|Publication number||US3696577 A|
|Publication date||Oct 10, 1972|
|Filing date||Dec 23, 1969|
|Priority date||Dec 24, 1968|
|Also published as||DE1963493A1|
|Publication number||US 3696577 A, US 3696577A, US-A-3696577, US3696577 A, US3696577A|
|Inventors||Bernold Jean P, Pfeiffer Hans Walter|
|Original Assignee||Bernold Jean P, Pfeiffer Hans Walter, Otto G Beil|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (1), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Bernold et al. 51 Oct. 10, 1972  PREFABRICATED REINFORCED  References Cited CONCRETE PLATE SHAPED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT UNITED STATES PATENTS Inventors: J P. Bernold; Hans et a]. 2,001,315 5/1935 Proctor et al ..138/159 Pfelffer, both of c/o Otto G. Bell, Kreuzstr. Dusseldorf Germany Zmser 1 2,753,962 7/1956 McBerty ..52/586  Filed: Dec. 23, 1969 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS  Appl. No.: 887,470
900,329 9/1944 France ..52/674  Fm'eign Applicamm Priority Data Primary Examiner--Frank L. Abbott Dec. 24, 1968 Switzerland ..19278/68 Assistant Examiner-James Ridgill,
Attorney-Mandeville and Schweitzer  US. Cl ..52/583, 52/450, 287/ 189.36 D,
, 52/587 ABSTRACT  Int. Cl. ..F04l) 1/18, F0413 l/48 The plastic film Seals the reinforced concrete f  Field of Search ..52/450-454, 674,
tack by water and seals joints established by adjacent reinforced concrete construction elements.
5 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTEMcnomz SHEET 3 [If 3 PREFABRICATED REINFORCED CONCRETE PLATE SHAPED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a prefabricated reinforced concrete construction element of the type used in tunnel construction and in above ground construction projects. More specifically, the invention is concerned with reinforced concrete construction elements of the foregoing type incorporating a plate-shaped reinforcing panel similar to those disclosed in Bernold copending application Ser. No. 798,747, filed Feb. 12,1969, and having provision for easy interconnection between adjacent construction elements. The new element is substantially enveloped by insulating and sealing plastic film.
In the fabrication of tunnels and galleries, corrugated panels may be incorporated into the reinforced concrete construction elements to form a sheathing and to provide reinforcement. These panels, such as those disclosed in said application Ser. No. 798,747, are provided with corrugations arranged in rows and precurved sections, curved outwardly from one side of the panel and extending perpendicular to the rows of corrugations. As a result of this panel configuration, excellent static properties are produced and good adhesion characteristics with the concrete later poured are achieved. The relationship between the corrugations and precurved sections produces numerous apertures along the surface of the panel and through the panel. The apertures permit the Gunite applied to the inside of the construction element, for sealing and as a corrosion inhibitor, to firmly consolidate with the concrete layer between the panel and the rock of a tunnel shaft, for instance. The apertures along the surface of the panel provide a convenient means for interconnecting adjacent panels by overlapping their edge portions and inserting pins or bolts through the apertures.
It is a primary objective of the invention to provide a prefabricated reinforced concrete construction element which is suitable for tunnel and above ground construction, which can be installed rapidly and easily connected to adjacent construction elements. According to the invention, this objective is realized by providing a corrugated reinforcing panel having a plurality of parallel rows of corrugations protruding from one side of the panel and precurved sections which are intermittently spaced along the corrugated protrusions on one side of the panel and extend outwardly toward the other side of the panel. The reinforcing panel is imbedded in the reinforced concrete construction element in the proximity of a lateral surface with a least one row of corrugation not covered by concrete.
When utilized with curved construction elements, such as those used in tunnel construction, the reinforcing panel should be imbedded close to the interior concave surface of the curved construction elements.
The row of corrugations not covered by concrete that extends from the edge of the construction element may be used to connect the element to a sheathing or another reinforcing panel. In accordance with the invention, adjacent reinforcing panels may be joined together by utilizing a bracket consisting of a section of the panel having a width equal to two rows of corrugations. The bracket overlies the exposed end sections of each of the adjacent reinforcing panels and is fastened by bolts or pins inserted through the apertures formed between the corrugations and the precurved sections.
