Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3693304 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 26, 1972
Filing dateJul 29, 1970
Priority dateJul 29, 1970
Publication numberUS 3693304 A, US 3693304A, US-A-3693304, US3693304 A, US3693304A
InventorsShell William O
Original AssigneeShell William O
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building panel and wall
US 3693304 A
Abstract
A structural, or non-structural element forming a rigid module of various sizes and dimensions, which may be described as a panel, including a perimeter metal frame either continuous or discontinuous at certain points and a rigid filler material either homogeneous or non-homogeneous such as concrete with necessary stiffening and/or reinforcing elements for both frame and filler material and with or without sound or heat insulating material embedded within the module or panel, a plurality of the modules or panels being utilized to form the walls of a building, with or without additional structure, the frames of the modules or panels mutually abutting and constituting the exterior and/or interior structure, the closure and/or partition walls with such openings as may be necessary for windows of various types and/or doors as may be required.
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

v United States Patent Shell [451 Sept. 26, 1972 [54] BUILDING PANEL AND WALL William 0. Shell, 52 W. Downer Place, Aurora, lll. 60504 [22] Filed: July 29, 1970 [21] Appl. No.: 59,227

[72] Inventor:

[52] US. Cl ..52/204 [51] Int. Cl. ..E06b 1/04 [58] Field of Search ..52/204, 19, 64, 85, 97, 186,

Primary Examiner-Patrick D. Lawson Att0rney-Walter S. Pawl 5 7] ABSTRACT A structural, or non-structural element forming a rigid module of various sizes and dimensions, which may be described as a panel, including a perimeter metal frame either continuous or discontinuous at certain points and a rigid filler material either homogeneous or non-homogeneous such as concrete with necessary stiffening and/or reinforcing elements for both frame and filler material and with or without sound or heat insulating material embedded within the module or panel, a plurality of the modules or panels being util ized to form the walls of a building, with or without additional structure, the frames of the modules or panels mutually abutting and constituting the exterior and/or interior structure, the closure and/0r partition walls with such openings as may be necessary for windows of various types and/or doors as may be required.

12 Claims, 29 Drawing Figures mmmsm mz 3.693 304- SHEET 3 OF 5 Q F/G. Xl/

SECT/OIV M-M mcmsnsrrz m2 3.693.304

- n6. xx///, 4)

57 FIG. XXIV.

Fla xxw/ FIG. XXV

FIG. XXIX BUILDING PANEL AND WALL OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION 1. Is to provide a novel structural system for a building madeup of principally, and except for the roof, of a plurality of modules or panels fitted and secured together.

2. Another object is to provide a structure of the character just referred to, wherein the modules or panels are each complete and self-contained, and they together, to the exclusion of any additional items, constitute the structure of the walls of the building.

3. Another broad object of the invention is to provide a structure of the foregoing character in which the wall members are made up of a plurality of modules or panels and in which the modules or panels are at least to a great extent of uniform character or size, whereby to minimize expense and efforts in fabricating the modules or panels and putting them in place.

4. Still another object is to provide a structure of the foregoing character which can be of any size and shape within a wide range while still utilizing modules or panels of a single size and shape.

5. An additional object is to provide a novel module or panel that includes a steel frame and rigid filler material such as concrete for producing a structure of the foregoing character which is of simple basic design and which can be fabricated easily, quickly and inexpensively.

6. Another object is to provide a building module or panel of the character just referred to which is of selfcontained character, and further of a character including a basic structural member in the form of steel frame filled with a rigid material such as concrete, in the use of which it is unnecessary to utilize any external forms or bracing members.

7. A further object is to provide a module or panel for use in a building structure, which includes a perimeter steel structural frame and a rigid filler material such as concrete, in which a plurality of them are utilized in the structure and juxtaposed both horizontally and vertically, and wherein each module or panel is complete in itself, and further wherein the module or panel frames provide great column strength and in the use of vertically superposed modules or panels the frames themselves provide the necessary structural column strength in a wall.

8. An additional object is to provide a module or panel of the foregoing character for use in a building structure which includes a surrounding steel frame and a rigid filler material such as concrete, and a novel arrangement of reinforcing elements and insulating material in the panels or modules.

9. Still another object is to provide a module or panel for use in the building structure of novel character wherein it may, if necessary, be easily and readily completed on the site of the building in which it is to be used by first prefabricating the metal frame at a manufacturing plant, then on the site of the building pouring the concrete into the frame to form the final panel or module, whereby to minimize costs in transportation of the various elements to the site, enabling the provision of a relatively large number of metal frames that can be conveniently stored and then a selected number thereof transferred to the building site and there completed by placing the concrete therein.

