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Publication numberUS3690078 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 12, 1972
Filing dateJun 24, 1969
Priority dateJun 24, 1969
Also published asCA948372A1
Publication numberUS 3690078 A, US 3690078A, US-A-3690078, US3690078 A, US3690078A
InventorsBaylor H Maynard Jr
Original AssigneeVersadome Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Modular tubular-skeleton building adapted to be readily assembled and disassembled and re-assembled
US 3690078 A
Abstract
A generally semicylindrically shaped pre-fabricated modular building adapted to be readily assembled, disassembled and re-assembled, including a modular skeleton-frame and a thin limp sheathing thereover and detachably secured thereto, with each of the two halves of the frame (on opposite sides of a vertical median plane longitudinally thereof) being composed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles, with the planes of the successively higher rows inclined to the horizontal at successively lesser angles, such triangles being formed of horizontal module-defining base members (arranged end-to-end in straight horizontal lines) and pairs of diagonal members, and internal brace members spanning pairs of commonly-based triangles in contiguous rows and having their ends secured to the opposite apices of such pairs of triangles; the base members, diagonals and brace members being individual pieces of metallic tubing having flattened integral coupling-flanges at their ends overlapping and secured to each other in the corners of the triangles, and the coupling-flanges of the base members being at right angles thereto and extending inwardly of the skeleton-frame and arranged to cause the base members to support the sheathing out of contact with the coupling-flanges of the diagonals and of the brace members.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

States Patent Maynard, JR-

[ 1 Sept. 12, 1972 [54] MODULAR TUBULAR-SKELETON BUILDING ADAPTED TO BE READILY ASSEMBLED AND DISASSEMBLED AND RE-ASSEMBLED [72] Inventor: Baylor H. Maynard, Jr., Levittown,

[73] Assignee: Versadome Corporation, Montgomeryville, Pa.

[22] Filed: June 24, 1969 [21] App1.No.: 835,971

[52] US. Cl. ..52/86, 52/648, 135/1, 135/3 [51] Int. Cl ..E04b 1/32, E04b 1/347 [58'] Field of Search ..52/86, 80, 81, 648; 135/1, 135/3, 4

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,619,518 3/1927 Tunkers ..52/86 2,985,987 5/1961 Kiewitt ..52/86 3,501,876 3/1970 Engle ..'...52/86 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 283,568 8/1915 Germany ..52/650 1,310,267 4/1962 France ..52/86 646,892 5/1937 Germany ..52/86 1,180,925 3/1964 Germany ..135/3 1,027,738 4/1966 Great Britain ..52/86 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Architectural Record, Mar. 1957, p. 254

Primary ExaminerHenry C. Sutherland Att0mey-Leonard L. Kalish [57] ABSTRACT A generally semicylindrically shaped pre-fabricated modular building adapted to be readily assembled, disassembled and re-assembled, including a modular skeleton-frame and a thin limp sheathing thereover and detachably secured thereto, with each of the two halves of the frame (on opposite sides of a vertical median plane longitudinally thereof) being composed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles, with the planes of the successively higher rows inclined to the horizontal at successively lesser angles, such triangles being formed of horizontal module-defining base members (arranged end-to-end in straight horizontal lines) and pairs of diagonal members, and internal brace members spanning pairs of commonly-based triangles in contiguous rows and having their ends secured to the opposite apices of such pairs of triangles; the base members, diagonals and brace members being individual pieces of metallic tubing having flattened integral coupling-flanges at.

their ends overlapping and secured to each other in the corners of the triangles, and the coupling-flanges of the base members being at right angles thereto and extending inwardly of the skeleton-frame and arranged to cause the base members to support the sheathing out of contact with the coupling-flanges of the diagonals and of the brace members.

13 Claims, 22 Drawing figures PATENTEBSE P 12 I972 SHEET 0 4 0F 11 Jag-Z ATTORNEY PATENTED E 3.690.078

SHEET 05 0F 11 INVENTOR. BAYLOR H. M4 XNARD JR.

ATTORNEY PATENTEDsEP 12 I972 3.690.078 sum 06 HF 11 INVENTGR.

BAYLOR H. MA YNARD JR.

ATTORNEY PATENTEIJSEP 12 1912 SHEET U801 11 Fig. /3. F 1'9. /4.

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60 BAYwR H. MAYNARD JR.

A r TORNE r PATENTED SEP 12 I972 SHEET DSUF 11 INVENTOR. BAYLOR H. MA YNARD JR.

A T TOR/V5 Y PA TJENIEDSEP 12 1912 SHEET lUUF 11 INVENTOR. BA YLOR H. MAYNARD JR.

