US 3690807 A
A burner and process which carries the burning of a hydrocarbon by a chain reaction to a point of substantial completion wherein relatively few parts of unreacted hydrocarbon remain. The burner and process comprise the introduction of air and a hydrocarbon into an elongated conically terminating chamber sized or affected so that the driving frequency of the chemical reaction of the hydrocarbon is matched to the resonant frequency of the chamber which serves to provide an increased dwell time and mixing of the molecules of the hydrocarbon to permit them to more fully react.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Paxton et al.
[451 Sept. 12, 1972 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 936,169 9/1963 Great Britain ..43 l/ 1 Primary Examiner-Edward G. Favors Attorney-George F. Bethel [5 7] ABSTRACT A burner and process which carries the burning of a hydrocarbon by a chain reaction to a point of substantial completion wherein relatively few parts of unreacted hydrocarbon remain. The burner and process comprise the introduction of air and a hydrocarbon into an elongated conically terminating chamber sized or affected so that the driving frequency of the chemical reaction of the hydrocarbon is matched to the resonant frequency of the chamber which serves to provide an increased dwell time and mixing of the molecules of the hydrocarbon to permit them to more fully react.
24 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure 47 36 J L 31 B4 Patented Sept. 12, 1912 3,690,807
I NV ENTORS GEORGE ROBERT TALBOTT, DOUGLAS R PAXTON GEORGE F. BETHEL ATTORNEY BURNER 1. Field of the Invention This invention lies within the art of burning hydrocarbons for the production of heat energy.
2. Description of the Prior Art The burning of hydrocarbons such as gasoline, oil, kerosine, coal, and other forms thereof has become a highly accepted and flexible means for providing heat energy. The various means for liberating the energy of a hydrocarbon by burning has comprised the use of the internal combustion engine, fire boxes in conjunction with boilers, jet engines, and spraying a hydrocarbon for the burning thereof .in proximity to a heat absorbing apparatus.
In all of the foregoing methods for liberating the energy of a hydrocarbon, there are generally various amounts of the hydrocarbon which are not entirely reacted during the burning process. The unreacted portions are generally emitted as a part of the exhaust or flue gases from the reaction. The unreacted portions of the hydrocarbon which are emitted as part of the flue or exhaust gases have created a substantial nuisance in the form of pollutants in the atmosphere. The pollutants have become such a problem that there are active national and local programs to eliminate the pollutants which form the substance of such public nuisances as haze, smog, and smoke in and around oururban environs.
To eliminate the foregoing'pollutants in an internal combustion engine, there have been various devices to provide a more complete reaction of hydrocarbons being burned by such engines. There are also efforts being made to avoid the inherent drawbacks of an internal combustion engine by utilizing external combustion engines. The utilization of the external combustion engine incorporates the liberation of heat through many burning processes and apparatus well known in the art. The heat is used to expand a working medium such as water or other liquids into vapor which is then impinged upon a drivable body such as a turbine blade or piston. The efforts to react hydrocarbons for liberation of heat in an external combustion process have been partially successful in eliminating atmospheric pollutants below levels normally associated with the internal combustion engine. However, the effort has not been successful in eliminating these pollutants.
In order to fully burn or react a hydrocarbon prior to exhaust emission it is necessary to place the molecules thereof in an optimum relationship with those molecules they are seeking to react with. Thus, the greater the molecular collisions between the molecules of the hydrocarbon, inter se as well as molecules of oxygen, the greater the reaction and complete burning thereof. To increase molecular collisions during the reaction of a hydrocarbon for liberation of heat, there have been quantitative excesses of stoichiometric oxygen to increase molecular collisions between the hydrocarbon and oxygen. However, this has not met fully with success due to the fact that the reaction is carried on to completion through a chain which cannot be completely aided by a mere excess of stoichiometric quantities of oxygen.
Thus, there are upper limits at which a hydrocarbon can be burned effectively under state of the art conditions and wherein only increased stoichiometric quantities of oxygen are provided. Furthermore, there are limits to which a hydrocarbon can be reacted by merely spraying and/or forming it into desirable configurations. In order to fully react a hydrocarbon there must be an ability to cause each reaction of the chain to take place fully by a means which has not been devised until the instant invention.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In summation, this invention comprises an apparatus and process which more fully reacts hydrocarbons during a burning process.
