are three types of combustion engine cycles in use today. These are the Brayton, the Otto and the Diesel cycles.
The oldest of these cycles is the Brayton. It was used in the 19th century in internal combustion reciprocating engines but was replaced by the Otto cycle. The Brayton cycle is currently used in jet engines.
In the Brayton cycle, as in the other two cycles air is initially compressed adiabatically, that is without addition or subtraction of heat. In the Brayton cycle the amount of compression due to compression is limited as the gas is expanded through addition of fuel and combustion at a roughly constant pressure. This constant pressure can be maintained in a turbine which constantly adds new air and new fuel to the combustion area. After the combustion, the gas is expanded and exhausted to the atmosphere.
The Otto cycle differs from the Brayton cycle in that, after compression of the gas, the fuel is ignited and the pressure further greatly raised at roughly the same volume. Following this increase in pressure the gas is expanded and cooled during the power-stroke.
By way of example a modern automobile engine will have, during the compression stroke, the gas in the piston raised from 1 atmosphere (14.7 p.s.i.) to perhaps l atmospheres 150 p.s.i.).
The diesel cycle involves a compression of air to approximately 500 p.s.i., the ignition temperature of diesel fuel. The fuel is injected and briefly the gas expands without loss of pressure due to the burning fuel. After the fuel is burned the gases expand as the pressure drops.
The performance of the internal combustion engine has certain well-recognized current limitations. The conventional engine achieves an efficiency, based on the power of the fuel, of from 25 to 30 percent. Part of the relatively low efficiency is caused by unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust. These unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon-monoxide, are a major cause of air pollution. Another emission of conventional internal combustion engines is various oxides of nitrogen.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION The preferred embodiment of this invention will tremendously reduce the size and weight of a combustion engine for a given horsepower. This engine will have no crankshaft, connecting rods, valves, stems, valve cams chains, distributors, timing mechanisms and associated parts and will not have a separate fly-wheel. The continuous combustion with no explosive burning will further eliminate the need for the present muffler. Because this engine produces such a high torque it will for many applications eliminate the need for a torque converter or transmission. Unlike the conventional internal combustion engine, this engine will have an intake which is naturally super-charged, eliminating losses due to intake and exhaust passages and valves found in conventional engines.
The conventional four-cycle engine has one power stroke for every two revolutions for each cylinder. This engine, by contrast, can have multiple power strokes by each cylinder during each revolution increasing both the power and the smoothness of the operation.
The engine will achieve complete combustion at a constant volume, thereby increasing efficiency by decreasing the pollution caused by unburned hydrocarbons. The power of the engine will be further increased since the power stroke begins after full combustion and therefore with maximum force and torque. Eliminating spark plugs or other electrical sources during operation of the engine will further eliminate the production of oxides of nitrogen, thereby even further reducing the pollution caused by this combustion engine.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side view of the preferred embodiment of the engine and accessories with the cover in section;
FIG. 2 is a cross section of a simplified version of the engine without the accessories;
FIG. 3 is a front view of the front plate;
FIG. 4 is a cross-section of the front plate taken on lines 44 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a front section of the back plate;
FIG. 6 is a cross-section of the back plate taken on lines 66 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a front view of the rotor cylinder block;
FIG. 8 is a cross-section of the rotor cylinder-block taken on lines 8-8 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of the piston and ball bearing;
FIG. 10 is a composite schematic view of the operating and thermal cycle of the engine;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the reaction cam ring;
FIG. 12 is a cross-section of a variation of the engine with the pistons inclined;
FIG. 13 is another variation of the engine with the pistons moving radially;
FIG. M is a modification to a conventional engine replacing crankshaft with a cam ring;
FIG. 15 is a modification using a crankshaft and scotch yoke;
FIGS. 16 and 17 are schematic views of a modification of a crankshaft and connecting rod operating through a single ended cam;
FIG. 18 is the same as FIGS. 16 and 17 but with a double ended cam.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Construction of the Engine Referring to FIG. 1 the major elements of the engine are the housing, 50, extending the length thereof the two part drive-shaft 51 and connected to the forward end of the drive-shaft, a fan 52. Behind the fan is an airconditioning system 63, a starter generator 54 and a fuel and oil pump 55.
Next in line is the engine proper which includes the stationary front plate 56, the rotor cylinder block 57 inside of finned cylindrical housing 89, which rotor is attached to the drive-shaft and passes through the stationary back plate 58,
Behind the engine is a fluid coupler 59, connecting the two parts of the drive-shaft, and a heat exchanger for the oil 60.
The rotor cylinder block 57 is rigidly attached to the drive-shaft 51. These may conveniently be coupled by pins by fitting in holes of the cylinder block. The pins may be mounted on a convenient circular plate which is rigidly attached to the drive-shaft 51. Springs may then bias the cylinder block 67 into the required close sealing engagement with front plate 56.