ATTORNEY PT IED SEP 12 m2 Tu v V NV nu I l. I I

SHEET llOF 11 INVE/V TOR BAYLOR H. MA YNARD JR.

ATTORNEY MODULAR TUBULAR-SKELETON BUILDING ADAPTED TO BE READILY ASSEMBLED AND DISASSEMB'LED AND RE-ASSEMBLED THE FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to skeleton-andsheathing buildings of generally semi-cylindrical form, with the two parallel longitudinal base-edges of the building generally resting on the ground; the skeletonframe being transversely arched between such two base-edges.

The object of the present invention is a structurally reliable and durable building of this type, for use as permanent or temporary shelters, living quarters, storage buildings, work buildings and recreation buildings, in circumstances where the need is for inexpensive onestory buildings of large floor area and of large internal volume or cubic content and with minimum weight of materials and minimum cost of materials in relation to the size and load-bearing capacity of the building, and where it is necessary to ship the building in a disassembled condition and with the disassembled components sufficiently small and light in weight to permit them to be hand carried if necessary, and where it is necessary to assemble such components into the erected building in minimum time and with unskilled labor and with the fewest number of workers and with only a few commonly-available minimal tools (such as wrenches, hammers, etc.) and where it is necessary that the construction shall permit the like disassembly and re-assembly of the building without any loss of components.

THE PRIOR-ART In the heretofore-known skeleton-and-she'athing buildings of the aforementioned type, the frame was composed of successive longitudinal rows of intermeshing rhombi whose minor diagonals are horizontal, made of pieces of metallic tubing having flattened integral coupling-flanges at their ends, with the plane defined by the two upper rhombus-forming members and the plane defined by the two lower rhombus-forming members being at a dihedral angle to each other, and a brace member extending across the major diagonal-line of each rhombus as shown in US. Pat. No. 3,501,876. Such heretofore-known skeleton building constructions were unstable and unreliable, in that they lacked dimensional stability in a longitudinal direction (with a consequent lack of transverse stability), particularly under adverse load conditions. Moreover, in such heretofore-known skeleton-buildings the relatively thin limp sheathing was generally supported on or in contact with the free edges of the coupling-flanges in the junctures at the four corners of the rhombi, and this rendered the thin sheathing subject to wear, perforation and tearing at such junctures of the couplingflanges, with resultant deterioration of the building. To overcome this adverse effect of the resting of the sheathing on the free edges of the coupling-flanges, pad-like covers or protectors (of plastic or the like) were proposed to be superimposed upon such junctures, to support the sheathing out of contact with the coupling-flanges. However, such pads increased the cost of the building and also raised the sheathing on higher points of support and the sheathing was stretched and thinned out at the pads, so that when the sheathing was removed (for disassembly and subsequent re-assembly) the sheathing would no longer be flat but would have substantial bulges therein at the points where the sheathing rested on such pads.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention consists of certain improvements in the heretofore-known skeleton-and-sheathing buildings referred to above as shown in US. Pat. No. 3,501,876. One of these improvements is forming each of the two longitudinal halves of the skeleton-frame of successively higher longitudinal rows of co-planar isosceles triangles, with the base-members of the triangles secured to each other end-to-end in horizontal lines and with the coupling-flanges thereof abutting each other and extending inwardly of the skeletonframe, and with such base-members defining the modules and giving dimensional stability to the building as a whole in the longitudinal direction and also in the transverse direction. Another aspect of the present invention is the supporting of the sheathing on these horizontal base-members, out of contact with the coupling-flanges of the skeleton-forming members. Other aspects of the present invention are in the construction and support of the ends of the building, and in the inclusion of end-supporting members disposed in a vertical plane transversely of the building. Still other aspects of the present invention will appear from the following description and accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 represents a perspective view of an embodiment of the present invention in which the lowermost longitudinal ground-contacting base-members 8-2 of the skeleton-frame and transverse ground-contacting members G thereof are formed of tubing of rectangular cross-section as illustrated more particularly in FIGS. 19 and 20.

FIG. 2 represents a schematic perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention, in which the bottommost or ground-contacting longitudinal base-members B-l as well as the ground-contacting transverse bottom frame-members E-4 are of round tubing.

FIG. 3 represents a schematic side elevational view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 represents a schematic end elevational view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, but with the end of the building entirely open.

FIG. 5 represents a fragmentary perspective view of one end of the building of either the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 or the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, with the main sheathing F extending over the arched skeleton-frame and with end-panels F-l and F-2 extending over the vertical transverse end of the skeletonframe.

FIG. 6 represents a perspective view similar to that shown in FIG. 5, but with the door panel F-2 rolled up.

