US 3698285 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States atent Wilhelm 1 Oct. 17, 1972 154] TOGGLE ACTION FIREARM  Inventor: Gary Wilhelm, l'lamden, Conn.
 Assignee: Stoeger Arms Corporation, South Hackensack, NJ.
 U.S. Cl ..89/l89  Int. Cl ..F4ld 3/02  Field of Search ..89/175, 189
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,801,070 4/1931 Browning ..89/1 75 Primary Examiner-Stephen C. Bentley Attorney-Chester Mueller  ABSTRACT Shown in a toggle action recoil operated semiautomatic pistol is a toggle consisting of two inverted channel shaped arms that straddle the bolt with the outer end of one arm pivotally secured to the frame of the pistol and the outer end of the other arm pivotally secured to the bolt. The arms are joined by a link pin fixed within the channel of the rear arm and slidable in a slot in the sides of the front arm. The rear upper shoulder of the bolt is bevelled. After the bolt recoils a short distance defined by the slot and the link pin, the bevel strikes the link pin and cams it upward to fold the toggle arms. A recoil spring restores the bolt and toggle to their original positions.
3 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures TOGGLE ACTION FIREARM This is a division of application Ser. No. 766,380, filed Oct. 7, 1968, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,614,908.
The object of this invention is to provide means for initiating the folding of the toggle arms of a breech closing action when the bolt of a recoil operated semiautomatic pistol begins its recoil. Another object is to have such means both simple and economical to include in the manufacture of a breech closing toggle action. Other objects will appear form the description which follows.
One embodiment of this invention is shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a left side elevational view of a toggle action recoil operated self loading pistol with breech closed, the grip panel being shown in part;
FIG. 2 is a left side elevational view of the unitary action assembly removed from the pistol of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view of the pistol of FIG. 1, less magazine, with breech open and a portion at the rear cut away;
FIG. 4 is a right side elevational view of the unitary action assembly removed from the pistol of FIG. 3 with a portion of the rear cut away;
FIG. 5 is a top view of the bolt and bolt block, cut away in part, mounted on boltways;
FIG. 6 is a section taken on line 66 of FIG. 5;
F IG. 7 is a top view of only the toggle linkage, partly cut away;
FIG. 8 is a section taken on line 88 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a side elevational view, partly in section, of the toggle linkage assembled to the bolt with the bolt in closed position;
FIG. 10 is the illustration of FIG. 9 with the toggle arms beginning to fold;
FIG. 11 is the view of FIG. 3 partially sectionalized, less the toggle linkage and plunger connection between the bolt block and the frame;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged sectional detail of the safety lever shaft shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is a left side elevational view of the interrelation between the trigger, sear bar, sear, hammer, safety shoe and the safety lever shaft;
FIG. 14 is a bottom view of FIG. 13 with the addition of a portion of the boltways within which the hammer and sear are shown pivotally mounted;
FIG. 15 is a rear end view of the sear;
FIG. 16 is a bottom view of the sear;
FIG. 17 is a section taken on line 17-17 ofFIG. 16;
FIG. 18 is a left side elevational view of the safety shoe;
FIG. 19 is a fragmentary perspective view of the sear connecting end of the sear bar.
Referring to the figures in which the same reference numeral identifies the same or a similar part, the outward appearance of the assembled pistol is best shown in FIGS. 1 and 3.
Barrel 1 is fixed to frame 2, the grip 3 of which is covered by grip panels 4, removably secured thereto by screws 5. Cartridge magazine 6 seats within magazine chamber 7 of frame 2 in grip 3. Magazine catch 8 which is the subject of my co-pending application for a patent for a Pistol Magazine Catch, filed June 25, 1968 is secured in the left wall of grip 3. Trigger 9 and safety lever 10 are conventional in outward appearance. On top of the pistol are front toggle arm 11 and rear toggle arm 12 linked together by toggle link pin 13 capped at each end by finger grips. Outwardly exposed is bolt block 14 upon which a fixed rear sight is mounted.
A cavity extends from the butt of the firearm upward through grip 3 opening out at the top of frame 2 between the breech and upstanding abutment 52 at the rear of the frame. It is within this cavity that the unitary action assembly shown in FIGS. 2 and 4 is removably secured.
The action assembly is supported on a pair of parallel, spaced longitudinal members herein termed boltways 23, joined at their front ends to form a rigid elongated U shaped chassis the front end of which rest against the matching internal surface of frame 2. Limitedly pivotal on transverse guide pin 56 therein and depending therefrom is rearwardly channel shaped rear magazine guide 25 which, when the assembly is seated in frame 2, completes the definition of magazine chamber 7. Projecting from and integral with the upper end of guide 25 is ejector 41 (FIG. 4). Spring biased hammer strut 26 is borne at its lower end in rear magazine guide 25 and at its upper end is pivotally attached to hammer 27 by strut pin 39.