10. A still further object is to provide a building structure module or panel which is complete in itself with respect to the perimeter margin thereof, eliminating any projections, excrescences, enabling the various modules or panels to be fitted closely together in a compact and continuous wall structure.

I 1. Another object is to provide a building structure module or panel which is complete in itself with respect to the perimeter margin thereof, without projections other than the shape of the frame thereof, which interlocks one panel or module with the next abutting to form a continuous compact structure without the addition of extraneous pieces or locking devices.

12. Another object is to provide a building structure module or panel adapted for putting in place in a building site, as by a lifting device, and incorporating a novel structure which includes a lifting device detachably mounted in place so that it can be readily put in place and removed therefrom without the necessity for extensive operation for removing it such as by welding it in place, and cutting it in the field by a torch.

13. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel adapted for putting in place at a building site without separately mounted devices for lifting, incorporating a novel structure whereby the frame elements provide necessary attachment points by reason of construction, configuration and method of assembly. Such points of attachment being suitable for transporting panels about a plant site as well as a building site and requiring no additional installation or removal operations as is contemplated in Object No. 12, nor requires the use of plugging elements to restore continuity of the exterior metal frame.

14. Still another object is to provide a building structure and novel modules or panels making up such structure in which the modules or panels are so constructed that they can be placed together in a variety of positions such as zig-zag, or other irregular patterns that are out of the customary and usual building patterns.

15. A still further object is to provide a building structure the modules or panels for making up the structure, in which the modules or panels are of such character that they can readily be pre-designed from the standpoint of shape and size and proportions that while a great number of the modules or panels may be of standard shape and size for convenience in forming, the structure, the structure may include other modules or panels, of different size and shape, such as smaller modules or panels, to facilitate incorporating the walls made up of the modules or panels, openings such as doors and windows while still maintaining an overall pattern of standard size modules or panels.

16. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel of the foregoing character which readily allows openings to be cast or cut into the body of the module or panel to facilitate location or predesignation of doors and/or window openings.

17. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel of the foregoing character which readily allows insertion before casting of metal or wood frames for doors and/or windows which are then permanently a part of the panel or module.

18. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel with the characteristic ability to have cast within the confines of the metal frame and surrounded by the rigid filler material various chases, conduits, raceways, pockets or boxes for the later insertion of electrical materials and providing inter-connections as required at perimeter frames to the extent that no field cutting, scarfing or work other than that insertion of material in prepared passages will be required.

19. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel with characteristics previously described-which may have cast into the inner face wood or other materials surrounded by the rigid filler material which will allow the application of a separate interior finish without the first installation of a nailable material over the interior face of the module or panel thereby reducing completion time and field labor costs.

20. A still further object is to provide a building structure module or panel of the foregoing character which readily adapts itself to modifications such as decorative effects which may be in the form of sculptured concrete, or other relief form of material, and this both as an original casting, or as an addition to a basic standard casting.

21. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel of the foregoing character which readily adapts itself to decorative modifications on either surface when applied with appropriate adhesives.

22. A still further object is to provide a building module or panel wherein the perimeter frame is in part made up of tubular shaped sections, allowing the insertion of reinforcing elements such as high strength steel rods for post-tensioning to increase the flexibility of use of the panels or modules in the construction of a building using a variety of floor systems, not apart of the present invention.

23. Yet another object is to provide a panel or module whereby when used for interior bearing partitions, a minimum amount of the perimeter metal frame is visible to increase the aesthetic acceptability of the panel or module when so used.

24. A still further object is to provide a panel or module wherein are cast vertical chases on the centerline of the panel or module through which as the building is raised, high strength steel rods are inserted and inter-connected for future post-tensioning to lock various panels or modules together vertically and also thereby providing stability to a building or structure made of panels or modules according to the present invention, and precast concrete floor slabs not a part of the present invention all without further connections such as bolts, grouting or welding.

25. A still further object is to provide a novel method of putting up a building.

26. Yet another object is to provide a novel method of making a module or panel for use in a building structure.

DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In the drawings:

FIG. I Shows module or panel with frame complete, partially filled with rigid filler material and showing reinforcing and/or stiffening elements in place with insulating material all resting on a supporting bed for casting.

FIG. II Is a transverse cross-section showing a filled panel or module with various elements in position relative to each other.

FIG. III Is a longitudinal section of a filled module or panel with various elements in proper position.

FIG. IV Is a transverse section of a module or panel incorporating the integral interlocking feature through configuration of perimeter metal frame elements.

FIG. V Is a longitudinal section of a module or panel as described for FIG. IV above or FIG. VI below.

FIG. VI Is a transverse section of a panel or module incorporating the vertical chases for insertion of posttensioning rods.

FIG. VII Is a perspective view, semi-diagrammatic in form showing in part a building made of modules or panels according to the present invention and initial steps in erecting the building.

