US 3699731 A
A modular building structure adapted to be prefabricated and transported to an erection site, and having an inclined roof consisting of a lower fixed section and an upper section pivoted to the fixed section to swing between an operative erected position and a lowered inclined transport position. The roof is completely covered with composition roofing overlying a flexible waterproof sheet spanning the joint between sections. A waterproof sheet anchored to the upper part of the first roof section overlies the second roof section when in lowered transport position.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Arnold 51 Oct. 24, 1972  MODULAR BUILDING STRUCTURE  Inventor: Thomas R. Arnold, Indiana Building, Elkhart, Ind. 46514  Filed: Sept. 3, 1970  Appl. No.: 69,221
. US. Cl. ..52/64, 52/79, 52/641, 52/92, 52/71  Int. Cl. ..E04h 1/00  Field of Search ..52/64, 66, 69, 70, 74, 641
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,638,373 2/1972 Chapman ..52/79 2,762,084 9/ l 956 Singer ..52/ 79 2,115,615 4/1938 Branner ..52/79 3,404,496 10/1968 Ballard ..52/64 3,070,850 1/1963 McClure ..52/69 2,147,892 2/1939 Gray ..52/69 I 3,040,479 6/ 1962 Ayotte ..52/66 3,485,346 12/1969 Ballard ..52/66 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,086,986 2/1955 France ..52/18 Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant Examiner-Henry E. Raduazo Attorney-Oltsch and Knoblock  ABSTRACT A modular building structure adapted to be prefabricated and transported to an erection site, and having an inclined roof consisting of a lower fixed section and an upper section pivoted to the fixed section to swing between an operative erected position and a lowered inclined transport position. The roof is completely covered with composition roofing overlying a flexible waterproof sheet spanning the joint between sections. A waterproof sheet anchored to the upper part of the first roof section overlies the second roof section when in lowered transport position.
2 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PATENTEDBBI 2 19 2 3,699,713 1 SHEET 1 [IF 2 INVENTOR. 7'/-/ 0/14/45 R. ARNOLD W .YW
ATTORNEYS PATENTEIJ um 24 m2 SHEET 2 [IF 2 wwm NS IN'VENTOR. THOMAS A. ARNOLD WYW ATTORNEYS MODULAR BUILDING STRUCTURE This invention relates to improvements in modular building structures which are prefabricated at a factory and are transported to a site of erection at which they are interconnected to provide a complete building.
The building sections or modules are transported from the factory to the erection site by means of trailers or other carriers usually traveling upon roads or highways. The transport of the building modules by trailers imposes certain limitations upon the sizes of the modules as governed by state laws and highway regulations. In most instances, such laws and regulations limit the size of the module and the trailer on which it is transported to dimensions in the order of 12 feet wide, 60 feet long, and 13 A feet high. The regulations as to length and width present some problems, but height limitation presents a greater problem because trailer bed height will usually be in the order of 30 to 32 inches, which must be deducted from the allowable 13 k feet overall height in determining the permissible height of the module as transported. Height limitations 'thus impose a substantial limitation on the pitch of the roof of prefabricated transportable building modules.
Building roofs, particularly for residential purposes, usually have a minimum pitch of 3 inches in height per 12 inches in width. Architects and building designers prefer roof pitches of steeper proportions, such as 4 inches in elevation per 12 inches in width or inches in elevation per 12 inches in width. It is not possible to completely prefabricate and assemble in final forma module having desirable roof pitches which can be transported on a trailer and remain within the usual limits as to height now commonly required.
Various efforts have been made in the past to meet the problem of providing a building module which can be transported and which requires minimal fabrication at the site of erection. One approach has entailed pivotal mounting of a roof section at the center thereof so that it may be swung to a horizontal position for transport. Such a construction increases the overall width of the module at the roof when in horizontal position and entails substantial fabrication at the erection site and substantial accessories to support the roof in transport position. Another approach has entailed pivotal mounting of a roof section adjacent to the outer wall of the module, but this has been subject to the same type of problem and limitations as the central pivoting of the roof. Another approach has entailed the formation of the roof of each module in two sections, one of which is fixed and the other of which is pivoted. Such constructions have heretofore had the limitation that the pivoted roof section could not be completely fabricated at the factory or, if fabricated at the factory, was subject to leakage in the event of rain or snow during transport.
It is the primary object of this invention to provide a modular building construction which overcomes the disadvantages of prior constructions and provides a construction having a desired and attractive roof pitch and which can be assembled to form a complete building at the point of erection with minimum effort, labor and fabrication.
A further object is to provide a modular building construction in which the roof is formed of a fixed section and a movable section which is pivotally connected to facilitate positioning in low profile during transport and which can be elevated to desired pitch and profile with minimum effort and fabrication at the point of erection.