Specifically, the invention relies upon the establish ment of a resonant frequency, or standing wave within an elongated reaction chamber which serves to impede molecular flow therethrough. The impedance allows each particular reaction within the burning process to take place more completely by increasing the dwell time of the hydrocarbon and mixing it more thoroughly.
The foregoing resonance or standing wave, is created by the reaction chamber resonating at the driving frequency associated with the hydrocarbon reacting within the chamber. It is the resonance or the standing wave which serves to create impeding influences within the reaction chamber such that molecular passage through those impeding influences provides a longer dwell time during reaction of the hydrocarbon. The increased dwell time allows the hydrocarbon to proceed through each one of its respective reactions more fully during the burning process, and to thereby eliminate pollutants caused by the unburned products of reaction. Furthermore, it has been found that nitrous oxides can be decreased substantially at reacting temperatures below that of the prior art.
The reaction chamber of this invention is sized to match the resonant frequency of the reacting compounds, as to its physical dimension. Additionally, the chamber can be finely tuned by means of placing an obstruction or tuning object at its mouth to more finely match the chambers natural resonance to the resonance of the reacting compounds. The tuning object can be moved in response to various resonant frequencies of the hydrocarbon or as to changing conditions within the reacting chamber or the environment.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The sole FIGURE shows a schematic diagram of an apparatus which may be used for carrying out the process of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The instant invention relies upon environmental control with respect to the chemical kinetics of a free radical chain propagation. There is always a tendency in free radical chain propagation to disregard matters except those relating to the reactants and their usual chemical properties. However, the inventor has found that the environment and means for carrying out the reaction provide certain impedances and mixing in the system by means of the configuration of the reaction chamber. In essence, the attendant physical environmental properties surrounding the reaction have a substantial effect on how the reaction is carried out.
Combustion reactions are sensitive to the manner in which they are carried out, specifically in relation to the environmental geometry. In principle, any exothermic reaction can produce a flame. However, in practice the size, geometry and stability limitations of the environment control the flame with regard to the speed and type of reaction. The foregoing principle can be elementally shown by measuring the flame front thickness and burning velocity with respect to the size of a reaction chamber.
The heat energy which is derived from a reaction is equal to the difference between the sum of the bond energies of the reactants and the sum of the bond energies of the end products. In other words, the greater the number of bonds broken to form stable products, the greater is the evolution of heat. More importantly, as to atmospheric pollution, a concomitant decrease of unreacted end products is provided thereby decreasing the amount of pollutants during the burning of a hydrocarbon.
A heated mixture of hydrocarbons, particularly alkanes, reacting with oxygen is difficult to control once the reaction has begun. Once the heat of reaction is obtained, the temperature is sufficient to accelerate and/or maintain the reaction by continuous evolvement of heat which will rupture the distinct bonds of the molecules causing a large number of reactions to occur simultaneously. If the chain reaction can be held to a point where it reacts to a greater degree through its specific product reactions, there can be a more complete and effective total reaction. It is this more complete reaction in each instance, of the specific products within the chain reaction, which has been enhanced by the instant invention. In other words, the products of reaction are held within a longer time sequence in each portion of the chain reaction so that each will be able to more fully react by increased random collisions provided by extended molecular contact.
The hydrocarbon oxidation reaction of the instant invention generally involves a chain reaction seen in most hydrocarbon reactions, except that the instant invention carries the reaction substantially to completion. The initial stages of the reaction involve attach by OH radicals known commonly as the hydroxyl radical. Corresponding hydrocarbon radicals are also formed, namely CH and C H radicals. The foregoing C H radicals are generally stable at flame temperatures. Radicals of higher alkane chains split off CI-I radicals forming the next lower olefin. With the use of more complex hydrocarbon molecules, molecular fission may occur, but in any case CH radicals are ultimately formed.