FIG. VIII Shows one of many possible details wherein the frame of the panel or module is placed in correct juxtaposition to an element in the foundation portion of a structure.

FIG. IX Shows one of many methods of providing support to intermediate floors, which method is integral to the panel or module described by the present invention.

FIG. X Shows one of several methods of placing a typical roof construction on a wall made of panels or modules according to the present invention.

FIG. XI Is a small perspective view of a building constructed of panels or modules made according to present invention which shows various door and window openings as well as one overall arrangement of panels or modules necessary to erect said building.

FIG. XII Shows one type of right angle juncture of modules or panels made according to the present invention when exterior perimeter frame is composed of channel shaped members.

FIG. XIII Shows one type of right angle juncture of modules or panels made according to the present invention when exterior perimeter frame is composed of tubular and angular shapes in the longitudinal direction.

FIG. XIV Shows the aligned juxtaposition of the connections of two panels or modules according to the present invention when the exterior perimeter frame is composed of channel shaped elements.

FIG. XV Shows the aligned juxtaposition of the interlocking features of two panels or modules made according to the present invention when the longitudinal elements of the exterior perimeter frame are composed of tubular or angular shapes.

FIG. XVI Show an off-set juxtaposition at the lateral connection of two panels or modules made according to the present invention when the exterior perimeter frame is composed of channel shaped elements.

FIG. XVII Shows one method of many which may be used to provide a window frame for permanent glazing, which is an integral part of module or panel.

FIG. XVIII Shows one method of many whereby a wood subframe is cast into the body of the panel or module to allow later application of the many prefabricated windows, not a part of this invention.

FIG. XIX Shows one method of many which will allow a metal framed window, not a part of this invention, to be attached directly to the perimeter frame of the panel or module which is according to the present invention.

FIG. XX Shows one method of many which may be used to provide a sub-frame for later application of door frames where they are required.

FIG. XXI Shows one method of many which may be utilized to make a metal door frame an integral part of the panel or module covered by the present invention.

FIG. XXII Shows one angular arrangement of panels or modules to produce other than a straight plane surface for a building.

FIG. XXIII Is a cross-section of a panel or module representing the use of filler material projecting beyond the plane of the panel or module used for decorative effect.

FIG. XXIV Is a cross-section of a panel or module which was first finished plane on both faces and showing material added at a later time for decorative effect.

FIG. XXV Shows a partial wall of a building which could be made of panels or modules according to this invention wherein the modules would be smaller then contemplated for building shown in FIG. XI..

FIG. XXVI Graphically depicts lifting eye type device in position through perimeter metal frame of panel or module according to present invention.

FIG. XXVII Is a perspective type view of another lifting device mounted on face of perimeter metal frame.

FIG. XXVIII Is a section of FIG. XXVII.

FIG. XXIX Is a diagrammatic representation of the method which may be used to lift panels or modules which is inherent in those panels or modules made according to the present invention wherein the longitudinal elements of the perimeter frame are composed of tubular and/or angular shaped elements and the transverse elements are tee-shaped.

Referring in detail to the accompanying drawings:

Attention is directed first to FIG. I which shows a typical module or panel 1 with perimeter frame 2 of steel structural shapes of known kind, preferably a channel configuration for certain uses of module or panel cut to appropriate length and welded with mitered comers 3 to make a basically continuous frame which is also an integral form for the rigid filler material 4 which surrounds and imbeds certain reinforcing and/or stiffening elements 5 themselves of a semi-structural nature when required of known kind and configuration, placed nominally in position to reduce L/r ratio of longitudinal framing members until such time as rigid filler material has attained sufficient strength to provide requisite support, and to aid in maintaining parallel alignment of longitudinal frame members while filler material is in a fluid state; overall effect of reinforcing elements and rigid filler material when hardened is to reduce tendency toward buckling of structural elements composing perimeter frame; also shown in the optional core of closed cell foam type sound or heat insulation 6 which is also surrounded by the rigid filler material thereby being protected from damage due to punctures, etc., during manufacture and. storage, said rigid filler material also providing finished surfaces on both sides when hardened. The entire assembly 1 requiring no forms other than perimeter frame 2 and a flat level surface 7 on which to lay frame 2 while being filled with rigid filler material 4 and congruent insertion of optional insulation core 6.

Attention is now directed to FIG. II which is Section A-A cut transversely on FIG. I which shows channel shape perimeter frame 2 as required by certain methods of application for panel or module and positioning of reinforcing or stiffening elements 5 in their relationship to perimeter frame as well as overall relationship of optional foam core 6, all surrounded by and imbedded in rigid filler material 4 showing by its continuity in area of frame 2 the bracing effect rigid filler material will provide to longitudinal members of perimeter frame.