FIG. 7 represents a fragmentary perspective view of the lower edge zone of the sheathing, indicating the manner in which it is tied down at suitable intervals.

FIG. 8 represents a side elevational view of one of the horizontal triangle-forming base-members B and B- FIG. represents an end elevational view of the base members shown in FIGS. 8 and 9.

FIG. 11 represents an elevational view of one of the triangle-forming diagonal members D.

FIG. 12 represents a view of one end of the same, on line 1212 of FIG. 11.

FIG. 13 represents a view of the spanner-members S, of the corner-members C, and of the end-members E-l, E-2, E-3 and E-4 which lie in the vertical end-plane of the skeleton-frame; these members differing from each other only in their lengths as indicated in the tabulation forming a part of this figure.

FIG. 14 represents a view of the members shown in FIG. 13, but at a right angle to the view shown in FIG. 13.

FIG. 15 represents a view, from above, of one of the junctures of two base-members B, four diagonal-members D and two spanner-members S.

FIG. 16 is a view of the same juncture, as viewed from beneath.

FIG. 17 represents a section on line 17-17 of FIG. 15, but on a larger scale, namely, approximately full size.

FIG. 18 represents (on a much reduced scale) a top plan view of the ground-contacting base grid of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 19 represents a perspective view, on a larger scale, of one of the corners of the base grid within the circle in the lower left-hand corner of FIG. 18, formed of members B-2 and G.

FIG. 20 represents a perspective view of fragmentary portions of the longitudinal base portions G-2 forming a part of the grid of FIG. 18 and showing the alternating triangle-securing eyebolts and sheathing tie-down eyebolts.

FIG. 21 represents a top plan view of the same.

FIG. 22 (on sheet 4) represents a fragmentary crosssectional view through the structure, taken on a vertical plane at a right-angle to the base-members B.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION The two longitudinal halves of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of the vertical longitudinal median plane thereof, may be designated as the right side and the left side, respectively. Each such half of the skeleton-frame is composed of successively higher tiers or rows of co-planar isosceles triangles T; the successively higher tiers or rows being designated as R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4, on the right side, and as L-l, L-2, L-3 and L-4 on the left side.

Each row or tier of isosceles triangles T is formed of a horizontal module-defining base-member designated generally by the letter B, shown in FIGS. 8 and 10 and a pair of diagonal members designated generally by the letter D and shown in FIGS. 11 and 12.

All triangles T in a tier or row lie in a single plane, and the two spaced-apart longitudinal edges of the rows, formed of the aforementioned base-members B, Q

are horizontally disposed, and the planes of the adjacent rows or. tiers of triangles T are at an obtuse angle to each other and the planes of successively higher rows are at successively lesser angles to the horizontal.

An internal brace or spanner member S (shown in FIGS. 13 and 14) is disposed transversely of the aforementioned rows of triangles T and extends between and.

is secured to the transversely opposite apices of each pair of commonly-based triangles in adjacent rows or tiers.

At each end of the skeleton-frame, a half-length base-member B (shown in FIGS. 9 and 10) is provided, in alignment with the respective full-length basemembers B. Between outer ends of such half-length base-members B and the junctures in which the next full-length base-members B terminate, corner-members C (shown in FIGS. 13 and 14) are operatively interposed; thereby forming right-angled end triangles T.

A spanner-member S is operatively interposed between the half-base members B at the top of the skeleton-frame on opposite sides of the longitudinal peak P thereof, as shown in FIG. 1.

The skeleton-frame building may be completely open at one end (or at both ends) as indicated in FIG. 4, or may be provided with end-walls having a doorway or a passageway therein as indicated in FIGS. 1 and 2.

If an end of the building is to be entirely open (without any end-wall), then spanner members S are provided generally in the transverse vertical plane defining the end of the skeleton-frame, as indicated in FIG. 4.

