US 3696707 A
Efficient cutting of deposit forming steels, such as described in French Pat. No. 1,387,441, with tungsten carbide cutting insert having a high tungsten carbide content over an extended period of time is difficult. Efficient cutting of such deposit forming steels over a wide speed range from about 50 to about 350 m/min is made possible by embodying in the cutting edge surface stratum of the cutting tool at least 15 percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, Nb and V, or at least 50 percent aluminumoxide in the tool surface stratum may be embodied either by diffusion, or by affixing such surface layer to a known tungsten carbide insert, or by sintering stratified compacts of powder particle mixtures cohering a thick powder mixture layer containing a large proportion of tungsten carbide is covered along one or on its opposite layer surfaces with a thin powder mixture strata, each of which contains at least 15 percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, Nb and V.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Schedler et al.
 CUTTING OF DEPOSIT FORMING STEEL AND CUTTING TOOLS FOR SUCH STEELS  inventors: Wolfgang Schedler; Johann Bodem,
both of Reutte, Austria  Assignee: Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Tirol,
Austria  Filed: Jan. 20, 1971 211 App]. No.: 108,007
Related US. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 748,890, June 13, 1968, Pat. No. 3,564,683.
 Foreign Application Priority Data [4 1 Oct. 10,1972
2,455,183 11/1948 Lobdell ..29/95 3,455,000 7/1969 Flaherty ..29/95 3,344,496 10/1967 Patkay ..29/95 Primary Examiner-Harrison L. Hinson Attorney0strolenk, Faber, Gerb & Soffen  ABSTRACT Efficient cutting of deposit forming steels, such as described in French Pat. No. 1,387,441, with tungsten carbide cutting insert having a high tungsten carbide content over an extended period of time is difiicult. Efficient cutting of such deposit forming steels over a wide speed range from about 50 to about 350 m/min is made possible by embodying in the cutting edge surface stratum of the cutting tool at least percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, Nb and V, or at least percent aluminumoxide in the tool surface stratum may be embodied either by diffusion, or by affixing such surface layer to a known tungsten carbide insert, or by sintering stratified compacts of powder particle mixtures cohering a thick powder mixture layer containing a large proportion of tungsten carbide is covered along one or on its opposite layer surfaces with a thin powder mixture strata, each of which contains at least 15 percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, Nb and V.
3 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures Sept. 9, 1970 Austria ..A 8184/  US. Cl. ..90/11 C, 82/1 A  Int. Cl. ..B23c l/00, B23b 3/00  Field of Search ..29/95; 82/1 A, 1; /11
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,973,425 9/1934 Comstock ..29/ X 2,414,231 l/l947 Kraus ..29/95 2,053,977 9/ 1936 Taylor ..29/95 k M I 6W777/VG, 57550 w/mz/z.
CUTTING F DEPOSIT FORMING STEEL AND CUTTING TOOLS FOR SUCH STEELS This is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 748,890, filed June 13, 1968 and now U.S. Pat. No. 3,564,683.
This invention relates to cutting steels which produce non-metallic deposits when being shaped by a cutting tool insert, for example, on a lathe or milling machine.
As is known, when certain types of steel, such as described in French Pat. No. 1,387,441, when being machined or shaped by a cutting tool, the steel discharges or excretes on the surface of the tool cutting edge non-metallic deposits which materially affect the efficiency of the cutting action. It has been proved that these non-metallic deposits are formed by non-metallic additions or inclusions which are produced within the steel by the deoxidation treatment. By certain known melting and deoxidation treatments, it is possible to produce steels which may be cut to shape over a wide range of speed.
Deoxidation additions for producing steels which excrete such non-metallic content comprise alloys containing 45-90silicon, 0.5-40 percent calcium, 0.5-8 percent manganese, up to 4 aluminum, with the balance, except for impurities, iron. When using such alloys in the steel melting there are formed glass-like inclusions having a relatively wide melting range. Then such steel is shaped by a cutting tool. Rising temperature softens these inclusions causing these inclusions to flow and deposit at the edge surface of the tool. As is known, the cutting tool inserts which are now widely used for shaping steel consist of sintered carbides of tungsten, molybdenum and chromium with a binder content of one or more metals of the iron group, namely cobalt, nickel and iron. (Throughout the specification and claims, all proportions are given by weight.)