When a tunnel is built from prefabricated construction elements of this kind, the joints between adjacent construction elements should be sealed to prevent water from the bordering rock from entering the tunnel. In accordance with the invention, joint means for sealing and insulating the concrete from attack by water is provided by enveloping the sides of the construction element with a thermoplastic film.. It is expedient to provide barbed ribs on the inside surface of the film to provide a solid connection between the film and concrete.
During the drilling of tunnels in brittle rock, the operation is typically carried out with a shield moved ahead as the work progresses. The shield may include individual horizontal lances not yet secured to the completed part of the tunnel. Care must be taken that the rear end of the shield and/or the ends of the lances located behind it will not damage the insulating-film at the outer sides of the prefabricated construction elements during its forward movement. For that purpose, the invention provides ribs extending outwardly from the film having an approximately semi-circular cross section. These ribs are expediently extruded onto the film as it is produced.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference should be made to the following detailed description and to the accompanying drawing, in which:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGS. 1A and 1B are longitudinal sections through prefabricated construction elements in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view showing the joint between two adjacent construction elements;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view in the direction of line III- III of Fig. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to Fig. 1A, the numeral 1 identifies a prefabricated reinforced concrete construction element for use in the building of a tunnel. A corrugated panel 2, in accordance with the invention, is used for reinforcement and is imbedded in the construction ele ment close to the lateral surface 3, which forms the concavely curved internal side of the tunnel.
The reinforcement panel 2 is provided with parallel rows of corrugations 2a extending from a side of the panel and precurved sections 2b extending away from the corrugations and toward the surface 3 of the construction element. Apertures 2d formed between the elements 2a and 2 b are formed on the outer facing side of the panel between corrugations and extend intermittently along the corrugation rows longitudinally. The panels are rigidly connected to the construction element by the concrete mass 30 that penetrates the apertures and surrounds the corrugations and precurved sections. A stiffening corrugation 20, approximately V- shaped in cross section, is located between each two rows of corrugations 2a. Both the corrugations 2c and precurved sections 2b are oriented toward the lateral surface 3 of the construction element 1.
Referring to Fig. 1B, at the edges 4a and 4b of adjacent construction elements, the reinforcement panel 2 is free of concrete in the width of one row of corrugations and precurved sections 2 and/or 2". These exposed rows are used, as will be explained later, for the connection of the adjacent elements. During the production of the construction element, a sheet metal strip is fastened, or a tape of plastic material 15 is adhered to the inside of the protrusions 2, 2" so that concrete is prevented from penetrating and covering the outer row of corrugations.
In order to align the adjacent construction elements 2 with each other during prefabrication or assembly, a
recess 4c is formed on one element and a corresponding mating protrusion 4d is provided on the other element, as shown in Fig. 1B.
With the exception of the lateral surface 3, the construction element 2 is enveloped on all sides by a plastic film 8 and imbedded in the concrete during the production of the element. A firm anchorage of the film in the concrete mass 30 is supplied by the barbed protrusions 16 on the inside of the film. These protrusions are formed on the film during its manufacture. The part of the film surface covering the lateral surface 7 is identified by the number 8a. The side 4a and 4b of the construction element are covered by film surfaces 8a and 8b. These film surfaces are extended beyond the inside edges of the sides 4a and 4b, so that freely protruding film edges 8c and 8d result.
The top and bottom surfaces 9 (Figs. 2 and 3) of the element are covered with plastic film surfaces 9a analogously. Similarly, these films sections, protrude over the lateral surface 3 and terminate in a film edge 9b.
During installation, the construction elements are juxtaposed and superposed, and the film edges 8c, 8d and/or 9b are juxtaposed in pairs in the horizontal and vertical joints. By joining the film edges 80 and 8d corresponding to the elements adjacent each other, for example, l, 1' in Fig. l, a watertight seal of the vertical joint is produced between the sides 4a and 4b. Analogously, the film edges 9b are joined along the horizontal joints. In addition to its sealing'function, the film provides an insulation effect which is effective at the outer sides 7 of all construction elements.
