|Publication number||US3701533 A|
|Publication date||Oct 31, 1972|
|Filing date||Oct 29, 1970|
|Priority date||Oct 29, 1970|
|Publication number||US 3701533 A, US 3701533A, US-A-3701533, US3701533 A, US3701533A|
|Inventors||Harold C Palmer|
|Original Assignee||Palmer Chem And Equipment Co I|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (16), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Palmer 1451 Oct. 31, 1972 MATERIAL DISCHARGING DART Inventor: Harold C. Palmer, Douglasville, Ga.
Palmer Chemical and Equipment Company, Inc., Douglasville, Ga.
Filed: on. 29, 1970 Appl. No.: 85,106
US. Cl ..273/106.5 R, 102/92, 273/DIG. 24 Int. Cl. ....A63b 65/02, F42b 11/18, F4213 13/36 Field of Search..273/106.5 R, 106.5 B, 106.5 D,
References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 10/1969 Breslow et a1 ..273/95 R X 12/1968 Tabor ..273/106.5 R 9/1965 Murdoch ..273/106.5 D X 2/1960 Crockford et aL....273/l06.5 D UX 6/1960 West ..273/l06.5 B
OTHER PUBLICATIONS Cap-Chor Pamphlet 10/ 14/66.
Primary Examiner-Richard C. Pinkham Assistant Examiner-Paul E. Shapiro Attorney-Newton, Hopkins 8L Ormsby  ABSTRACT A dart projectile for carrying and discharging a fluid material upon impact wherein an explosive-actuated fluid or other material directing piston is moved longitudinally in the dart past a series of openings in the wall thereof. The piston includes a cuspidal-curved surface which provides discharge of the material in an improved spray pattern as the material is moved by the surface and out through the openings in the wall.
8 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTED 3. 701. 533
INVENTOR 6440010 C um/2 ATTORNEYS MATERIAL DISCHARGING DART BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a projectile and more particularly to a dart type projectile for carrying and discharging a fluid material such as a dye or tear gas in a spray pattern upon impact with a target.
Dart type projectiles carrying a charge of dye have been used heretofore for marking animals from a substantial distance whereby an animal to be removed from a pack or herd of animals at a subsequent time may be easily identified. More recently, proposals have been made to use such material dispensing dart projectiles in police work, particularly in the area of riot control. Law enforcement officers may, for example, mark an individual agitator or agitators in an emotionally aroused crowd for subsequent identification without having to actually enter or break through the ranks of the crowd. In this case, various types of dyes may be used, such as brightly colored dyes for maximum visibility and materials or dyes inducing fluorescent compounds which emit radiation or glow as a result of absorption of radiation from a suitable source.
A dart of this nature also becomes an efiective agent for dispensing a crowd when it is loaded with a chemical such as, for example, a tear gas. In this case, the dart is effective whether it actually strikes an individual or merely strikes the ground within or near the area covered by the crowd. The tear gas is discharged or sprayed in either case upon impact.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved dart type projectile for carrying and discharging a material upon impact.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved marking dart of relatively simple and inexpensive construction.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an improved dart projectile for discharging a chemical upon impact.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a material discharging projectile having an improved spray pattern.
The foregoing and other objects are attained by a dart adapted to be fired from a gun and containing a material such as, for example, a marking dye or tear gas. A unique sealing piston for normally containing the material within the dart and movable therein by a small charge actuated upon impact of the dart with a target is provided with a cuspidal-curved surface for directing the material out of the dart in a spray pattern.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING Still another objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a dart constructed according to the teachings of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the dart of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a top-sectional view of the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2 upon impact with an object or an individual, taken along the line 3--3 thereof; and
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the forward end of another embodiment of the invention, showing a different discharge port arrangement for the dart.
DESCRIPTION OF AN EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawing and more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, a dart constructed according to the teachings of the present invention comprises a tubular body member 10 for carrying a material such as a dye or tear gas and being threaded at each end thereof for receiving cylindrical end metal caps 12 and 14. The tubular body 10 and the metal caps 12 and 14 may be constructed of any suitable material, such as aluminum.
A plurality of elongate apertures 15 for discharging the material carried by the tube 10 are disposed in the wall of the tube near the forward and thereof, being aligned parallel or otherwise with the longitudinal axis of the tube 10 and circumferentially spaced about the circular wall thereof.
At the forward end of the body 10, the metal cap 12 is provided with a circumferential groove for receiving therein an O-ring sealing device 16, for example of rubber, adapted to be compressed between a flange on the cap defining the groove and the annular end wall of the body member 10 when the cap 12 is threadably secured thereto. A tubular insert 18 having one closed and one open end formed of a compressible material, such as rubber, is positioned within an opening 20 formed in the forward end wall of the metal cap 12.
Within the tubular member 10 the tear gas or dye material is contained between a fluid or material directing piston member 22 and a rubber insert member 24. The piston 22 includes a cylindrical body 26 having a flat surface 28 at one end thereof and a cuspidal-curved surface 30 terminating in a point emerging from the opposite end. Annular grooves are provided in the surface of the cylinder 26 for receiving a pair of O-rings 32, thereby providing a fluid seal between the piston 22 and the tubular body 10.