The present invention is based on the discovery that the formations of such non-metallic inclusion deposits on steel-cutting tools is determined not only by the presence of non-metallic inclusions within-the steel body but also by the composition of the cutting tool or cutting tip insert. Extensive tests have confirmed that cutting-tools which have high heat-strength (or strength at high temperatures) and high erosion strength are instrumental in causing the steel to excrete the non-metallic deposits on the cutting tool edge over a wide range of cutting speeds. In accordance with the invention, cutting tools having such high-heat and erosion strengths are those which contain a considerably high proportion of the carbides, and or borides of one or more of themetals consisting of titanium, vanadium, tantalum, zirconium and niobium, or at least 50 percent of aluminum oxide.
In accordance with a feature of the invention, such non-metallic inclusion containing steels are cut to desired shape with known sintered carbide tool inserts which have embodied in their cutting edge surface a sintered carbide stratum containing high proportions of the carbides or borides of one or more of the metals consisting of titanium, vanadium, tantalum or niobium or at least 50 percent of aluminum oxide.
The foregoing and other features of the invention will best be understood from the following more detailed description of exemplifications thereof in connection with the annexed drawings, wherein FIG. 1 is a graph wherein the efficiency with which a cutting tool insert of the invention removes material from a steel body containing non-metallic occlusions is compared with the cutting efficiency of heretofore used cutting tool inserts on the same steel body;
FIG. 2 is a cross-section along line 2-2 of FIG. 2A, of one example of steel-cutting tool insert of the invention;
FIG. 2A is a top view of the same tool insert;
FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2 having on both its opposite extended surfaces a cutting surface stratum of the invention; and
FIG. 4 is a Table giving the composition and characteristics of different metal carbide cutting tool inserts referred to hereinafter.
The invention will be herein described in connection with examples wherein a known sintered metal carbide tool insert is provided along its cutting edge surface with a thin erosion and heat-resisting stratum containing a high proportion of one or more of carbides or borides of Ti, Zr, V, Ta or Nb or at least 50 percent of aluminum oxide.
FIG. 1 is a curve diagram wherein the cutting efficiency, as a function of cutting speed, of a cutting tool insert of the invention containing 25 percent titanium carbide in its cutting surface layer when cutting steel which excretes a non-metallic deposit in comparison with that of a prior art cutting tool insert containing 8 percent titanium carbide in its cutting edge surface layer. The cutting efficiency is indicated on the ordinate axis by the thickness in micrometers (am) of the non-metallic inclusion deposit excreted on the cutting edge surfaces for cutting velocities increasing to 350 meters per minute (m/min). Curve 15 gives the results for a tool insert of the invention containing 25 percent titanium carbide in its cutting surface layer and curve 16 gives corresponding results for a cutting tool insert containing 8 percent titanium carbide in its cutting surface layer. Curve 15 shows that with the cutting surface layer of the invention containing 25 percent TiC, high cutting efficiency is secured over a wide range of desirable cutting speeds between 50 and 350 mlmin. A cutting duration of 0.5 to 1.5 minutes was required for forming the thick non-metallic inclusion deposit on the cutting edge surface of such cutting tool insert of the invention.
In contrast, curve 16 shows the poor cutting efficiency of a similar cutting tool insert, containing only 8 percent titanium carbide in the cutting edge surface layer. As seen by curve 16 such cutting tool insert, containing only 8 percent TiC in the cutting-edge surface, could not be used for cutting speeds above I50 mlmin because such cutting insert would be worn out by erosion faster than the build up of the inclusion deposit on its cutting edge surface.
The cutting edge surface of such cutting tool insert of the invention containing a high proportion of the erosion and heat resistant carbides or borides of Ti, Zr, V, Ta and Nb or at least 50 percent M 0 exhibit brittleness when subjected to bending strains.
In accordance with the invention, known metal carbide cutting tool inserts have affixed to its cutting edge surface a thin erosion and heat-resistant stratum containing a very high proportion of at least 15 percent of one or more of the above specified carbides or borides of Zr, V, Ta, Nb and Ti. Also, such heat and erosion resisting cutting surface stratum can contain at least 50 percent aluminum oxide. Such erosion and heat resisting cutting edge surface stratum layer have a thickness between 0.01 to 1 mm (millimeters) and very effective results are obtained with such erosion and heat resisting cutting edge surface layer or stratum having thickness of 0.05 to 0.5 mm, and containing at least 15 percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, or niobium, or at least 50 percent aluminum oxide.
Cutting tool inserts having the high erosion and heat resistant cutting edge surface stratum containing at least 15 percent of the carbides or borides of Zr, V, Ta, Nb or Ti, or 50 percent aluminum oxide, although having only such small thickness have proven to operate over an unusually long life, even when cutting nonmetallic inclusion containing steels with high velocity.