A further object is to provide a modular building construction in which each module has a fixed roof part and a movable roof part pivoted to the fixed part and lowered for transport, wherein both roof sections have finished roofing applied thereto, including multiple lapped courses of shingles, and in which means are provided to prevent leakage of the movable section of the roof while in lowered transport position.
Other objects will be apparent from the following specifications.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a building constructed of modules, with parts broken away to illustrate the roof supporting structure.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged vertical transverse sectional view taken on line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of the roof of one module in its erected position.
FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view of the roof of one module in its lowered or retracted position.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged detail sectional view of the roof sections in collapsed or lowered position.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on line 66 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a modified embodiment of the invention.
. My new modular building construction comprises a module or section of a building constructed at a factory with a complete portion of the roof formed of a fixed lower section and an upper section which is pivoted to be lowered to reduce the overall height of the module for transport. The building may be completely prefabricated except for sectional panels at its opposite ends below the pivotal roof sections so that minimum fabrication is required at the point of erection. The roof may be covered with conventional composition shingles and is provided with a detachable sealing sheet covering the pivoted section thereof while lowered for transport. A continuous sealed roof structure is provided when the pivoted roof sections of assembled modules are erected.
Referring to the drawings, the numeral 10 designates a building constructed of two complementary modules 12 which are mounted side by side in abutting relation upon a suitable foundation (not shown). Each module includes an outer side wall 14, outer end walls 16, inner side wall 18, and roof 20. In addition, each module will include the usual building components such as floors, ceilings, interior walls, plumbing and electrical wiring (not shown). Each module may include triangular end panels 22 which may be fixedly secured at opposite ends of each module under the outer fixed portion of the roof, and inner end panels 24 which are prefabricated but removable for transport.
The upper structure of each module includes a plurality of spaced parallel transversely extending jo'ists 26 supported at the upper ends of the outer side wall 14 and inner side wall 18. Outer roof rafter sections 28 are secured at the upper margin of the outer side wall and are supported at their inner ends by uprights 30 extending upwardly from the mid-sections of the joists 26. Inclined supports 32 may extend from the upper ends of the uprights 30 in a downwardly inclined direction for support by the joists 26 and the longitudinal inner frame members 34. Each outer rafter section preferably extends in spaced relation beyond its supporting upright 36 and terminates in a beveled or diagonal end portion 36 to which is pivotally connected by bolt 38 or other suitable pivot means the beveled lower end of an inner upper rafter section 40. The free ends of the pivoted rafter sections 40 are interconnected by a longitudinal frame member 42 and are notched at their bottom surfaces at 44.
Suitable means are provided to support the upper rafter sections 40 in alignment with lower rafter sections 28. Such means may constitute a prefabricated support structure including a bottom longitudinal member 46, top longitudinal support member 48 and interconnecting members 50 which may be vertical or inclined and which serve to interconnect the members 46 and 48 at spaced intervals. As illustrated in FIG. 3, the bottom support member 46 bears upon a longitudinal inner frame member 34 and the top longitudinal support member 48 engages the notched surfaces 44 of the rafter sections 40. The support unit 46, 48, 50 of each module may be positioned upon the inclined supports 32 as illustrated in FIG. 4, thus providing a support for the pivoted rafters 40 and the roof section carried thereby when lowered for transport.
The roof of the module preferably includes roof panel 52 or sheeting secured to and spanning the fixed roof rafters 28 and roof panel or sheeting 54 secured to and spanning the pivoted roof rafters 40. The roof panels 52 and 54 preferably substantially abut above the pivots 38 in the erected position of the roof. The joint crevice between the roof panels 52 and 54 is preferably spanned by a thin flexible sheet or band 56, such as a sheet metal or lead band which is readily flexible or a synthetic resin sheet. The joint spanning sheet 56 is anchored to one panel, as to the lower roof panel 52. Continuous composition roofing is applied to the fixed and the pivoted sections of the roof of each module. Asbest seen in FIG. 5, the roofing may comprise sheet material 58 as an underlayer and lapped composition shingles 60 providing the finish or upper la er.
One margin 62 of a synthetic resin sheet or film 64, preferably formed of polyethylene, is secured to the upper margin of the fixed roof and overlies the upper margin of the uppermost course of shingles on the fixed roof section at a part overlapped by the lowermost course 61 of shingles anchored to and projecting beyond the pivoted roof section. The synthetic resin sheet 64 may be of a single sheet or may be formed in sections, and the area of the sheet or of the composite of such sheets will be greater than the area of the pivoted roof section.