A coil spring 34 is disposed within the tubular body 10 between the flat surface 28 of the piston 22 and the end surface 36 of the metal cap 12. The coil spring 34 may be omitted and the scaling relationship between 0- rings 32 and tubular body 10 detailed to frictionally hold piston 22 is spaced relationship to openings 15 to retain material within the body 10.
The rubber insert 24 is substantially of the same construction as the rubber insert 18 disposed on the nose or forward end of the dart. The cylindrical surface of the insert 24 provides a seal with the tubular body 10 for the material contained therein. A cavity 38 defined therein by the tubular walls and closed end surface of the insert 24 snugly receives a closed end of a cylindrical shell 40.
The shell 40 contains a charge of black powder 42 at the base thereof, a primer cap 44 for detonating the charge 42, a firing pin 46 for exploding the primer cap 44, and a small coil spring 48 disposed between the firing pin 46 and the primer cap 44. The aft, open end of the shell 40 is crimped as at 50 for retaining the firing elements therein.
The aft end of the tubular body 10 is closed by the metal cap 14 and sealedly secured by an O-ring 52 clamped therebetween. An opening 54 in the rear end of the cap 14 is stuffed with wadding 56, which may as a matter of convenience be color coded according to the contents of the dart body 10.
In operation, the body is usually formed of such size and shape as to fit into the firing chamber of a special bore gun. The word gun is used herein a broad sense, that is to say to include any device for discharging a missile from a barrel, such as rifle, shotgun, or other explosive-powered gun, compressed air gun, carhon-dioxide or other gas-powered gun, or any similar means for propelling bullets, shot, or other missiles.
Upon impact with a target, the firing pin 46 moves forward against the spring 48 to strike and explode the primer cap 44, which in turn causes detonation of the charge of black powder 42. The explosive force generated drives the firing pin through the crimped rear edge of the shell 40 and the liberated expanding gases combined with the explosive reaction force apply a force against the insert 24.
The force against the insert 24 is transmitted through the material contained within the dart body 10 to the piston 22, thereby moving the piston forward, compressing the coil spring 34 as it moves. When the cylindrical portion 26 of the piston 22 is moved by the longitudinal apertures in the wall of the dart body 10, the material is swept outwardly by the cuspidal-curved portion 30 of the piston 22 in the manner shown in FIG. 3, thereby creating a unique spray pattern for the material as it is discharged.
The compressible nose portion 118 permits use of the dart against individuals and against animals without fear of causing permanent injury from having been struck thereby.
Of course, modifications of the device are possible. For example, referring now to FIG. 4, the discharge ports or apertures may be directed obliquely of the longitudinal axis of the dart body 10 as shown at 58.
Obviously, many other modifications and variations of the invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
What is claimed is:
1 A material discharging dart comprising:
an elongate tubular member for containing said material and having at least one aperture near the forward end thereof;
means for sealing the aft end of said tubular member;
forward sealing means disposed within said tubular member between said at least one aperture and said aft sealing means for sealedly enclosing said material within said tubular member between said forward and aft sealing means, said forward means including a piston sealedly engaging the wall of said tubular member and having the aft end thereof formed with a forwardly and outwardly sloping surface; and
means responsive to the decelerative force of an impact of said dart with an object for moving said forward and aft sealing means forward within said tubular member to expose said at least one aperture to the material therein, whereby said material is directed by said sloping surface for discharge from said tubular member through said at least one a rture. 2. material discharging dart according to claim 1 wherein said at least one aperture includes a plurality of apertures disposed about the peripheral wall thereof.
3. A material discharging dart according to claim 2 wherein said apertures are elongate and parallel to each other and disposed in parallel relationship to the longitudinal axis of said tubular member.
4. A material discharging dart according to claim 2 wherein said apertures are elongate and parallel to each other and disposed in oblique relationship to the longitudinal axis of said tubular member.
5. A material discharging dart according to claim 1 wherein said means for moving said forward and aft sealing means comprises an explosive charge disposed within said tubular member between said aft sealing means and the rear end of said tubular member;
deceleration responsive means for detonating said explosive charge; and
means for closing the rear end of said tubular member thereby to contain the expansion gases occurring upon detonation of said explosive charge and to impart forward motion to said aft sealing means.
6. A material discharging dart according to claim 1 further characterized in that said tubular member includes an open forward end;
closure means removably carried by the forward end of said tubular member; and
spring means positioned within said tubular member between said forward sealing means and said removable closure means, said spring means being detailed for biasing said forward sealing means in an axially aft direction away from said at least one aperture.
7. A material discharging dart as defined in claim 6 further characterized in that said forward closure means includes a nose portion formed of a compressible material.
8. A material discharging dart as defined in claim 1 further characterized in that said sloping surface includes a cuspidal curved surface, the apex of which is pointing to the rear of said tubular member.
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|U.S. Classification||473/577, 102/512, 273/DIG.240|
|International Classification||F42B12/54, F42B12/36|
|Cooperative Classification||F42B12/362, F42B12/54, Y10S273/24|
|European Classification||F42B12/36B, F42B12/54|