FIG. III is Section BB cut on FIG. I in longitudinal direction, this section emphasizes the continuity of perimeter frame 2 and rigid filler material 4 as well as further establishing the relationship of reinforcing or stiffening elements 5 while showing the standard finish line of rigid filler material 4 as plane with open sides or flanges of perimeter steel frame 2.

Attention is now directed to FIG. IV which is a transverse cross-section of a module or panel incorporating an integral panel to panel interlocking feature by nature of the construction of the perimeter frame, the longitudinal members being on one side an angle shape 8 of known kind placed in position as shown to constitute the female portion of the interlocking relationship into which the square tubular shape 9 comprising the opposite longitudinal frame member fits as shown by broken line at 10. The whole being reinforced or stiffened by elements 5 similar to that required and shown in FIGS. I, II, III and including the optional foam insulation core 6 all totally filled and surrounded by the rigid filler material 4. The tubular frame member 9 provides the vertical access for installation of post tensionable element, not a part of this invention, should it be desireable to do so in the overall structural design of a building or similar structure produced through use of panels or modules according to this disclosure.

Attention is now directed to FIG. V a foreshortened longitudinal section of the panel or module as described in FIG. IV wherein the top and bottom frame elements 11 are Tee sections placed so the stem of the Tee is on the center line of the panel or module and abuts the innermost portion of frame elements 8 and 9 in FIG. IV and is welded thereto to provide continuity at the corners and the flange of the Tee extends at least partially over the open end of longitudinal frame element 8 and 9 as will be more fully described in FIG. XXIX. This longitudinal section would also apply to a panel or module the transverse section of which is shown in FIG. VI.

In FIG. VI the longitudinal frame members 12 are shown as Tee shaped sections similar to element 11 in FIG. V. It should be realized that frame elements 11 and 12 may be something other than Tee shaped when used in a panel or module incorporating a vertical chase 13 in this instance a steel tube could be used and the frame elements 11 and 12 for this panel or module could consist of a pair of angles separated by and welded to the steel tube 13 or with other perimeter frame elements, the chase element 13 could be anything capable of providing a void space for later insertion of a post-tensionable element, not a part of this invention; it should be pointed out that in the event a steel section 12 be it a Tee or angles or some other appropriate shape is not desired to be seen for aesthetic reasons, reinforcing rods of known kind 14 may be employed in this special instance to provide columnar strength required for the function of the panel or module when it is in final position in a structure. It must be noted that in this event perimeter frame will be discontinuous, however, reinforcing rods 14 would be welded to top and bottom frame elements providing structural continuity in lieu of missing frame member. It will also be necessary to provide a temporary closure form for this end until rigid filler material 4 has hardened. This panel or module does contain rigid filler material as does all others previously described and may contain optional form core 6 embedded in rigid filler material. Reinforcing or stiffening elements shown as in other sections may in certain instances be required, however, they are omitted in this figure for clarity of presentation.

Attention is now directed to FIG. VII showing a plurality of panels 1 with panel 1a being placed in proper position, movement being indicated by Arrows 15: for further clarification, Section A-A, FIG. II and Section B-B, FIG. III are shown in FIG. VII also; the whole being set up or assembled on a prepared base slab or foundation 16 further depicted by Section CC which is shown as FIG. III to be later discussed and further representing some typical situations in the erection of a building, in this instance, one with a single intermediate floor, a method of providing required support being shown as Section DD depicted in detail in FIG. IX to be later discussed, wherein fioor joists 17 of standard commercially available types are supported by a channel shaped steel lined chase 18 in the inner face of a panel or module and also showing in Section EE, depicted in FIG. X, a method of placing a roofjoist 19 on the upper edge of panel or module 1, roof joists and other materials required to complete closure of roof being of known kinds, commercially available. As indicated in FIG. VII the subject panels or modules I having been placed in proper o reintation to each other and in relation to receive other materials capable of forming the entire exterior structure and closure wall of a building without need to provide extraneous structural frame work or weather resisting materials except as later described in subsequent figures to close purposeful openings or compensate for erection clearances.

Attention is now directed to FIGS. VIII, IX, and X representing sections cut in FIG. VII; taking them in order:

FIG. VIII (Section CC) shows a panel or module 1 resting upon a prepared foundation l6 "specifically aligned with edge of perimeter frame 2 is a matching steel structural shape 20 which has been cast into and anchored firmly within the foundation so as to become an integral part thereof; panel or module 1 being secured to foundation by suitable means, such as welding perimeter frame 2 to receiving part 20 in prepared foundation at location 21. Preparation of foundation may be accomplished by many means and these several ways are not necessarily a part of the invention herein disclosed. The joint 22 between floor slab 23 and panel or module 1 may be made of a variety of commercially available materials. Quick erection of wall panels or modules make possible more rapid pouring of floor slab 23 than may be realized by conventional methods in current use.