The transport position of the roof of the module is illustrated in FIGS. 4 and wherein the pivoted section of the roof supported by the pivoted rafter sections 40 is lowered from its normal erected position shown in FIG. 3 to a downwardly inwardly inclined position bearing upon the structure 46, 48, 50 which rests upon the inclined roof supports 32. The flexible sheet 56 and the roofing 58, 60 adjacent to the pivot bend to accommodate the swinging of the pivotal roof part and assume the position shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. In this lowered position the free margins of the shingles of each course of the pivoted roofing section are arranged uppermost. Consequently, any rain or snow which falls upon the pivoted roof section tends to flow between the shingles and to enter the roof, rather than to flow only upon the top surfaces of the shingles as occurs in the normal or erected position of the pivoted roof section. Consequently, the roofing on the pivoted roof section when lowered to the FIG. 4 position would be subject to leakage during rainy and snowy weather. Such leakage is avoided with the present construction, however, by covering it with the synthetic resin sheet 64 as seen in FIGS. 4 and 5 whose margin 66 may be tacked or temporarily secured to longitudinal innerframe member 34 during transport.
When the modules arrive at their destination and are positioned side by side upon a suitable slab or foundation, they may be interconnected and fixed in that position by suitable means not shown. The pivoted roof sections are elevated to the position shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 at which they are supported by the longitudinal central support structures 46, 48, 50, with the longitudinal frame members 34 and the longitudinal roof members 42 in abutment, as seen in FIG. 2. The synthetic resin sheets 64 will be disengaged from the longitudinal frame members 34 prior to elevation of the pivoted roof portion and may be severed adjacent the margin thereof which is anchored to the fixed roof portion.
The structure may be completed by applying a roof cap 66 to span the joint between the roof sections of the two modules, and by installing the removable end panels 24.
It will be observed that the bevels at the ends 36 of the fixed rafters and at the pivoted ends of the pivoted rafters accommodate pivotal movement of rafters 40 without interference with the roofing and in a manner to provide coplanar relation of the rafters of the two roof sections when the roof is erected.
The construction above described provides material reduction of the overall height of a module with an intended inclined roof for transport purposes. The reduction is sufficient to permit the construction of a building having a finished roof pitch at a desirable angle without exceeding permissible height limitations when the module is mounted upon a trailer for transport. At the same time the construction is substantially complete at the factory and the work of final on-site erection is minimized. The roof assumes finished watertight character by the simple acts of erecting or elevating the pivoted roof section and applying a cap to span the joint between adjacent roof sections at the peak of the roof. All parts required for completion of the build ing such as removable panels, roof supports, and the like can be fabricated at the so that minimum time and service is required to apply and install such parts on the job site. v
In view of the width limitations of building modules for transport, the construction illustrated in FIGS. 1-6 is preferred to provide the maximum usable space in the resultant building. This construction requires termination of the roof substantially flush with the outer surfaces of the side walls of the building, namely a construction in which overhanging roof margins are precluded. An overhanging or projecting roof margin may be desirable for design purposes and can be provided in a structure of this character by an arrangement as illustrated in FIG. 7. In the FIG. 7 construction an overhanging roof structure or section 68 is secured to and projects outwardly and downwardly from the rafters 28 of the fixed roof structure. The overhanging structure may include lower rafter extensions 70 which are pivotally connected adjacent their upper inner ends to the rafters 28 by hinges 72. Rafter extensions 70 are connected by longitudinal member 74 and preferably carry abutment members 76 engaging the outer building wall 14 when the rafter extensions 70 are aligned with rafters 28. Each rafter extension 70 has a notch 78 at its pivoted end adapted to bear upon the top of the wall 14 or other suitable structural element and configured to accommodate pivoting of the rafter extensions 70 to an elevated position, such as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 7, at which the overhanging structure 68 is positioned within the outline of the overall width of the module and at a level below the level of the uppermost part of the fixed roof structure 28. In this construction the extent of flexing of the roofing material required to position the unit in transport position may preclude application of the finished roofing to the extension until the module is located at the construction site.
While the preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated, it will be understood that changes may be made within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. In a modular building structure adapted to be transported and to be assembled with complementary structures, a fixed inclined roof section spanning a part of said structure and including inclined rafters secured to said structure, uprights carried by said structure and supporting the upper end portions of said rafters, a second inclined roof section adapted to span the remainder of said structure when aligned with said fixed roof section and including rafters pivoted to the upper ends of the rafters of said fixed roof section, inclined supports carried by said structure and extending downwardly and inwardly from the upper portions of said uprights in divergent relation to said fixed rafters, said pivoted second roof section being lowered for support by said inclined supports during transport, and composition roofing covering both roof sections, a portion of the roofing on said pivoted second roof section extending therefrom adjacent said pivot to overlap roofing on said fixed roof section when said roof sections are aligned, each roof section including a roof panel, composition sheet roofing and composition shingles overlying said sheet roofing, and a flexible waterproof sheet secured to said fixed roof panel and spanning the joint between roof panels and overlying said sheet roofing and composition shingles of said pivoted roof section.
2. A structure as defined in claim 1 wherein said flexible waterproof sheet is anchored to said first roof section at a margin thereof underlying shingles carried by the second roof section when said roof sections are in extended aligned relation, and means anchoring the opposite margin of said waterproof sheet to the free edge of the lowered second roof section during transport.