After the formation of the foregoing CH radicals formaldehyde is produced. However, in a chain reaction involving the liberation of heat by a hydrocarbon during oxidation, the formaldehyde is attacked by monoatomic and molecular oxygen. The formaldehyde is also rapidly attacked by OH and H radicals with the attendant formation of CO and HCO radicals. The
foregoing chemical events may be represented by the following:
HCO H+CO (carbon monoxide) CO+OH CO,+H (carbon dioxide) 20H H=O+O 20+M O,+M (organic molecules) CH,+20, 2H,O+CO,
The above is a general synopsis of the chemistry of the oxidation of many fuels as seen in a hydrocarbon chain reaction for the creation of heat. The foregoing chemical reaction would generally have to be involved in order to evolve heat through the liberation of energy by the breaking of hydrocarbon bonds. However, the unique part of the instant invention is not in the particular radicals which are obtained during each reaction, culminating in a particular product which reacts again until the final end products are created. Instead, the invention lies within the physical chemistry of the process which not only involves the chemical radicals and products obtained, but the time factors and physical environment through which the reactions are carried out.
As in the burning of most hydrocarbons, the reaction takes place in what would be considered a combustion wave. Each successive layer of the wave is first a heat sink and then a heat source. The chemical reaction is initiated by a point source and is then propagated to create an exothermic reaction thereby transferring heat to the next closest layer to induce activation. The elemental layer may be regarded as a consumer of activation energy in the pre-heat phase and then as a supplier of energy in the reaction phase. This process continues repeatedly and a combustion wave is thereby obtained which is propagated throughout the reacting hydrocarbon mixture. The heat received is returned by each layer and the combustion wave is propagated by the foregoing action. The wave itself varies in thickness, but it is thought that in the usual hydrocarbon-air mixture the propagation of a wave creates a combustion wave which is about two hundredths of an inch in thickness.
The instant invention uses the foregoing aspects of an incremental combustion wave, and creates a relatively stationary final zone of major reaction. The foregoing zone of major reaction is the point where the final reaction generally takes place to liberate heat from the hydrocarbon. The zone of major reaction is maintained in a relatively similar position by the physical characteristics of the reaction chamber being in conformity with the characteristics of the combustion wave which react in the chamber.
In essence, the invention incorporates the resonance during reaction of the reacting compound in the reaction chamber, stemming from the periodic chemical kinetics of the compound, to effectuate the desirable features of this invention. The particular compound is reacted in a chamber which is sized or modified so that the natural frequency of the reaction chamber is equal to the driving frequency of the compound reacting therein. When the resonant frequency of the reaction chamber is equal to the driving frequency of the chemical compound reacting therein resonance or a wave is established in the chamber.
it is thought that the foregoing frequency or resonance produces wave trains which can travel in opposite directions. The wave trains develop loops and nodes which serve to provide areas of variable pressure. The areas of variable pressure help to provide the aforementioned impedances and greater mixing which are greater than that which a combustion wave would normally encounter while passing through the length of a prior art reaction chamber.
The object and the advantages gained by maintaining the foregoing frequency providing a wave or waves is to produce substantially complete combustion by virtue of the fact that the gases of reaction are impeded and mixed, allowing them to more fully react than they would normally in a faster traversal of the reaction chamber. It must be appreciated that the time lags created by the impedances provided by this invention are of a small duration. The entire reaction is carried out completely in a very short period of time. However, it is the increased time lag built into the reacting system, even though small, which serves to more completely react the hydrocarbons. This is due to the fact that the hydrocarbons and oxygens are held in a reacting state longer than in the prior art and are more fully mixed.
The inherent characteristics or periodic kinetics of the chain reaction which establish certain periodicities of reaction provide the standing wave or resonance in cooperation with the reaction chamber. This resonance is caused by matching the driving frequency hereinafter referred to in part as E, with the natural frequency of the reaction chamber. The portion of this specification which immediately follows is devoted to explaining the driving frequency E, as it relates to specific reaction chamber configurations and modifiable versions thereof.