FIG. IX (Section D--D) attention is directed to the channel shaped continuous chase 18 cast integrally with the panel or module wherein ends of channel shaped chase are solidly welded to perimeter steel I frame and if appropriate to reinforcing or stiffening elements both of which have been omitted for clarity; said channel shaped steel lined chase providing necessary bearing area for commercially available steel joists 17 and requiste support for intermediate floor system represented in this figure by the steel form 24 and thin concrete deck 25, FIG. IX also shows relationship of channel shape 18 to rigid filler material 4 and optional foam insulation core 6.

It is recognized that other integrally cast elements may replace steel channel chase 18 as the appropriate support for one or more intermediate floor systems; and further, while not shown in detail, that specifically designed elements for attachment rather than integral casting may be used in some manner to provide necessary support. Further cognizance should be taken of the fact that other floor, systems, such as precast concrete and wood joisted, are susceptible .to support in the aforesaid manner either through integral cast-in place members or predesigned externally attached supporting systems.

Attention is now directed to FIG. X (Section EE) wherein one of several methods for placing a roof system on the panels or modules 1 is depicted; shown is a roof joist l9 resting on the upper perimeter frame 2 to which it 19 is attached by suitable means, such as welding, the balance of material, roof deck 26, insulation 27, roof covering 28, blocking 29 and parapet fascia 30 are but one combination of elements readily available which may be used to complete the roof and as such are not considered specifically a part of the present invention. It should be noted that use of the module or panel with perimeter frame 2 to which joist 19 may be welded eliminates the need for separate anchors or hearing plates or the construction of a combination bond beam and bearing surface as may be required by certain other methods of constructing a load bearing wall.

Attention is now directed to FIG. XI which depicts a partial perspective of a typical building to be erected of panels or modules 1 according to the present invention with sides of panels or modules specifically flat surfaces of channel web in perimeter frame 2 properly aligned and welded to provide columnar strength and weather closure of building wall. In this figure are shown many possible types of windows, such as integral cast frame with permanent glazing 31 (See Section FF, FIG. XVII); a plain opening 32 for future insertion of a variety of commercially available windows in several material, (See Section I-I--H, FIG. XVIII), a metal framed and sashed window 33 commonly known as a commercial projected type (See Section I-II'I, FIG. XIX), also included are two of the possible methods of preparing door openings at what ever level required, the first 34 representing a door frame installed by standard methods against a sub-frame cast in the body of the panel or module (See Section JJ, FIG. XXI), and the second 30 representing a door opening for which the metal frame has been. cast integrally with the body of the panel or module (See Section I(I(, FIG. XXI), also related to this perspective, FIG. XIV is Section L- L and FIG. XII is Section M-M.

It should be noted in regard to this section that no specific height or number of stores is indicated. This is due to the fact that panel or module height is limited basically by ability to handle in plant and at the site with additional limitations as regards shipment from plant to site. As noted in objects of the invention preceeding this discussion and as further noted in claims following, the panels or modules may be stacked for additional height or may be used in conjunction with other framing systems to provide taller structures wherein the structural load bearing properties are fully utilized as well as the stiffening effect they will have on a secondary system in resistance to lateral wind loading when so used.

Attention is invited to various figures referenced above, the first being FIG. XVII (Section F-F) which depicts a window frame 46 made of standard structural shapes of known kinds, said window frame being connected to perimeter steel frame through use of reinforcing and stiffening elements 5, totally contained within open body of perimeter frame and surrounded by rigid filler material 4, thereby becoming integrally cast into panel or module. It is recognized that glass 47 used and glazing method 48 may necessitate different configuration for window frame 46 without changing basic consideration of integral casting.

Attention is now directed to FIG. XII (Section M- M) wherein is detailed one method of joining at right angles the perimeter frame 2 of two panels or modules 1 disposed as to make a building corner, such disposition resulting in a partial engagement of the flange portion of one channel shaped-perimeter frame 2 with the web portion of the perimeter frame 2 of an opposing panel or module 1 in such a way as to provide welding surfaces properly aligned at point 36 to connect perimeter frames at the two panels or modules in such a way as to enhance the columnar strength of either element by its position in relations to the similar element in the opposing panel or module and each panel mutually providing bracing against wind forces due to right angle disposition.

The exterior line of joint so formed being made watertight through the use of standard backing materials and superior quality sealants applied at point 37. It should be realized that offset condition shown in FIG. XII will provide best structural results, however, it should not be construed as the only way two panels or modules 1 may be joined together at right angles to each other.