Hammer 27 mounted between the side walls of rear magazine guide 25 is pivoted on hammer pin 38 which is supported by and between boltways 23. Hammer pin 38 passes through enlarged holes in the embracing side walls of the channel shaped rear magazine guide 25 before becoming journalled in boltsways 23. These enlarged holes permit, and limit, the pivoting of guide 25 on its guide pin 56.
Coaxially and pivotally mounted on sear pin 35 are sear 29 and safety shoe 34. Sear pin 35 is supported by and between boltways 23, parallel to hammer pin 38 (FIG. 14).
Bolt 15 is slidably mounted on boltways 23 as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. Bolt block 14 is pivotal on pin 49, between boltways 23 closing the open end of the U shaped chassis formed by boltways 23. Recoil spring 19 seated in well 20 in bolt 15 and in an opposing well in bolt block 14 yieldably urges the bolt against the breech of the pistol. In addition to recoil spring 19, bolt 15 houses firing pin 21, in hole 22, and extractor 24. Bevel 16 is formed on the rear upper shoulder of bolt 15 across its full width.
Bolt block 14 houses, in a recess in its rear surface coaxially with the bore of the barrel, spring loaded plunger 48.
Shown also in FIG. 5 are toggle pins 17 and 18 to which the toggle arms, not shown in this figure, are attached.
Bolt stop 42 is mounted on the outside of right boltway 23 under spring action (FIG. 4). Its function is to hold bolt 15 in open position when the bolt is opened without a cartridge being present in magazine 6 ready for insertion into the chamber. Embracing bolt 15 and bolt block 14 are inverted channel shaped toggle arms 11 and 12. Front toggle arm 11 pivots on toggle pin 17, rear toggle arm pivots on toggle pin 18 with a portion of its forward end overlapping part of the front toggle arm when the arms are extended. Toggle link pin 13 joins the arms. Pins 17 and 18 pass through the walls of the arms as shown in FIG. 7 and 8. Pin 13 is fixed to rear toggle arm 12 but is slidable in slots 43 of front toggle arm 1 l.
Astride the bottom edge of left boltway 23 is the turned-in rear end of sear bar 28 (FIG. 19), connected to sear 29 and held to the assembly as hereinafter described. a
The foregoing described assembly is removably secured in frame 2 by frame link pin 44 passing through holes 45 in the side walls of rear magazine guide and in corresponding holes in both side walls of grip 3, and by plunger 48 projecting into a hole in abutment 52 of frame 2. Grip panels 4, when mounted in place, enclose frame link pin 44 and prevent its dislodgement. The assembly is operably connected to trigger 9 by sear bar 28 the front end of which encircles stud 47 projecting laterally from trigger 9. Set screw 46 threaded through frame 2 opposite stud 47, prevents disengagement of the sear bar from the trigger.
To remove the assembly from the pistol, grip panels 4 and set screw 46 are removed from frame 2. Exposed frame link pin 44 is then pushed out of the frame and plunger 48 pressed inward to clear abutment 52 thus permitting the assembly to be lifted out of frame 2. By reversing these steps the assembly may be re-installed in the frame.
When the assembly is out of frame 2, bolt block 14 pivots limitedly upward on its pin 49 under the urging of recoil spring 19 (FIG. 4). Rear magazine guide 25 is also slightly pivoted under urging of the spring of hammer strut 26. The flexibility of these two members although not necessary to this invention facilitates the disassembly and assembly of the action to frame 2.
With the assembly out of the frame the hole in abutment 52 being coaxial with the bore of barrel 1 enables cleaning of the bore to be readily accomplished from the breech end of the barrel. Additionally the exposed action assembly is accessible for inspection, cleaning and lubrication.
Turning to the sear and safety, FIGS. 11 et seq. disclose the details of construction and connection.
Sear 29, pivotable on sear pin that passes through holes in the side walls of its channel shaped body has one of such walls extended and turned inward at right angles to provide a sear engaging finger 30 projecting therefrom parallel to sear pin 35. Finger 30 is adapted to seat in notch 55 behind finger 31 of sear bar 28 so that pressure against finger 30 will pivot sear 29 about sear pin 35 (FIG. 13). Sear 29 is located to be engagable in the midsection of its leading edge 32 with the notch in hammer 27.
Mounted pivotally on the sear pin 35 between the side walls of the body of sear 29 is safety shoe 34. It is held in vertical alignment with hammer 27 by the seating of its nose S3 in loose fit engagement within slot 30 of sear 29.
Sear bar 28 is directly connected to sear 29 although the sear lies between boltways 23 and the length of the sear bar lies outside as shown and described herein. Sear bar 28 at its rear end is U shaped at right angles to its length and this portion straddles the bottom edge of left boltway 23, the outer upturned wall 54 standing between boltways 23 and parallel thereto. Extending outward from upturned wall 54 and parallel to sear pin 35 is stud 36. Mounted on sear pin 35 is double torsion spring 37 one end of which bears against sear 29 yieldably urging it in contact with hammer 27, the other end bearing on stud 36 to bring trigger 9 into an operable position by yieldably urging sear bar 28 rearward and thus the lower end of trigger 9 forward. Spring 37 serves to retain sear bar 28 in the assembly when the assembly is out of frame 2.