Cutting tool inserts of the invention may be made by various procedures. As an example, the known metal carbide cutting tool inserts containing principally tungsten carbide may have secured to its cutting surface the thin coating consisting of the erosion and heat resistant composition of the invention. As another example, the exterior surface stratum of the cutting tool insert containing principally tungsten carbide with only 8 percent titanium carbide may be enriched with such additional metal carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, Nb. This may be done by packing the tool inserts in a mass of powder particles containing such erosion and heat resistant carbide composition ingredients and heating such powder mass to cause these pack composition ingredients to diffuse from the pack or the surrounding gas phase into the insert body. The so-obtained diffusion enriched thin tool surface stratum having a thickness of about 10-] microns is sufficient to protect the cutting edge tool surface against erosion as the non-metallic layer is deposited thereon from the steel by the cutting operation.
FIGS. 2, 2A and 3 show two known types metal carbide cutting inserts, each formed with an interior body consisting mainly of tungsten carbide and only a small proportion of titanium and tantalum carbide. However, the cutting edge surface or surface of each such tool insert is provided with a thin erosion and heat resisting layer or stratum containing at least l5 percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, V and Nb or at least 50 percent aluminum oxide which assure that such tool inserts are efficient in cutting steel containing non-metallic inclusion. This is due to the fact that when cutting such steels with such cutting tool inserts of the invention, such non-metallic steel occlusions deposit on such cutting edge surface a layer of these non-metallic occlusion which deposit reduces erosion of the cutting edge surface stratum of the cutting tool insert.
In the subsequent description of the invention, the metal carbide composition of the cutting tool inserts will be identified by the generally used designations, originally adopted by The Swedish Association of Metalworking Industries, for the different types of cutting tool inserts, which designations are used, for example, in an article Standard Machining Test which appeared in the January/February, 1968 issue of Cutting Tool Engineering (including pages 26, 27
thereof). In the Table in FIG. 4, the different known cutting tool inserts are designated in the first column by grade symbols P01 to PS0, M10 to M40 and K01 to K40. The successive columns of the Table give for each such tool designation its composition, density, Vickers hardness, bending strength, compression strength and elastic modules. This Table corresponds to that contained in the German publication by Dr. Ing. H. Beutel in Technische Mitteilungen, June 1959, pages 218-228, published by DEUTSCI-IE EDELSTAHL- WERKE A.G.
Referring to the example of FIGS. 2, 2A, a cutting tool insert 20 has a main cutting body 21 of the ISO carbide group P30 consisting essentially of 82 percent tungsten carbide, 8 percent titanium and tantalum carbide and 10 percent cobalt, and which main body 21 has bending strength of about 125 Kg/mm2 (kilogram per millimeter square), compression strength of about 500 Kg/mm2 and an elastic modulus of 56,000 Kg/mm2. However, its cutting edge surface layer or stratum 22 consists essentially of one of the ISO carbide groups P0l to P10 which has high erosion and heat resistance when cutting steel which contains nonmetallic occlusions.
The cutting edge surface layer 22 consists of approximately at most 77 percent tungsten carbide, 5 to 9 percent cobalt, and the balance of at least 18 percent of titanium and tantalum carbide which gives this cutting edge surface stratum the higher erosion and heat resistance and assures that when the cutting insert 20 is used to cut non-metallic occlusions containing steel, it causes the steel to deposit a layer of these occlusions on the cutting edge surface stratum 22 of the cutting insert 20, thereby reducing the erosion of the insert and securing more efficient cutting action as illustrated by curves 15 and 16 of FIG. 1. As seen in the Table, cutting tool inserts with the compositions of P01 and P10 have a materially lower bending and compression strength and a much lower elastic modulus than the P30 composition of the main insert body 21.
In an analogous way, the cutting tool insert of FIG. 3 has a similar main inner body 31 of the ISO group P30 and both its cutting edge surfaces consist of thin layers or strata 32, 33 made with ISO carbide groups POI to P10 which contain at most 77 percent tungsten carbide and at least 18 percent titanium and tantalum carbide.
Cutting tool inserts of the type described in connection with FIGS. 2, 2A and 3 may be produced by any known method used in making tungsten carbide tool inserts. As an example, a tool insert of the P30 type may be packed in a powder mixture of titanium containing ingredients so that upon heating sufficiently there is a diffusion of titanium into the surface stratum and formation thereon of 10 to micron thick which contains at least 15 percent titanium carbide. Such cutting tool insert will be very efficient in cutting steels which contain non-metallic inclusions because these occlusions will form a surface deposit on the titanium carbide enriched surface layer and reduce erosion thereof.