Attention is now directed to FIG. XIII wherein is shown the best method of joining at right angles two panels or modules of the type using angular or tubular members for the longitudinal elements of the perimeter frame. Panels or modules which form corner both have tubular frame section 9 abutting at the point of juncture, thereby providing aligned edges of tube sections for welding on the interior of the corner at point 38 the exterior line formed by external radius of tube sections provides an excellent condition for sealing at point 39 with superior quality materials commercially available for use on steel sections. Method shown in FIG. XIII is only logical way to join at right angles panels or modules whose perimeter frame longitudinal members are tubular. Such joining produces benefits in columnar strength and wind bracing as outlined in discussion of FIG. XII.

Attention is now directed to FIG. XIV (Section L L) which shows two panels or modules 1 in plane alignment such as would be used in a building wall structure; it shows alignment of edges of perimeter frames 2 for welding, to obtain additional columnar strength, at point 40 and the insertion of backing material and superior quality sealant on outside face of panels or modules at point 41.

FIG. XV depicts a section cut through a vertical joint in a wall composed of panels or modules wherein the longitudinal frame members are respectively an angular shape 8 and a tubular shape 9 which due to their engagement as shown in this figure, provide an interlock against relative movement in a direction perpendicular to the face of the panels or modules. Angle shape 8 and tubular shape 9 being longitudinal frame elements of separate panels or modules are welded together at point 42 in the valley formed by the manufactured configuration of the'two elements. This same valley shape on the exterior of the joint is filled with backing, if required, and closed with exterior grade sealant designed for application to exposed steel.

Attention is now directed to FIG. XVI which shows the offset juxtaposition of two panels or modules 1 which are essentially in the same plane and indicates welded connections of steel perimeter frames 2 at point 44 with insertion of backing material and superior quality sealant at point 45. Offset arrangement shown in FIG. XVI enhances columnar strength of respective steel perimeter frames while at the same time providing a reveal or relief to contribute to architectural expression and interest in the building being constructed with panels or modules according to the present invention.

Attention is invited to various figures referenced above, the first being FIG. XVII (Section F-F) which depicts a window frame 46 made of standard structural shapes of known kind, said window frame being connected to perimeter steel frame through use of reinforcing and stiffening elements 5, totally contained within open body of perimeter frame and surrounded by rigid filler material 4, thereby becoming integrally cast into panel or module. It is recognized that glass 47 used and glazing method 48 may necessitate different configuration for window frame 46 without changing basic consideration of integral casting.

FIG. XVIII (Section G-G) depicts use of wood subframe 49 to provide required opening 50, said wood sub-frame being interlocked with rigid filler material 4 through use of appropriate shear connectors 51 opening 50 being later filled with a window from another source. Precasting the wood buck 49 in the panel or module eliminates a secondary operation now required in many other wall systems.

It should be recognized that while the detail shown in this figure is referenced to a window opening, it would be possible to prepare door openings in the same fashion with similar advantages.

Attention is directed to FIG. XIX (Section I-II-I) wherein a commercial projected window 52 is shown mounted directly to the steel perimeter frame 2 by appropriate clips, screws, etc., all according to window manufacturers directions.

This is made possible by the structural stability and integrity of the steel perimeter frame which allows ommission of the entire body of rigid filler material in certain instances. Closure piece 53 is from commercially available stock and is compatible with window frame 52 and attached to steel perimeter frame by screws or other appropriate means.

FIG. XX (Section J-J) which depicts a standard steel door frame 54 attached by appropriate means, such as welding or bolting to a steel sub-frame 55 in this instance a T shaped structural member; said subframe being attached where distant from the perimeter steel frame through use of reinforcing and stiffening elements similar to (not shown) and totally surrounded by rigid filler material 4, except on purposfully exposed face. It should be pointed out that steel subframe herein described specifically for use with doors may also be used for certain window types.

Attention is now invited to FIG. XXI (Section KK) wherein a standard steel door frame 54 has been permanently cast into the body of a panel or module and secured therein two ways standard T shaped lugs 56 furnished loose by door frame manufacturer and in filling the hollow portion of the door frame with filler material in its fluent state 4; door frame if deemed ap propriate, may also be attached to perimeter steel frame 2 through the use of reinforcing and stiffening elements similar to 5 (not shown for clarity).

Attention is directed to FIG. XXII which graphically depicts one of many angular arrangements which may be achieved with panels or modules. Those marked 1 being of standard width and configuration, panel or module 1b being of standard configuration, but, of a lesser transverse dimension than standard panel or module 1; note should be taken that panel lb may in certain instances be identical to panel or module 1, panel or module is indicated as one in which body of rigid filler material was omitted for full width of panel or module to provide window opening, this being made possible by the inherent stability and structural worth of the frame alone when properly positioned in relation to other panels or modules. It is possiblewith certain window types for panel or module lc to be equal in transverse dimension to panel or module 1.