It is well known that the rate of a chemical reaction can be expressed by the activated complex modifications of the Arrhenius equation. When the activated compound is raised to an energy level where it will react, the rate of its chemical reaction can be defined by the following equation:
standing K, in the foregoing equation is the reaction rate and is expressed in liters divided by mole seconds. K is in effect a frequency established by the rate of the reaction. R has the value of liters times atmospheres, divided by degrees Kelvin times moles. T is in degrees kelvin. h is Plancks constant. N, is Avogadros number. e is the natural log base. A S is the change in entropy from the reacting compound to the end product. A H is the change in enthalpy. h is usually expressed in ergs seconds, but has here the units of liter atmosphere seconds.
From the foregoing, it is seen that K has a real value. Therefore, the particular frequency of reaction can be a physical frequency which is analogous to the chemical rate of reaction. The physical frequency can be expressed by multiplying liters per mole second by moles divided by liters, providing an actual frequency equivalent to the chemical rate of reaction which K equals.
To expand upon the driving frequency of the chain reaction, let I represent an initial reactant, let X and Y represent intermediate compounds or intermediate products which are formed between initial reactants and products, and let P represent the product formed. The following kinetic scheme actually occurs in certain combustion processes:
K. I X-- P 2X K2 X YEP 21 The rate constants, K K and K are shown above. Notice that in the first kinetic equation one intermediate compound reacts with the initial material to form the product plus more of the intermediate compound. The second kinetic equation shows the two intermediate compounds reacting to form that product plus the second intermediate compound. In the third reaction, the second intermediate compound and the initial material react to form the product.
The three kinetic equations reflect a real chemical situation, and are formulated from experimental data. It shall be shown that any chemical system governed by those equations is an oscillatory chemical system.
From the law of mass action, one may write differential equations expressing the rate of change of the intermediate compounds with respect to time. One notices that the rate constant K governs the transformation of l and X into P and 2X. Thus, the concentrations of l, and of X contributed to the formation of additional amounts of X. On the other hand, the rate constant K governs the conversion of X and Y into P and 2Y. Hence, the intermediate compounds or products consumption or disappearance is governed by K Consequently, the rate of change of X with respect to time is formulated as follows:
By similar reasoning, one notes that K governs the production of P and of 2Y from both X and Y. Thus, K contributes to the accumulation of the intermediate compound Y. On the other hand, the rate constant K contributes to the disappearance of Y as l and Y are converted into the final product P. Therefore, the rate of change of Y with respect to time is given in the following differential equation:
Now, let X 0 and Y represent the steady state concentrations of X and of Y respectively. Then, small deviations from equilibrium can be shown by the following shifts:
For steady state equilibrium conditions, the change with respect to time will be zero and the differentials can be expressed as follows:
One may derive a similar equation showing the rate of change of Y with respect to time:
d/dt (Y AY) K (X +AX) (1 AY) K 1 (Y A Y) The simplification follows the same pattern:
%(YO+ 2( Q+ Y0+AY) K=I YO+AY The simplification follows the same pattern:
One may differentiate the above with respect to time as follows:
(d (AY)/dt K I(d(AX)/dt) v and then substitute the expression which has been derived for the rate of change of AX with respect to time, obtaining the basic equation of a simple harmonic oscillator:
In precisely the same manner, the following is found:
These equations can be solved in the manner outlined below:
d AX dP d (AX dP d AX dt T17 f mr ar Therefore d (AX) dP Q dt d(AX) d(AX) substituting from above,
PdP d(AX) PdP d(AX) Integrating,
fPdP= I K K /AXd(AX) P +I K K (AX) =C When P=0, AX has a maximum amplitude Z. Therefore, C' =1"K K Z and The integration must now be carried out a second time, and a second integration constant C must be evaluated. This set of operations is conducted exactly as in the prior discussion.
The variables are separated, and the equation is integrated:
But when i=0, AX will also equal zero, so C =0.
AX=Z sin /I K K (t) AX can also be expressed as AX=Z sin 2Hft where f is a frequency in cyclesper second.
Comparison of these two equations shows that Therefore f /I K K I I 2n l/KIK The foregoing equations provide the frequency of formation, or the driving frequency F of the reacting compounds, which is dependent upon the rate constants and the concentration of the compounds. As stated previously and now in mathematical terms, to practice the invention, the driving frequency F provided by the chemical reaction should match the resonant frequency of the reaction chamber.