Cutting tool inserts having a thicker erosion and heat resisting layer or layers, such as shown in FIGS. 2 to 3 along its cutting edge surface, may be produced by known metallurgy processes. Into a known type of die cavity used to make known cutting tool inserts, such as shown in FIGS. 2, 2A, is first filled with the contents of P30 carbide composition of a thickness corresponding to main carbide body 21, over which is deposited a thin layer or stratum of the Pl.4 carbide composition. Thereafter, the composite powder filling is treated and sintered in the same way as in the production of the known P012 to P50 inserts of the Table in FIG. 4 to yield the cutting tool insert of FIGS. 2, 2A. In an analogous way the cutting tool insert of FIG. 3 is.
produced by first depositing in the die cavity a thin layer or stratum'of the'carbide composition P0l.2 followed by the thick layer of composition P30 followed by a thin layer of the P01 .2 composition, and thereafter treated in the same way to yield the cutting tool insert of FIG. 3.
Surprisingly, it has further been found that the high heat and erosion strength can be obtained when the coating has a thickness of 0.001 to 0.01 mm and contains at least 75 percent carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides and/or borides of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium and/or tantalum. Thus, it has unexpectedly been found that a coating having a thickness of less than 0.01 mm provides a marked increase in tool life provided that the coating, in accordance with the present invention, contains a large proportion of wear resistant hard materials. This embodiment of the invention permits the time required for coating and the amount of material needed to produce the coating to be greatly reduced. Furthermore, the risk of delamination of these thin coatings from the substrate is much less than with thicker coatings.
A simple method to produce the thin coatings in accordance with this embodiment of the invention is to deposit the corresponding carbides, nitrides and/or borides from the gas phase. In this manner, it is possible to produce coatings of the desired composition and thickness.
Below are given further examples of cutting tool inserts of the invention.
EXAMPLE 2 The cutting edge surface of a finishing cutting tool insert of composition P30 (of medium hardness and high toughness, consisting approximately of 5 percent TiC, 3 percent tantalumniobium carbide, percent cobalt, and with balance tungsten carbide) is given the final polish. This cutting tool insert was packed in a mixture of powder particles consisting of 90 percent titanium oxide TiO and 10 percent graphite, and the pack of the insert is heated for 1 hour at 130 C. This treatment yields a cutting tool insert having the original composition along the stratum of its polished edge surface enriched with titanium carbide and corresponding to the carbide composition P10 of FIG. 4, containing about 28 percent titanium carbide. Such cutting tool insert proved efficient in cutting non-metallic inclusion containing sheets of 75 Kg/mm strength with cutting surface with life-time up to 180 minutes.
EXAMPLE3 A finished cutting tool insert of the same composition P30 (as in Example 2) was heated in a vacuum to I,250 C. and thereafter subjected at such temperature to a gas mixture consisting of 40 volume percent TiCl, and 60 volume percent of CH, for 40 minutes. After this treatment, the polished surface cutting of the insert had 20 micron thick surface layer or stratum of titanium carbide which was firmly anchored to and constituted an integral part of the cutting insert. The subsequent test of cutting non-metallic inclusion containing steel at Kg/mm strength, proved this cutting tool insert efficient cutting steel as if its cutting edge surface layer consisted of the above identified titanium rich-composition. It cut such steel and formed a nonmetallic deposit on its cutting surfaces over a speed range of I60 to 250 m/min with life-time up to I minutes.
EXAMPLE 4 A cutting insert plate was produced with a die cavity by first depositing therein a thin powder mixture stratum of 1.5 mm thickness consisting of 20 percent titanium carbide, 20 percent tantalum carbide and the balance tungsten carbide. Over this thin first stratum was deposited a 7 mm thick layer of a powder mixture consisting of tungsten carbide and 8 percent cobalt. Over this thick powder mixture layer was deposited another similar 15 mm thin stratum of the same composition as the first 1.5 mm thin stratum. The powder particle size is between I to 5 microns. After compression, the composite powder mixture layer and strata was 1.6 to/cm (tons per centimeter square) the resulting compact had been subjected to sintering treatments such as at 1,430 C. for l'hour, such as applied to known cutting inserts of this type. The resulting cutting insert consisted of a thick main body (such as 31 in FIG. 3) of tough carbide composition K30 having along each of its opposite surfaces 0.6 mm thin cutting edge surfaces, layer or strata 32, 33 of a carbide composition P10. Inclusion containing steel was cut with such cutting edge surfaces while excreting a non-metallic deposit on the cutting edge surface with speeds of 160 to 200 m/min, a cutting cross-section of 2 mm X 0.3 mm and life-time of about minutes.