Spaced around the rotor cylinder block 57 are cylinders and combustion chambers 65. In the embodiment shown there are 13 such cylinders and combustion chambers for the rotor cylinder block.
In each such cylinder there is a piston 66 containing conventional piston rings 67. At the bottom of each piston is a piston ball bearing 68, which is actually a sphere, half of whose body fits into a cooperating indentation of the piston.
The front-plate 56 which is cylindrical in front view, is held stationary by mounting 71. The drive-shaft is mounted on the plate by bearing 70. The front-plate shown has three ignition stations and therefore three intake ports 72, three exhaust ports 73 together with exhaust manifolds 7 4.
For each ignition station there will be an igniter 75 and an indented flame holder 76. Each station will further have a fuel injector 77 either separate from the flame holder or feeding directly into the flame holder. Each ignition station may also contain a further power boost injection 79 of suitable fluid such as water, fuel or air.
To avoid needless friction the back portion of front plate 56 will be undercut so that only the raised circumferential portion 78 is in sliding and sealing engagement with the portion of the cylinder block 57 containing the combustion chambers 65.
The back plate supports drive-shaft 511 through bearing 80 and is held in stationary position by mounting 81.
On the back plate is mounted reaction cam ring 82 which contains a cam track synchronized with the ignition stations of the front plate 56. As shown there are three elevated surfaces 83, three power slopes 84, three lower surfaces 85 and three compression slopes 86. The piston balls 68 of each piston roll on the cam ring 82.
The back plate also contains suitable oil passages 87 connecting the oil reservoir 88 and allowing oil to be fed into the bottom of pistons 66.
Operation of the Engine A piston 66 which is at the beginning of the elevated cam surface 83 passes under the flame holder 76. Some portion of the incandescent gases from the prior ignition remain in this flame holder and ignite the compressed gases in the new cylinder.
Either as the cylinder passes under the flame holder or shortly before the compressed fuel has been injected into the combustion chamber, the piston passes along the flat surface 83 which is so designed that, at full operating speed, complete combustion within the chamber will take place before the piston reaches power slope $4.
As the piston reaches power slope 84 there will be the maximum potential pressure due to complete combustion of the gas and fuel in the combustion chamber at minimum volume. This will lead to maximum force being applied to the cam surface, resulting in maximum force and torque being applied to the drive shaft through the movable cylinder block 57.
The standard texts on automotive engines state that, while isovolumetric combustion is desired, it is not possible. This statement is true for an engine using a conventional crankshaft because the piston is in constant linear motion. It has begun its downward stroke before there is complete combustion, even if ignition takes place before the piston reaches its maximum height, as is now conventional in high performance engmes.
After combustion there may additionally be injecte at 79 water or other suitable fluid. This will vaporize, greatly increasing the pressure while also utilizing the energy of the hot gases thereby cooling the engine. The water may be reclaimed and recycled if desired or may be exhausted. This power boost will substantially increase the power output of the engine.
After the piston passes the power slope 84 and is on the lower surface 85 it passes under exhaust port 73 and the exhaust gases are vented by the large port without need of an additional stroke as in the conventional four stoke engine. Whatever exhaust gases remain in the cylinder are scavanged as the cylinder passes partially under the intake port 72, allowing the fresh air to remove the remainder of the exhaust fumes, prior to being covered by the plate.
As the fuel and air had been completely combusted at a high temperature and constant volume there is not the carbon monoxide produced caused by incomplete combustion when the temperature drops below the reaction point for the conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and water as is true of the conventional engine, The nitrous oxide of the conventional engine is produced by the combination of high temperatures and by the spark plug, generating 30,000 or more volts and thus allowing the normally unreactive nitrogen to combine with oxygen. In this engine there is no spark plug to serve as the catalyst. Therefore these highly offensive nitrous oxide polutants are not produced.
The forward plenum of the engine is supercharged by fan 52. This supercharged air forces itself into the combustion chamber 65 which has just been vented of its exhaust fumes. As the piston continues along the cam ring, it next meets the compression slope 86 which forces the ball and piston back up compressing the air and leading to the next firing cycle.
The engine shown has thirteen pistons in the cylinder block 57. The engine further has three ignition stations in the front and rear plates 56 and 58. Each piston will pass each ignition station during each revolution of the drive shaft. In the engine disclosed there will therefore be 39 power strokes per revolution, the equivalent of a 78 cylinder four-cycle engine. Continuous power will be produced because there will be at any one time three pistons on different portions of their power stroke.