Another caveat is that the single driving frequency embodiment of this invention can be modified to incan occur as to plural resonances, which will also provide the operative features of this invention.
The inventors have found that the invention may be practiced through the utilization of a generally described embodiment shown in FIG. 1 utilizing the following ranges of values. The general example is described herein to provide greater understanding of how the driving frequency of the reacting compounds in the reaction chamber must match the chamber. The specific criteria of the reaction chamber for various sized chambers will then be described.
In the general example given herein, it should be recognized that the critical design values are not absolutes. For different types of hydrocarbons, and different sized working areas, a practitioner of this invention might care to vary the mode of practice as more specifically defined in the subsequent examples. However, the following general example will serve to elucidate the structure and process which will be more stringently delineated in those subsequent examples.
Looking more specifically at FIG. 1, a pump 10 is shown. The pump 10 is supplied through an inlet line 12 which feeds thereinto. The inlet line 12 is supplied by a vent 14 leading to the atmosphere and controlled by a mixing valve 16. A one way valve is provided internally of the vent 14 so that positive pressure displacement cannot take place outwardly through the vent 14.
A second valve is shown connected to a line 22 and is also connected to the mixing valve 16 by a line 23. The pipe 22 is connected to a source of heated air provided by a heat exchanger 24. In operation the air provided by the heat exchanger 24 is mixed with the atmospheric air from the vent l4, and regulated to provide the pump 10 with a source of heated air having an appropriate temperature. The heat exchanger 24 is supplied by a source of heat through a pipe 26 from a suitable source such as an external combustion engine 28. The foregoing engine 28 will be disclosed more fully, concomitantly with the specific portions of this invention.
The air to be heated can be provided by a pump 29 having its outlet connected to a pipe 30 which is in turn connected to an inlet 32 of the heat exchanger 24. The air to be heated is provided to the pump 29 by a pipe 33 connected to a source of air through a filter 34 with an inlet 35.
The temperature ranges of the air from the foregoing supply which leaves the pump 10 in this general example should be approximately 125 to 200 fahrenheit, and should be at a pressure of approximately 4 inches of water. The heated air from the pump 10 is introduced into a pipe 36. The air moving through the pipe 36 is controlled by a variable mechanical resistance of any type 38 which serves to provide the correct amount of pressure therethrough, or volume as desired.
The air proceeds down the pipe 36 to a point where it is mixed with fuel introduced through a plurality of nozzels 42 placed circumferentially around the pipe 36.
The fuel can be vaporized or introduced in a finely divided manner if it is not subject to vaporization. The nozzels 42 can be fed through any suitable pipe system such as the pipes shown at 44 and 46. In order to maintain a constant source of fuel, a reservoir 48 is provided leading into a pipe 50 which is connected to a pump 52. The pump 52 delivers the fuel to a heater 54 which serves to raise the fuel to an appropriate temperature or vaporize it.
The heated or vaporized fuel is under pressure from the pump 52 which serves to deliver the fuel to the nozzels 42 for injection into the heated air stream from pump 10. The heat exchanger 54 for heating or vaporizing the fuel in this embodiment comprises electrical heating coils 56 which surround a pipe 47 leading from the outlet of the pump 52. The fuel which can be a diesel fuel should be heated to a range of anywhere from 700 to 750 F. It has been shown using the other ranges of this general embodiment that a fuel such as kerosine at 725 fahrenheit reacts quite well.
After the fuel has been introduced into the elongated pipe 36 it is then delivered to the zone referred to previously as the reaction chamber 58. The reaction chamber 58 comprises an elongated tube 60, which in this specific embodiment can be anywhere from 5 to 13 inches long. The elongated tube 60 terminates at a funnel 62. The funnel 62 has a generally conical shape expanding outwardly from its longitudinal relationship with the pipe at anywhere from 8 to 12.
By virtue of the introduction of the fuel and the oxygen, a combustion process can be initiated by the introduction of a flame or heat source. This can be provided by a spark or glow plug 64 which is shown connected to an appropriate electromotive force and electrical circuit 66.