In the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, the lowermost or ground-contacting round-tubular triangle-forming base-members are designated as B-l; these base-members B-l being the same as the base-members B and being likewise illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 10. In this embodiment (FIGS. 2 and 3), round-tubular ground-contacting horizontal end-frame members E-4 are provided at the bottom, in the transverse vertical plane defining the end of the building; these members (E-4) being illustrated in FIGS. 13 and 14. The outer ends of the two ground-contacting end-frame members B4 are secured to the outer ends of the terminal longitudinal ground-contactingbase-members B-l, while the inner ends thereof are secured to the groundanchorages referred to hereinbelow.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the bottommost or round-tubular ground-contacting base-members B-l (of FIGS. 2 and 3) are replaced by square or rectangular cross-sectioned longitudinal ground-contacting tubular base-members or grid-members G-l, while the round-tubular ground-contacting end members E4 (of FIGS. 2 and 3) are replaced by similar square or oblong rectangular cross-sectioned transverse ground-contacting members G-2 as shown in FIGS. 1, 18, 19, 20 and 21. In this embodiment the outer ends of the transverse ground-contacting frame-members G-2 are secured to the outer ends of the outermost longitudinal groundcontacting frame-members G-l by the corner-members 43 and plates 44 and bolts 45 and nuts 46, in the manner indicated in FIG. 19. The ground-contacting frame-members or grid-members G-1 and 6-2 may be of 2 X 2-inch square tubing may be tubing of oblong rectangular cross-section, as, for instance, 2 X 4-inch or 2 X 6-inch tubing.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 as well as in the embodiment shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, co-planar endframe-members E-l, E2 and B3 are disposed at a transverse vertical plane at the end of the skeletonframe and are operatively interposed between the inner ends of the ground-contacting transverse end-framemembers Gi2 (FIG. 1) or E-4 (FIGS. 2 and 3), on the one hand, and the junctures in which the outer ends of the half-base members B terminate, and the innermost end-frame-members E-3 define the doorway or passageway.

If the longitudinal bases of the skeleton-frame, constituting the two longitudinal ground-lines thereof, are formed of square or rectangular cross-sectioned tubing G-l, then the individual components or sections thereof need not be of module-length (that is, they need not be of the same length as the base-members B and 8-1), but may be of sections or pieces of any suitable length, joined end-to-end by coupling plates 31 and bolts 32, as indicated in FIGS. 18, and 21. In such case, the junctures between the lower ends of the lowermost rows of triangle-forming diagonals D and the lower ends of the lowermost set of spanner-members S are formed by and in conjunction with eyebolts 33 extending through and secured to the rectangulartubular ground-base members G-l; with the spaces between such eyebolts 33 being equal to the length of the module, namely, the length of the base-members B and B1.

The round-tubular frame-members (B, B, B-l, D, S, C, E-l, E-2, E3 and B4) are formed of relatively thinwalled butt-welded-seam steel tubing. For instance, in the 30-foot wide skeleton-frame illustrated in the drawings, these roundtubular frame-members are formed of such steel tubing having an outer diameter of 1% inches and having a wall-thickness of the order of 0.042 inch.

The square tubing or oblong rectangular tubing, of which the longitudinal ground-contacting members G- l and transverse ground-base-contacting members 6-2 are formed, are butt-welded-seam steel tubing, whose wall-thickness would be of the order of 0.065 to 0.083 inch in the 30-foot wide skeleton-frame illustrated in the drawings; wherein these members are 2 X Z-inch tubing.

The round-tubular frame-members (B, 8-1, B, D, S, S, C, E-l, E-2 and E-3) are flattened at their ends to form integral coupling-flanges thereon, and holes 40 are provided in such flanges for the reception of onehalf-inch coupling-bolts 34. If the one-half-inch bolts 34 are full-thread, then the holes in the couplingflanges may be one-half inch, while if such bolts are not threaded substantially their entire length then the holes in the coupling-flanges are 9/l6 or 17/32 inch, so as to eliminate or minimize the clearances.

The coupling-flanges 35 of the round-tubular basemembers B, B and B-1 are at right angles thereto, as indicated in FIGS. 8 to 10. Immediately adjacent to such right-angular coupling-flanges 35 thereof, these base-members have an additional short portion 36 of the tubing likewise flattened. The length of such flattened portions 36 is equal to or slightly greater than thrice the thickness of the flattened coupling-flanges. Such flattened portions 36 serve to clear the free ends and end-corners of the coupling-flanges 37 of the diagonal-members D and the coupling-flanges 38 of the spanner-members S, which (coupling-flanges 37 and 38) are secured to the abutting flanges 35 of the basemembers B (as shown in FIGS. 15, 16 and 17), thereby to facilitate the assembly of the skeleton-frame while at the same time permitting the coupling-flanges of such diagonal-members D and spanner-members S to be sufficiently long beyond the holes therein to provide adequate strength in such flanges.

The two opposite coupling-flanges 37 of the diagonal-members D are at equal angles thereto and are parallel to each other; the angle being such that these flanges 37 will be disposed generally parallel to the coupling-flanges 35 of the base-members B when secured thereto in the flange-junctures .l

The coupling-flanges 38 at the ends of the spannermembers S and at the ends of the corner-members C and the end members E-l, E-2, [5-3 and E-4 lie in the single plane in which the axis'of such frame-members lie, as indicated in FIGS. 13 and 14.