Construction elements 1, l juxtaposed with their narrow sides 4a and 4b are connected after production of the joining seam between the film edges 8c and 8d with the aid of a bracket 10. The bracket 10 consists of a section of the reinforcement panel 2 and it has a width equivalent to the two rows of corrugations not covered by concrete. The bracket 10 is applied, in relation to Fig. 2, with its rearwardly oriented corrugations 2a to correspondingly rearwardly arched corrugations 2 of the exposed rows 2 and 2". As a result, the precurved sections 2b of the bracket 10 align with the corresponding precurved sections of the reinforcement panels in the rows free of concrete.
Bolts 12 are now inserted into the longitudinal apertures 2d passing through the corrugations, according to Figs. 2 and 3. Thus, the construction elements 1 and 1 are connected. In order that the bolts 12 can be inserted, some forwardly oriented precurved sections are eliminated in the rows 2 and 2" free from concrete, at 11. The point of connection can be filled with concrete so that a continuous plain lateral surface 3 results.
The construction element 1 is provided with an additional reinforcement of building steel fabric 6 in the concrete inthe proximity of. the lateral surface facing the rock. Bowlike connections 5 are provided between the structural steel fabric 6 and the reinforcement panel 2.
To avoid damage to the film 8 in tunnel construction during the advancing of the shield and/or the lances through surrounding soil or bedrock 14, semi-circular ribs 13 are located on the film covering the surface 7 of the construction elements, said ribs semi-circular in cross section being extruded onto the film during manufacture.
The construction element according to the invention can be produced for completion of a tunnel as an arched segment with any desired radius. When used in above ground construction, for example as a plane plate-shaped element, the ribs 13 are not required.
It should be understood, of course, that the embodiments of the invention herein illustrated and described are intended to be representative only, as certain changes may be made therein without departing from the clear teachings of the disclosure. Accordingly, reference should be made to the following appended claims in determining the full scope of the invention.
1. A reinforced concrete construction joint including a. two prefabricated construction elements, each of which comprises a mass of concrete of predetermined solid shape, having generally horizontal upper and lower and generally vertical side edge surfaces, said elements being abutted at an adjacent pair of side edges;
b. a longitudinal reinforcing panel imbedded in a generally horizontal plane in the concrete in the proximity of a lower horizontal surface of each of the prefabricated construction elements;
0. said panels having parallel rows of configurations and precurved sections cooperating to define lon- V gitudinal apertures, at least one of said rows in each of said elements being exposed at said abutted vertical side edges of said concrete masses and having its longitudinal apertures free of concrete in a manner whereby locking bars may be inserted through said apertures in a plane perpendicular to the plane of said abutted side edges;
d. a longitudinal bracket having the width of at least two rows of said reinforcing panels and having substantially the same cross-sectional configuration as that of said reinforcing panels, said bracket having apertures similar to the apertures of said panels;
e. said bracket being nested in the exposed portions of said panels with its apertures coextensive with the panel apertures, and said bracket bridging the interface between abutted side edges of the construction elements;
f. a pair of longitudinal locking bars inserted in said apertures thereby locking said bracket to each of said panels and effecting a union of said construction elements.
2. A reinforced concrete construction joint in accordance with claim 1, which further includes a. thermoplastic films covering all surfaces of each construction element except said lower surfaces adjacent said reinforcing panels;
b. said thermoplastic films being joined and forming a waterproof seal between said elements.
5. A reinforced concrete construction joint in accordance with claim 4, which further includes a. reinforcing steel fabrics imbedded in said concrete masses adjacent said upper surfaces; and b. connecting means communicating between said fabrics and said reinforcing panels.
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|US782810 *||Mar 7, 1902||Feb 14, 1905||John H Murphy||Building construction.|
|US2001315 *||Feb 13, 1932||May 14, 1935||Commercial Shearing||Conduit|
|US2075689 *||May 6, 1933||Mar 30, 1937||Woodall Industries Inc||Door panel assembly|
|US2753962 *||Sep 15, 1950||Jul 10, 1956||Mcberty Robert K||Metallic wall and roof joint|
|FR900329A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4951223 *||Nov 27, 1989||Aug 21, 1990||Langdon Wales R||Web material inspection system|
|U.S. Classification||52/583.1, 52/450|
|International Classification||E21D11/10, E04C2/06|
|Cooperative Classification||E21D11/107, E04C2/06|
|European Classification||E21D11/10D, E04C2/06|