Co-planar with upturned wall 54 of sear bar 28 is projecting finger 31. Lying behind finger 31, in notch 55 of upturned wall 54, is sear finger 30. When pressure on trigger 9 moves sear bar 28 forward, the sear bar acting on finger 30 causes sear 29 to pivot downward out of engagement with the notch in hammer 27 (FIGS. 13 and 14). The rigidity and stability of a channel shaped sear pivoted on a pin passing through the side walls of the channel with the sear bar acting upon it between the channel walls is readily apparent.
Safety lever 10 has shaft 50 extending transversely through a pair of holes in the frame in position to selectively act with its round or flat peripheral surface upon the rear edge of safety shoe 34 in response to rotation of the safety lever. As seen in FIGS. 11 and 12 when the pistol is cocked and the safety lever 10 rotated to bring the rounded portion of shaft 50 to bear on safety shoe 34 it will hold the safety shoe against the lower edge of scar 29 thus locking the sear in the hammer notch. When a flat surface of shaft 50 is rotated opposite safety shoe 34 the safety shoe will no longer restrain sear 29. The safety shoe will then be free to move backward when the sear pivots but its nose 53 in slot 33 will continue to hold the safety shoe in vertical alignment with hammer 27. To releasably hold shaft 50 in either fire(P) or safe (S) position a conventional spring loaded ball 51 in cooperation with detents on shaft 50 is employed. With this principle a safety lever for left hand shooters may be appropriately shaped and inserted from the right side of the pistol in the same pair of holes in frame 2.
The operation of the pistol, after inserting a loaded magazine into the grip begins with placing a cartridge from the magazine into the chamber of the barrel. This is done in the manner common to toggle action firearms by raising the toggle arms, by the finger grips, rearward and upward to a folded position as in FIG. 3 and then releasing the finger grips. The top cartridge in the magazine will be fully seated upon return of the bolt to the closed position shown in FIGS. 2 and 9. With the safety on F, by squeezing trigger 9 the cartridge is fired and bolt 15 begins its recoil drom the breech. Before it starts back, toggle link pin 13 lies in the rear of slots 43 in front toggle arm 11 as shown in FIG. 9. As bolt 15 moves backward it carries front toggle arm 11 with it the length of slots 43 until bevel 16 strikes toggle link pin 13 camming it upward together with both toggle arms (FIG. 10). The arms continue to fold upward, the front toggle arm 11 being simultaneously carried rearward while rear toggle arm 12 being pivoted in stationary bolt block 14 merely pivots upward. At the end of recoil the parts are restored by the counter action of recoil spring 19.
Many changes and modifications may be made in the construction of the firearm described within the scope of this invention. It is also apparent that the invention shown and described may be applied to carbines, rifles and other semiautomatic firearms and by showing only one application herein it is not thereby intended to limit the scope thereof.
What I claim is:
1. In a toggle action recoil operated firearm wherein a breech closing bolt is slidably mounted and connected by a toggle linkage of two arms to a fixed member of the firearm whereby by the discharge of the firearm the bolt is moved from its breech closing to a breech opening position and the toggle linkage is urged from an extended to a folded position, means for initiating the folding of the linkage comprising a bolt having a rearwardly and downwardly inclined rear surface,
a pin connecting the arms of the toggle linkage, fixed transverse to the rear arm, journalled in slots in the front arm, and in slidable relation to the inclined surface of the bolt.
2. In a toggle action recoil operated firearm wherein a breech closing bolt is slidably mounted and connected by a toggle linkage of two arms to a fixed member of the firearm whereby by the discharge of the firearm the bolt is moved from its breech closing to a breech opening position and toggle linkage is urged from an extended to a folded position, means for initiating the folding of the linkage comprising a bolt having a rearwardly and downwardly inclined rear surface,
a pin connecting the arms of the toggle linkage, fixed transverse to the rear arm, journalled in slots in the front arm, and in slidable contact relation to the inclined surface of the bolt.
3. In a toggle action recoil operated firearm wherein a breech closing bolt is slidably mounted and connected by a toggle linkage of two arms to a fixed member of the firearm whereby by the discharge of the firearm the bolt is moved from its breech closing to a breech opening position and toggle linkage is urged from an extended to a folded position, means for initiating the folding of the linkage comprising a bolt having a rearwardly and downwardly inclined rear surface,
a pin connecting the arms of the toggle linkage, fixed transverse to the rear arm, journalled in slots in the front arm, and adapted to ride upward on the inclined surface of the bolt.