For purposes of illustration, the dimensions of the round-tubular base-members B, B and 8-1, of the diagonal-members D, and of the spanner-members S, and of the corner-members C, and of the round-tubular end-members E, E-l, E-2, 13-3 and B4 are shown in FIGS. 8 to 14, inclusive. The dimensions indicated in these Figures are for a 30-foot wide skeleton-frame (of any desired length), formed of the aforementioned welded-seam round steel tubing of lVz-inch outer diameter and 0.042-inch wall-thickness.

The dimensions of the various frame members as well as their diameter or cross-sectional dimensions and their wall-thicknesses may be varied according to width of the skeleton-frame. The number of rows or tiers of isosceles triangles T in a side of the skeletonframe may also be varied according to the width of the building desired.

The right-angular coupling flanges 35 of the basemembers B and B are extended inwardly of the skeleton-frame, and the distance between the axis of the two holes in such rightangular flanges 35 and the axis of the base-member itself is made sufflciently great so that the inclined planes tangent to the outermost cylindrical surfaces of the base-members (B and B) will be above and clear of the ends of the couplingflanges (37 and 38) of the diagonal-members D and of the spanner-members S, so that the main sheathing F extending over and covering the arched skeleton-frame will rest upon and will be supported by the horizontal base-members (B and B) without coming into contact with the coupling flanges (37 and 38) of the diagonalmembers B and spanner-members S and so that a plane tangent to the outer cylindrical surfaces of two successive sets of base-members (B and B) will be slightly above the diagonal-members D which extend between such sets of base-members; all as indicated in FIGS. 22 and 8, 9 and 10.

The main sheathing F (and the sheathing panels F-l and F-2) may be formed of a water repellant or impervious fabric or flexible plastic of suitable strength, or may be formed of a fabric impregnated and/or coated with such plastic.

Generally tubular hems or tubular pockets 40 are formed in the two lowermost longitudinal horizontal edge-zones of the skeleton-covering main sheathing F, with gaps at suitable intervals in such tubular formation. Into such tubular formation or hems, tubes or rods 41 are inserted, and the latter are tied to the groundline-forming round-tubular base-members B-1 or to eyebolts 34 extending from and secured to the rectangular-tubular longitudinal base-members G-l as shown in FIG. 7.

Directly beneath or closely adjacent to the longitudinal ground-contacting base-members (8-1 or 6-1) and the transverse ground-contacting transverse members (E-4 or G-2) of the skeleton-frame, auger type or other suitable ground-anchorages (not shown) are extended into the ground at suitable intervals along such ground-lines. The bottommost round-tubular basemembers B-1 and E4 (FIGS. 2 and 3), or the rectangular-tubular base-members G-1 and G-2 (FIGS. 1 and 18 to 21) are secured to such ground-anchorages in any suitable manner. Thus, for instance, U-shaped shackles embracing the round-tubular ground-members B-1 and E4 may be bolted to the eyelets at the upper ends of such auger type ground-anchorages. Similarly, the eyelets of such ground-anchorages may be bolted to the rectangular tubular base-members G-1 and G-2.

The main skeleton-covering sheathing F is extended somewhat beyond the ends of the arched skeletonframe, and such slight extensions are provided with conventional grommeted holes, through which holes, such transverse end-zone extensions (of the main sheathing F) are laced to the cable 49 whose opposite ends are tautly secured to the ground-contacting basemembers of the skeleton-frame near the corners thereof or to the aforementioned ground-anchorages at the corners of the skeleton-frame.

Where it is desired to form a wall at the end of the building, as illustrated, for instance, in FIGS. 1 and 2, then end-sheathing panels F-l are provided over the end-frame-members E-l, 13-2 and E-3, and a doorforming sheathing-panel F-2 is hung from the spannermember S, and is arranged to be rolled up in a piece of tubing to open the passageway into the building or to be lowered for closing of such passageway.

The end-panels F-1 may be provided with tubular hems along the lines of or in registration with the endframe-members E-l, E-2 and E-3, and such end-frame members may be extended or telescoped through these tubular hems prior to such frame-members being secured in place, so that the sheathing panels F-l will be firmly connected with such end-frame-members.

Along the two longitudinal bottoms of the main sheathing F and along the transverse bottoms of the sheathing panel F-l, flaps 47 and 48 are provided for a distance sufficient to extend to the ground and for a short distance along the ground, so that by piling earth or sand on such flaps, a sea] may be formed along the bottom edges of the building.