When the air and fuel mixture is introduced in the foregoing manner and ignited by the spark or glow plug 64 in accordance with this invention, it is found that an area of final major reaction 68 is developed across the inner area of the funnel 62. The area of final major reaction 68 in the foregoing example utilizing the fuel and temperatures referred to has a limited thickness and can have a temperature gradient thereacross of 2,200 F.
The general characteristics of the foregoing embodiment of the invention are such that the critical elements of the temperature and compound concentrations must be adjusted before resonance is provided by the driving frequency F of the reacting compounds. However, when the adjustment is made, it is quite obvious that the normal combustion process is not taking place as known in the prior art. Firstly, when the effect of the instant invention is achieved, the flame of the burner is no longer visible. Instead of a flame there is merely the general presence of the area of final major reaction 68 and the manifestation of a completed burning of the hydrocarbons introduced to the burner. The amount of hydrocarbons emitted from the burner after the effect of the instant invention is achieved is limited to a relatively few parts per million in comparison to other prior art burners and engines.
In order to achieve the foregoing substantial burning of a hydrocarbon, it has been stated that resonance or substantial resonance takes place within the combustion process. This resonance can be determined during the burning process after the effect of the instant invention has been achieved.
As noted from the foregoing formal equation, the driving frequency F,,, of the chemical reaction is in part dependent upon the temperature of the compounds as well as other operative criteria. It is sometimes difficult to exactly control the temperature and other operative criteria. The natural frequency of the'reaction chamber 58 is dependent upon the dimensions of the reaction chamber and must be matched by the driving frequency P Thus, the effective length of the reaction chamber should be regulated for varying reaction temperatures and other operative criteria in the event they are not readily controlled. To regulate the length, the invention can comprise a barrier or moveable object or block 100 for positioning at various distances from the mouth of the reaction chamber 58. The movable object can be adjusted in response to temperature and operative criteria changes by a servo or other suitable control means 102 connected to the object 100 and controlled to provide an effective length of the chambers to match the driving frequency F of the reaction compounds.
The heat emitted from the mouth of the cone 62 is impinged upon an engine 28 having a working medium therein so that the working medium can be expanded and used to drive a body. Such working mediums are well known in the art and consist of complex chemical formulas as well as water expanded into steam. The working medium can be used to drive a turbine, a piston, or other expander combinations of same as represented by the engine 28.
It is thought that the funnel 62 generates a reflective impedance so that resonance can be established. As previously stated, the resonance provides areas of impedance in the reaction chamber which serve to create an extended dwell time for the compounds being reacted therein, with attendant increased mixing. Although the inventors do not wish to limit themselves to a funnel, tube, and moveable object configuration for the establishment of the standing wave, or resonance, it is one of the preferred geometries to develop the required reflective impedance. The impedance of the conical chamber may be derived by combining other well known configurations having expressions in physics which shall not be derived for purposes of explaining this invention because they are obtainable in the literature. In order to establish the size criteria of the reaction chamber for resonance, the impedance of the conical chamber 62 must be established. The expression for the impedance of a cone which serves as the reflective impedance herein for establishment of resonance is as follows:
S111 qa sin gb S sin ga S equals the surface cross-sectional area at the mouth;
1 equals the cone length; x, equals the distance between the apex to the throat; x equals the distance from the apex to the mouth; q a equals tan qx qb equals tan qx 2; q equals 2 1r/)\ 2 1r F/v F equals the sound wave freq uency.
When the imaginary portion of the foregoing expression goes to zero then the conical reaction chamber goes into resonance. Thus it can be determined what frequencies will cause the chamber to resonate, in the form of those frequencies, F which arise from the periodic kinetics of the chemical compounds which are reacting in the chamber 58. The rate constants K and K can be established by empirical evaluation through the laboratory, and have been established as such in the past.
The mathematical formulation appearing in the above equation simplifies the design of the reaction chamber. However, it should be understood that a reaction chamber has been designed of the foregoing type and can be obtained through empirical analysis.
In order to obtain a resonating frequency on a consistent basis such as in the foregoing general example, a telemetry and control system can be designed so that the temperatures, pressures and stoichiometric quantities can be maintained in balance. It should be appreciated that exact balancing of the foregoing quantities does not have to be maintained to arrive at a frequency which would optimally create the impedances desired in the system. A close approximation of the frequency provides such substantial effects over the prior art burning of hydrocarbons that control can be effectuated within close proximity of the exact frequencies.