EXAMPLE 5 Within a graphite mold die cavity of a cutting insert was first deposited a 1.5 mm thin stratum of a powder mixture consisting of 47 percent titanium carbide, 47 percent titanium boride and 6 percent nickel. Over this thin powder layer was deposited a carbide powder mixture of composition P20 followed by a deposit of another 1.5 mm thin stratum of the same composition as the first stratum. The powder particles should be of 2 to 6 microns particle size. After hot pressing at about l,400 C. with about 150 Kg/cm for about 2 to 4 minutes pressure, there was obtained a cutting insert plate containing a main plate body consisting of the carbide composition P20 having along its opposite cutting edge surfaces about 0.5 mm thin strata containing about 94. percent titanium carbide and tantalum carbide. Inclusion containing steel was efficiently cut with these cutting-edge surfaces while excreting thereon an inclusion deposit with speeds of to 300 m/min. A life-time up to I50 minutes was reached.
EXAMPLE 6 To the insert seat surface of a conventional insert clamping cutting-insert tool holder was clamped cutting insert plate of composition P30, with a 0.7 mm
BEST AVAILABLE COPY thin plate of composition P (30 percent TiC, percent tantalumniobium carbide and 8 percent cobalt) held clamped to the polished surface of the P30 insert. lnclusion containing steel of 75 Kg/mm strength could be cut with such composite cutting insert as the inclusion deposit was formed on the cutting surface with speeds of 160-300 m/min and life-time of 180 minutes could be reached.
It should be noted that the erosion and head resistant cutting edge surface layer containing at least 15 percent of the carbides or borides of Ti, Ta, Zr, Nb and V may contain as balance one or more of the carbides of tungsten or molybdenum or chromium and the main body of such inserts may be formed of such carbides.
EXAMPLE 7 Throwaway inserts of the machining group P01.2 are packed into a graphite crucible with gas inlet and outlet pipe with undercarburized TiC (16 percent C) having a particle size of about 1 mm and heated to approximately 1,l00 C. in a suitable furnace with argon atmosphere. As soon as this temperature is reached, carbon tetrachloride is added to the argon for about an hour and the crucible is then cooled in a slight flow of pure argon. The P012 inserts thus treated have a uniform fmegrained surface coating of TiC with a thickness of about 0.005 mm.
The service life of such an insert in machining of a steel which forms a deposit on the tool, is approximately 8 times that of an insert without such a coating.
EXAMPLE 8 Cemented carbide inserts coated with TiN have also proved very efficient for the machining of steels which form coatings on the tool. These coatings can be produced by heating in an atmosphere of TiCll-l and N2 01' Throwaway inserts of the machining group P30 are placed on a grate in a heated A1 0 or Si0 tube equipped with gas inlet and outlet and heated to approximately 1,100 C. in an 11 atmosphere. As soon as this temperature is reached, TiCl, plus excess nitrogen is added to the atmosphere and after half an hour, the inserts are cooled in a weak current of H The inserts are then coated with a very smooth layer of TiN with a thickness of 0.008 mm. The service life in machining of steels which form coatings on the tool is 10 times longer than that of uncoated inserts.
Various changes and modifications can be made in the process and products of the invention without departing from the spirit and the scope thereof. The various embodiments disclosed herein serve to further illustrate the invention but are not intended to limit it.
In a process of shaping deposit forming steel structures with a metal carbide cutting tool insert consisting of a relatively thick body containing a large proportion of carbides of tungsten or of tungsten and molybdenum or of tungsten and chromium, or of tungsten, molybdenum and chromium, the improvement which comprises employing in the cutting edge surface of said insert body an erosion and heat-resistant surface stratum 0.001 to l millimeter thick thereby causing the cut steel structure to excrete on the cutting surface edge surfaces of said cutting insert a deposit of non-metallic inclusions and securing efficient cutting action, provided that when said stratum is 0.001 to 0.01 millimeter thick, said stratum contains at least percent of the carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides or borides of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum, and further provided that when said stratum is 0.01 to 1 millimeter thick, said stratum contains at least 15 percent of one or more of the carbides or borides of titanium, zirconium, tantalum, niobium and vanadium.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein said stratum is 0.001 to 0.01 millimeter thick.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein said stratum is 0.01 to 1 millimeter thick.