By abutting against each other the right-angular coupling-flanges 35 of the horizontal base members B, B and 8-1 (in each of the flange-junctures), the iongitudinal dimensions of successive modules and of the several longitudinal rows of triangles is kept constant, and the otherwise unpredictable (and undesirable) build-up in the length thereof is avoided. By so eliminating a build-up in length, diagonal members D of uniform length may be used throughout the skeleton-frame.

As shown in FIGS. 15, 16 and 17, the pair of coupling-flanges 35 of the horizontal base-members B (and also B and B-l) are directly abutted against each other. The coupling-flange 38 of one of the spannermembers S is on one side of such abutting pair of coupling-flanges 35 (of the base members B), while the coupling-flange 38 of the other spanner-member S is on the opposite side of said pair of coupling-flanges 35.

Immediately adjacent the coupling-flanges 38 of the spanner-members S, are the coupling-flanges 37 of the two diagonal members D extending into the juncture from the two adjacent rows of triangles T, and im mediately adjacent to such coupling-flanges 37 are the like two coupling-flanges 37 of the other two diagonals D of the same pair of commonly-based triangles; all as indicated more particularly in FIGS. 15, 16 and 17.

In this manner, the length of the diagonal-members D may be kept constant throughout the skeleton-frame, This not only eliminates the costly need to manufacture and keep in stock diagonal-members D of different lengths for the same width of building, but also eliminates the confusion and resultant increase in cost in the erection of the building which would result from diagonal-members D of different lengths.

I claim the following:

1. A modular skeleton-frame building having a generally rectangular cross-section in a longitudinal vertical median plane therethrough and whose crosssection in a vertical plane at a right angle to such longitudinal plane is arched between the two opposite outer parallel ground-lines thereof, said building being composed of relatively short and relatively thin-walled tubular frame members, mentioned below, having flattened ends forming coupling-flanges integral therewith, each of said coupling-flanges having a hole therethrough to receive a coupling-bolt, each of the two longitudinal sides of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of said longitudinal vertical median plane, being formed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles composed of moduledefining horizontal base-members and oppositely inclined diagonal members, the apices of the triangles of each row alternately pointed upwardly and downwardly and with the contiguous bases of adjacent rows of such triangles being formed of the same horizontal module-defining base-members and the planes of successive rows of co-planar triangles being disposed at an obtuse angle to each other, and rigid tubular internal spanner-members extending between oppositely pointed apices of each pair of commonly-based triangles of adjacent rows and forming acute angles with the planes of the pair of triangles spanned thereby, and the coupling flanges of said base members and of said diagonal members and of said spanner-members overlapping each other in junctures at the apices of the triangles and being secured in such junctures by a bolt passing through all the holes in such overlapped coupling-flanges, and the coupling-flanges of the basemembers being generally at a right angle to such basemembers and extending inwardly of the skeleton-frame and spacing the outermost surfaces of such base-members outwardly from the coupling-flanges of the diagonal members and of the spanner-members, for supporting a thin sheathing on such skeleton-frame out of contact with and clear of such coupling-flanges.

2. A skeleton-frame building according to claim 1, in which the sheathing is relatively thin and limp and has the lowermost longitudinal edge-zones thereof detachably secured taut, so as to maintain the sheathing taut transversely of the skeleton-frame, between successive horizontal base-members.

3. A skeleton-frame building according to claim 2, including a half-module at the end of the building composed of an end-triangle in each horizontal row of triangles formed of a base-member approximately half the length of the base members of the triangles inwardly of such half-module and of one diagonal member and one corner-member at a right angle to the half-case-member and forming therewith and with the diagonal member a right-angular triangle of which such corner-member lies both in the plane of the horizontal row of triangles in which it is disposed and also in the generally vertical transverse plane of the end of the building.

4. A skeleton-frame building according to claim 3, including a horizontal ground-frame-member at the bottom of the transverse end of the building, lying in the transverse vertical end-plane of the building, and end-frame-members extending upwardly from such ground-frame-member and lying in said transverse vertical end-plane of the building and having their lower ends secured to such horizontal ground-frame-member and having their upper ends secured in the respective junctures of such half-base-members and corner-members.

5. A skeleton-frame building according to claim 1, including a half-module at the end of the building composed of an end-triangle in each horizontal row of triangles formed of a base-member approximately half the length of the base members of the triangles inwardly of such half-module and of one diagonal member and one corner-member at a right angle to the half-base-member and forming therewith and with the diagonal member a right-angular triangle of which such corner-member lies both in the plane of the horizontal row of triangles in which it is disposed and also in the generally vertical transverse plane of the end of the building.