In consideration of the general example when large variables are encountered such as when crude fuels are utilized a computer can be incorporated to operate servos and maintain the controls of the invention.
To obtain the end operating result of the invention empirically is a matter of designing a burner of the type shown by the general example and then adjusting it as to flow rates and temperatures. Additionally, as previously described, the objective can be changed to effectuate a different physical resonant character to the reaction chamber 58. A substantial equivalent of the optimum performing embodiment may be obtained by employing the equations of this specification. In obtaining the design mathematically it can be stated as before that the imaginary portion of the foregoing impedance equation equals zero and in mathematical terms can be defined by the following equation:
The term Z, can be picked from well established charts for indicating the acoustical impedance at the mouth of a cone. Therefore, it is not necessary to derive the means for obtaining the acoustical impedance at this time because it is well known in the art. The frequency in accordance with the symbols utilized is derived by letting q= 2 rrF/v and then solving for F.
The following examples shall be utilized to effectively create a driving frequency F providing a resonance in a reaction chamber.
1 14 In sizing the reaction chamber the following con- EXAMPLE4 stants are utilized. The constants, when in an effective combination in accordance with the design specifica- It was found for frequencies of appr-oxlmately 579 to 580 cycles per second that the following values would trons of this invention, will yield a resonating frequency provide such a frequency. of a particular reaction chamber. The resonant reac- 5 I: 37 tion chamber when utilized with chemically kinetic X1 ()5 materials having a particular driving frequency, F will X2 provide the desired impedance to the system. The Sm 6.45 foregoing constants for the design of a reaction 1 S 2: 129 chamber are as follows: 2 5 l= cone length in centimeters; T 200 X the distance between the apex to the throat in 00011 I centimeters; It should be emphasized that the burner of this inven- X the distance between the apex to the mouth in tion may be utilized with industrial processes, the generation of electrical energy, the driving of vehicles and boats or any other function wherein it is desired that heat be generated by the burning of a hydrocarbon. It should be well understood that this invention has broad application and use and is not to be limited to the foregoing examples and specific embodiments thereof. The foregoing embodiments have been described for purposes of clarity and complete disclosure. However, it is intended'that only the claims cover EXAMPLE all embodiments and modifications which come within In this example it was shown that the resonating the full scope and spirit of this invention.
S, the area of the throat in square centimeters;
S the area of the mouth in square centimeters;
R the radius of the mouth in centimeters;
T the vapor temperature in degrees centigrade;
p the vapor density in grams per cubic centimeter;
F the frequency in cycles per second.
frequency of the reaction chamber would fall approxi- We claim:
mately between 2,208 cycles per second and 2,209 cyl. The process for burning a hydrocarbon compriscles per second. In obtaining the proper operating 3 g criteria for the foregoing reaction chamber frequency, in ro ucing a hydrocarbon into a reaction chamber the following values were utilized: with at least a sufficient quantity of oxygen I 8.9 therewith for providing substantially complete X 0,5 burning of said hydrocarbon; =9 39 reacting said hydrocarbon such that the chemical SM 505 kinetics of its reaction function within a 5 203 1 preestablished frequency range; and 2 54 sizing the reaction chamber in a manner providing a =200 corresponding resonant frequency responsive to p 0001 I the frequency of the chemical chain reaction such that resonance is established within said reaction EXAMPLE 2 chamber.
2. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein: said resonance establishes at least one wave. 3. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein:
For frequencies of approximately 2,220 cycles per second to 2,221 cycles per second it was found that the following values would create the foregoing frequency:
1: 8 9 said chemical chain reaction is initiated by providing heat from an extrinsic source other than said react- 1 ing hydrocarbon. 2 4. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein said m hydrocarbon and oxygen is provided by: S142 1290 driving air into said reaction chamber as a moving stream of air;
vaporizing said hydrocarbon; and introducing said hydrocarbon into the moving stream EXAMPLE 3 5. The process as claimed in claim 4 further compris- For frequencies of approximately 578 to 579 cycles i p=0.00ll
per second it was found that the following values would impeding said hydrocarbons from passage through provide Such a f equency: said reaction chamber during the period of reac- I= 37 tion thereof by means of an established resonance. X 1 0.5- 6. The process as claimed in claim 1 further compris- X2 ing: S, 5.05 sizing said reaction chamber by moving an object ex- S,,,; 20.3 1 trinsic to said chamber thereby changing the effec- R 2.54 tive resonant length thereof. T 200 7. In a process for reacting hydrocarbons for burnp 0.001 1 ing, the improvement which comprises:
providing a flowing mass incorporating a hydrocarbon at least partially dispersed therein; causing said mass to flow into a reaction chamber; reacting said hydrocarbon within said reaction chamber such that the reaction establishes a driving frequency developed by the periodic kinetics of the chemical reaction; and, resonating said reaction chamber by means of the driving frequency established by the periodic kinetics of the chemical reaction therein. 8. The process as claimed in claim 7 further comprismg:
introducing said flowing mass to an elongated reaction chamber; reacting said hydrocarbons in a chain reaction along the length of said reaction chamber in different stages; and, causing the reaction of each member of the chain to be carried substantially to completion by the impeding and mixing action of the resonance within said reaction chamber. 9. The process as claimed in claim 7 further comprismg:
providing said mass by introducing air in a stream under pressure and incorporating a hydrocarbon substantially dispersed therein. 10. The process as claimed in claim 9 wherein: said air is heated to provide more effective reaction within said reaction chamber. 11. The process as claimed in claim 9 wherein: the hydrocarbons are heated prior to incorporation in the stream of air. 12. The process as claimed in claim 7 further comprising:
passing said mass in said reaction chamber through a conical portion thereof; and, providing a reflective impedance at an open end thereof in said conical portion for creating resonance in said chamber and maintaining a standing wave provided by said resonance. 13. The process as claimed in claim 12 wherein: the reaction of said hydrocarbons is brought to substantial completion in said conical portion. 14. The process as claimed in claim 13 further comprising:
sizing the reaction chamber to match the natural resonant frequency thereof to the driving frequency of the hydrocarbon reaction therein by means of changing the effective length through an externally placed object. 15. The process as claimed in claim 7 further comprising:
the heating of an expandable working medium by the heat emanating from said conical portion.
16. The process as claimed in claim 15 further com prising:
heating the air in which said hydrocarbons are dispersed by passing said air in proximity to the working medium.
17. The process as claimed in claim 7 wherein the driving frequency created by the chemical kinetics of said reaction is equal to the concentration in moles per liter of the initial quantity of combined air and hydrocarbon to be reacted divided by 2nmultiplied by the quantity of the square root of the rate constant in a hydrocarbon chai reaction betwee the first and second reaction 0 the chain, times t e rate constant between the last and the next to last reaction in the chain.
18. Apparatus for reacting hydrocarbon substantially to completion comprising:
an elongated reaction chamber having a conical outlet at one end of said chamber;
means to introduce a mass of hydrocarbon mixed with oxygen at an inlet of said reaction chamber for causing said mass to flow along the length of said reaction chamber; and,
means for causing said entire reaction chamber to resonate when the periodic kinetics of said reacting mass cause a driving frequency for resonating said chamber.
19. The apparatus as claimed in claim 18 further comprising:
means for introducing heated air under pressure in a stream to said reaction chamber; and, means for introducing a vaporized hydrocarbon into said stream of heated air.
20. The apparatus as claimed in claim 19 further comprising:
means for heating said air.
21. The apparatus as claimed in claim comprising:
means for heating said hydrocarbon.
22. The reaction vessel as claimed in claim 19 comprising:
a conical outlet flared from the longitudinal axis of said elongated reaction vessel of anywhere from 8 to 12.
23. The apparatus as claimed in claim 17 further comprising:
means for sizing the reaction chamber to create a change in its natural resonating frequency.
24. Apparatus as claimed in claim 23 wherein said sizing means comprises:
a moveable object at the open end of said conical outlet that can be moved to change the natural resonant frequency of said reaction chamber.