Any number of cylinders and ignition stations can be designed within a given geometry and size to obtain more power or more efficiency or both for approximately the same weight. a
In a conventional engine the torque produced by a cylinder is a direct function of the distance traveled by the piston during a complete cycle. Modern engines using shorter piston travels, consequently have a shorter distance from the top to the bottom of the crankshaft and a shorterarm or throw. The torque of the engine therefore can be increased only by increasing the force within the piston or the speed of the engine.
This engine, however, separates the travel of the piston from the moment arm around the drive-shaft. The travel of the piston is axial to the drive-shaft but the moment arm over which this force is converted to driving torque is a function of the distance from the drive-shaft to the cam ring. This distance from driveshaft to cam ring can be any design distance and can greatly exceed the piston travel distance, thus greatly increasing the torque from a given piston design.
Modifications of the Preferred Embodiment The preferred embodiment has axial motion for the pistons. As shown in F 16$. 12 and 13 the pistons may also have an inclined or radial motion without departing from the present invention. The orientation of the pistons in FIGS. 12 and 13 may also be reversed, thus allowing the piston to move outward during the power stroke.
The engine disclosed in the preferred embodiment has a rotary cylinder block 57 and a stationary front plate 56 and stationary back plate 58. The driving force is caused by relative motion between the piston 66 and the cam ring 32. Any arrangement which gives this relative motion would therefore be suitable. One possible arrangement is to reverse the arrangement having the cylinder block fixed and moving the front plate and back plate including the cam ring. Another arrangement would be to move the back plate and cam ring only, leaving the cylinder block and front plate fixed. In this arrangement the front plate would have to have a conventional valving arrangement since the ports would not slide over the combustion chambers.
A conventional in line or V8 reciprocating engine could also be modified to take advantage of portions of the invention disclosed herein. One example as shown in F 1G. 14 would be to have a drive-shaft 90 replace the conventional crank shaft and have mounted on it beneath each piston a cam ring 91. The conventional connecting rod would be replaced by a fixed camming rod 92. This arrangement would allow a multiplicity of strokes per cylinder per revolution of the drive shaft and combustion at constant volume as in the preferred embodiment but would be dissimilar in having conventional valving and an individual cam ring for each cylinder.
Another modification to a conventional engine as shown in FIGS. 16, 17, and 18 which would employ portions of the invention disclosed herein would retain the conventional crank shaft 101) and conventional connecting rod 101. The lower end of the connecting rod would be enlarged and operate through either a single ended cam 102 or double ended cam 103 attached to the connecting rod and operating in cam race 104.
The effect of the camming arrangement as shown would be to hold the piston in fixed position over a substantial portion at the top of the stroke. This would allow complete combustion at the given volume and would further allow the power stroke to begin when the crankshaft has moved a substantial portion of the way towards its maximum moment arm and therefore its maximum torque.
Another method of achieving the type of piston movement desired, as shown in FIG. 15, would be to employ a variation of the scotch-yolk as shown in its elevated position 105 and lowered position 106. This also would keep the cylinder at one position during combustion and allow the power stroke to begin at a high torque instead of a very low torque as in present engines.
In a conventional engine the first portion of the power stroke has the most force since the pressure is the highest. Once the volume has doubled, assuming complete burning, the pressure. and therefore the force will have been halved. Not until this happens, however, in the conventional engine will the arm have approached a substantial distance away from the vertical and therefore had a substantial moment arm and high torque. Thus the conventional engine, when the power is at the maximum, yields the low torque and when the lowered arm is the maximum and potential torque the highest, pressure is only a portion of what it might be.
Having disclosed my invention including the preferred embodiment and certain modifications thereof coming within the scope of the invention, 1 claim:
1. A combustion engine comprising, a plurality of pistons spaced radially about a drive-shaft, said pistons reciprocating axially of said drive-shaft in cooperating cylinders in a rotor cylinder block, said cylinder block driving said drive-shaft, each of said cylinders passing multiple exhaust, intake, and ignition stations on each revolution, said pistons being axially controlled by sliding or rolling engagement with a stationary reaction cam ring, said stationary cam ring having non-harmonic race with a compression slope, an elevation in synchronism with each ignition station said elevation of a distance sufficient to allow complete combustion at uniform volume, said cam ring further having a power slope over which each piston travels following complete combustion, said piston travel rotating said cylinder block.
2. The combustion engine of claim 1 including means to inject water into said combustion chamber, said means spaced from said ignition station whereby the mean effective pressure within said cylinder is increased during expansion.
3. The combustion engine of claim 1 including means to allow the flame to pass from one cylinder to the next as that cylinder passes the ignition station.
4. The combustion engine of claim 1 including means to inject fuel continuously into each ignition station whereby the speed of said engine is varied by the rate of fuel fed to said stations.