6. A skeleton-frame building according to claim 5, including a horizontal ground-frame-member at the bottom of the transverse end of the building, lying in the transverse vertical end-plane of the building, and end-frame-members extending upwardly from such ground-frame-member and lying in said transverse vertical end-plane of the building and having their lower ends secured to such horizontal ground-frame-member and having their upper ends secured in the respective junctures of such half-base-members and corner-members.

7. A modular skeleton-frame building having a generally rectangular cross-section in a longitudinal vertical median plane therethrough and whose crosssection in a vertical plane at a right angle to such longitudinal plane is arched between the two opposite outer parallel ground-lines thereof, said building being composed of relatively short and relatively thin-walled tubular frame-members, mentioned below, having flattened ends forming coupling flanges integral therewith, I

each of said coupling-flanges having a hole therethrough to receive a coupling bolt, each of the two longitudinal sides of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of said longitudinal vertical median plane, being formed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles composed of module-defining horizontal base-members and oppositely inclined diagonal members, the apices of the triangles of each row alternately pointed upwardly and downwardly and with the contiguous bases of adjacent rows of such triangles being formed of the same horizontal moduledefining base-members and the planes of successive rows of co-planar triangles being disposed at an obtuse angle to each other, and rigid tubular internal spannermembers extending between oppositely pointed apices of each pair of commonly-based triangles of adjacent rows and forming acute angles with the planes of the pair of triangles spanned thereby, and the couplingflanges of said base members and of said diagonal members and of said spanner-members overlapping each other in junctures at the apices of the triangles and being secured in said junctures by a bolt passing through all the holes in such overlapped coupling-' flanges, and a relatively thin sheathing extending over and covering the skeleton-frame and supported on the horizontal base-members thereof out of contact with the coupling-flanges, and having the lowermost longitudinal edge-zones thereof detachably secured to horizontal base-members thereof and having flaps extending downwardly from the so secured edge-zones thereof.

8. A modular skeleton-frame building having a generally rectangular cross-section in a longitudinal vertical median plane therethrough and whose crosssection in a vertical plane at a right angle to such longitudinal plane is arched between the two opposite outer parallel ground-lines thereof, saidbuilding-being composed of relatively short and relatively thin-walled tubular frame members, mentioned below, having flattened ends forming coupling-flanges integral therewith, each of said coupling-flanges having a hole therethrough to receive a coupling-bolt, each of the two longitudinal sides of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of said longitudinal vertical median plane, being formed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles composed of moduledefining horizontal base-members and oppositely inclined diagonal members, the apices of the triangles of each row alternately pointed upwardly and downwardly and with the contiguous bases of adjacent rows of such triangles being formed of the same horizontal module-defining base-members and the planes of successive rows of co-planar triangles being disposed at an obtuse angle to each other, each end of each triangle-forming frame-member terminating in an apex of the triangle formed thereby, and rigid tubular internal spanner-members extending between oppositely pointed apices of each pair of commonly-based triangles of adjacent rows and forming acute angles with the planes of the pair of triangles spanned there by, and the coupling flanges of said base members and of said diagonal members and of said spanner-members overlapping each other in junctures at the apices of the triangles and being secured in such junctures by a bolt passing through all the holes in such overlapped coupling-flanges, and a relatively thin sheathing ex tending over and covering the skeleton-frame and supported on the horizontal base-members thereof out of contact with the coupling-flanges, and having the lowermost longitudinal edge-zones thereof detachably secured to horizontal base-members thereof and having flaps extending downwardly from the so secured edgezones thereof.

9. A modular skeleton-frame building having a generally rectangular cross-section in a longitudinal vertical median plane therethrough and whose crosssection in a vertical plane at a right angle to such longitudinal plane is arched between the two opposite outer parallel ground-lines thereof, said building being composed of relatively short and relatively thin-walled tubular frame members, mentioned below, having flattened ends forming coupling-flanges integral therewith, each of said coupling-flanges having a hole therethrough to receive a coupling-bolt, each of the two longitudinal sides of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of said longitudinal vertical median plane, being formed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles composed of moduledefining horizontal base-members and oppositely inclined diagonal members, the apices of the triangles of each row alternately pointed upwardly and downwardly and with the contiguous bases of adjacent rows of such triangles being formed of the same horizontal module-defining base-members and the planes of successive rows of co-planar triangles being disposed at an obtuse angle to each other, and rigid tubular internal spanner-members extending between oppositely pointed apices of each pair of commonly-based triangles of adjacent rows and forming acute angles with the planes of the pair of triangles spanned thereby, and the coupling-flanges of said base-members and of said diagonal members and of said spanner-members overlapping each other in junctures at the apices of the triangles and being secured in such junctures by a bolt passing through all the holes in such overlapped coupling-flanges, and the juxtaposed coupling-flanges of adjacent base-members abutting each other in the flange-junctures and the coupling-flanges of the diagonal members and of the spanner-members in the juncture being disposed outwardly of the coupling flanges of the base-members.