Attention is now directed to FIG. XXIII panel or module according to present invention is well adapted to decorative effect; this figure shows a perimeter steel frame 2 having been filled with rigid filler material 4 above upper plane surface 57 to provide a sculptured or textured effect 58. Precise patterns may be worked into or with the rigid filler material 4 at this point; which is one of the unique advantages of panels or modules made according to present invention, in that they are cast exposed face up as opposed to other panels or modules which are cast exposed face down, and require elaborate bed forms or considerable secondary re-work to achieve same effect.

In conjunction with this ability to take decorative treatment, attention is now invited to FIG. XXIV wherein a panel or module 1 was first completed plane with outside of steel perimeter frame 2 to line marked 57, after which time due to possible requirements a decorative material 59 would be applied, through use of appropriate adhesives, to one or both faces of panel or module.

I Attention is called to FIG. XXV wherein is depicted a condition in the framing of a wall that utilizes a series of panels or modules placed in vertical as well as horizontal juxtaposition to provide necessary structural stability through both horizontal and vertical welded connections. Panels or modules so used would be of a lesserlongitudinal dimension than, those contemplated and depicted in FIG. XI.

FIG. XXVI shows a lifting eye 60 in position to be used, having been attached normally to the transverse frame section 2 through the agency of a nut element 61 which has been welded to underside of frame section 2 over a hole provided in web of channel frame member, filler material 4 will be kept clear of threaded portion of nut element 61 by various means.

FIG. XXVII shows a diagrammatic view of a second detachable lifting device 62 in position on side frame 2 of panel or module, said lifting device 62 being connected to steel perimeter frame through agency of a steel bolt 63 of appropriate size passing through lifting device 62, flange of frame member 2 and engaging nut element 61 welded as described in FIG. XXVI.

FIG. XVIII is a sectional view, drawn for clarification, of lifting device shown in FIG. XXVII.

Devices shown in FIGS. XXVII and XXVIII offer additional advantages in that they may be used to temporarily bolt panels or modules together to facilitate final welding.

In FIG. XXIX the relationship of the tubular, longitudinal frame element 9 is shown to the upper transverse frame element 11 which as previously described is Tee shaped and welded solidly with tubular element 9 to form continuous perimeter frame, which condition produces a pocket 64 in which a hook lifting device may be inserted to lift panel or module either at plant or on job site without use of any additional equipment or accessories attached to panel or module frame. Referring back to FIG. IV, it may be seen that a similar relationship will be developed at the edge of frame which consists of angular shaped element 8.

What is claimed is:

1. A structural module or panel comprising a continuous perimeter rectangular metal frame,

rigid filler material therein, together forming a unitary and effectively integral and rigid member, reenforcing structural elements interconnected between elements of the frame on different sides thereof and embedded in the filler material, and metal mesh elements imbedded in the filler material and extending generally throughout the area of the module or panel.

2. A structural module or panel comprising a continuous perimeter rectangular metal frame,

rigid filler material therein, together forming a unitary and effectively integral and rigid member, reenforcing structural elements interconnected between elements of the frame on different sides thereof and embedded in the filler material, and

a layer of heat insulating material imbedded completely in the rigidv filler material and extending throughout a substantial portion of the area of the module or panel.

3. A structural module or panel comprising a continuous perimeter rectangular metal frame,

rigid filler material therein, together forming a unitary and effectively integral and rigid member, reenforcing structural elements interconnected between elements of the frame on different sides thereof and embedded in the filler material,

the frame being made up of a plurality of channel elements secured together at the corners,

the reinforcing structural elements being contained within the projections of the flanges of the channel elements and secured to the webs,

the rigid filler material being concrete and imbedding the reinforcing elements,

the module or panel also including a center layer of heat insulating material completely imbedded on both sides in the concrete and extending throughout a substantial portion of the area of the module or panel, and

the module or panel also including metal mesh elements on opposite sides of the heat insulating material, said mesh elements being also completely imbedded in the concrete and extending throughout a substantial portion of the area of the module or panel and secured to the reinforcing structural elements.

4. A structural module or panel comprising a continuous perimeter rectangular metal frame,

rigid filler material therein, together forming a unitary and effectively integral and rigid member,

reenforcing structural elements interconnected between elements of the frame on different sides thereof and embedded in the filler material,

said rigid filler material extending through one open side of the frame outwardly beyond the plane defining that side and forming a relief surface of the filler material.