10. A modular skeleton-frame building having a generally rectangular cross-section in a longitudinal vertical median plane therethrough and whose crosssection in a vertical plane at a right angle to such longitudinal plane is arched between the two opposite outer parallel ground-lines thereof, said building being composed of relatively short and relatively thin-walled tubular frame members, mentioned below, having flattened ends forming coupling-flanges integral therewith, each of said coupling-flanges having a hole therethrough to receive a coupling-bolt, each of the two longitudinal sides of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of said longitudinal vertical median plane, being formed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of coplanar triangles composed of moduledefining horizontal base-members and oppositely inclined diagonal members, the apices of the triangles of each row alternately pointed upwardly and downwardly and with the contiguous bases of adjacent rows of such triangles being formed of the same horizontal module-defining base-members and the planes of successive rows of co-planar triangles being disposed at an obtuse angle to each other, and rigid tubular internal spanner-members extending between oppositely pointed apices of each pair of commonly-base triangles of adjacent rows and forming acute angles with the planes of the pair of triangles spanned thereby,

and the coupling flanges of said base members and of said diagonal members and of said spanner-members overlapping each other in junctures at the apices of the triangles and being secured in such junctures by a bolt passing through all the holes in such overlapped coupling-flanges, and a half-module at the end of the building composed of an end-triangle in each horizontal row of triangles formed of a base-member approximately half the length of the base members of the triangles inwardly of such half-module and of one diagonal member and one comer-member at a right angle to the half-base-member and forming therewith and with the diagonal member a right-angular triangle of which such comer-member lies both in the plane of the horizontal row of triangles in which it is disposed and also in the generally vertical transverse plane of the end of the building.

11. A skeleton-frame building according to claim 10, including a horizontal ground-frame-member at the bottom of the transverse end of the building, lying in the transverse vertical end-plane of the building, and end-frame-members extending upwardly from such ground-frame-member and lying in said transverse vertical end-plane of the building and having their lower ends secured to such horizontal ground-frame-member and having their upper ends secured in the respective junctures of such half-base-members and corner-members.

12. A modular skeleton-frame building having a generally rectangular cross-section in a longitudinal vertical median plane therethrough and whose crosssection in a vertical plane at a right angle to such longitudinal plane is arched between the two opposite outer parallel ground-lines thereof, said building being composed of relatively short and relatively thin-walled tubular frame members, mentioned below, having flattened ends forming coupling-flanges integral therewith, each of said coupling-flanges having a hole therethrough to receive a coupling-bolt, each of the two longitudinal sides of the skeleton-frame, on opposite sides of said longitudinal vertical median plane, being formed of successively higher contiguous longitudinal rows of co-planar triangles composed of moduledefining horizontal base-members and oppositely inclined diagonal members, the apices of the triangles of each row alternately pointed upwardly and downwardly and with the contiguous bases of adjacent rows of such triangles being formed of the same horizontal module-defining base-members, and the planes of successive rows of co-planar triangles being disposed at an obtuse angle to each other, and rigid tubular internal spannermembers extending between oppositely pointed apices of each pair of commonly-based triangles of adjacent rows and forming acute angles with the planes of the pair of triangles spanned thereby, and the coupling-flanges of said base members and of said diagonal members and of said spanner-members overlapping each other in junctures at the apices of the triangles and being secured in such junctures by a bolt passing through all the holes in such overlapped coupling-flanges, and the coupling-flanges of the basemembers being generally at a right angle to such basemembers and extend inwardly of the skeleton-frame and spacing and the outermost surfaces of such basemembers outwardly from the coupling-flanges of the claim 12, including a relatively thin limp sheathing eX- tending over and covering the skeleton-frame and supported on the horizontal base-members thereof out of contact with the coupling-flanges of said diagonal members and spanner-members.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification135/137, 52/745.7, 135/138, 135/97, 52/86, 52/653.2, 135/906
International ClassificationE04H15/18, E04B1/32, E04B1/19
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2001/3252, E04B2001/193, E04B2001/3241, E04B2001/1984, E04B1/1903, E04B2001/1975, Y10S135/906, E04B2001/1987, E04B2001/1933, E04B2001/1963, E04B1/3205, E04H15/18, E04B2001/199, E04B2001/3294, E04B2001/196, E04B2001/1993
European ClassificationE04B1/19B, E04B1/32B, E04H15/18