5. A structural module or panel comprising a continuous perimeter rectangular metal frame,

rigid filler material therein, together forming a unitary and effectively integral and rigid member,

reenforcing structural elements interconnected between elements of the frame on different sides thereof and imbedded in the filler material,

said rectangular frame being made up of Tee-shaped transverse end elements and either a tubular or an interfittingly grooved longitudinal element forming each side of said frame and reinforcing structural elements secured to said perimeter frame,

said exterior perimeter frame having its transverse end elements and its side elements secured together at the corners,

the reinforcing or stiffening elements being contained within the exterior planes denoted by the edges of the frame elements and secured to the concealed portions thereof,

the rigid filler material being concrete imbedding the reinforcing or stiffening elements,

the module or panel also including a center layer of heat and/or sound insulating material completely imbedded on both sides in the rigid filler material and extending throughout a substantial portion of the area of the module or panel,

said module or panel also including metal mesh elements on opposite sides of said insulating material, also completely imbedded in the rigid filler material and extending throughout a substantial portion of the area of the module or panel and secured to the reinforcing or stiffening elements or the exterior perimeter frame.

6. A structural module or panel as defined in claim 2,

the filler material bein concrete and the layer of insulating material being 0 closed cellular type and being of sufficient strength to sustain the weight of the concrete when the module or panel is laid on its side and the concrete is in fluid condition.

7. A structural module or panel as defined in claim 4,

said filler material including a base portion lying within the planes of the opposite sides of the frame, and

a second portion secured to the base portion of one or both sides thereof and extending beyond the plane surface of the frame in decorative relief form.

8. A structural module or panel comprising a continuous perimeter metal frame having a rigid filler material therein forming a unitary and effectively integral and rigid member,

a lifting device detachably connected to one or more of the elements of the frame,

one or more of said frame elements including a flat outer surface having an aperture therein and a nut element secured to the inner surface of the frame element in register with the aperture,

the outer surface of the frame element being without projections extending therefrom, and

the lifting devices with threaded connection being projectible through the aperture for engaging the nut element.

9. A building wall structure comprising a plurality of panels as defined in claim 8, said building wall structure including a plurality of side walls together forming a continuous surrounding wall, and

the modules or panels making up the side walls,

progressing in horizontal direction and viewed vertically being disposed angularly.

10. A building wall structure comprising a plurality of self contained modules or panels connected together, each including a continuous perimeter metal frame and rigid filler material therein forming a rigid member the sides of adjoining individual frames being interfittingly groove and ridge edged longitudinal elements,

said adjoining panels or modules fitting and interlocking together by reason of the interfitting shape of their longitudinal joined edges, and the frames being thus connected together.

11. A building wall structure as defined in claim 10, and

a post-tensioning device inserted through the tubular portion of the exterior metal frame extending from foundation to top of wall.

12. A module or panel as defined in claim 11, wherein vertical chases in the form of tubular members connect and interpenetrate the upper and lower transverse members of the perimeter steel frame, whereby congruent installations of post-tensioning elements may be made therethrough to provide clamping action between panels or modules and precast floor slabs when used in building construction in conjunction with these panels or modules.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2969619 *Sep 15, 1958Jan 31, 1961John Didrick EdwardReinforced hollow concrete building panel
US3252258 *Apr 6, 1964May 24, 1966Blickman IncTemperature controlled environmental enclosure with modular panels
US3277620 *Apr 12, 1965Oct 11, 1966Martin Elmer WDemountable building
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5566520 *Dec 9, 1993Oct 22, 1996Branitzky; AbrahamIntegrated precast concrete forming system
US5966894 *Dec 2, 1997Oct 19, 1999Crump, Jr.; Preston L.Modular insulated framing beam assembly
US6438916 *Jul 12, 2000Aug 27, 2002Ueki House Kabushiki KaishaHousing panel, method for manufacturing housing panel and house using panel
US20120005971 *Jul 12, 2010Jan 12, 2012Richard PalmeriModular building system
DE4000956A1 *Jan 16, 1990Feb 21, 1991Kesting Klaus Lorenz Dr IngProdn. of large concrete slabs - involves stabilisation by metal sections which are prevented from buckling by concrete
DE19535473A1 *Sep 23, 1995Mar 27, 1997Selski Dr Ing JouriFloor, e.g. for public buildings
DE19535473C2 *Sep 23, 1995Oct 15, 1998Jouri Dr Ing SelskiGescho▀decke mit Schalennetztragwerk
WO2006056969A1 *Nov 24, 2005Jun 1, 2006Thermotech Res And Dev InternaPrefabricated concrete wall panel and method of manufacture
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/204.1, 52/211
International ClassificationE04B1/02, E04B1/08, E04C2/38
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/08, E04C2/384
European ClassificationE04C2/38C, E04B1/08