|Publication number||US3703432 A|
|Publication date||Nov 21, 1972|
|Filing date||Nov 18, 1970|
|Priority date||Nov 18, 1970|
|Publication number||US 3703432 A, US 3703432A, US-A-3703432, US3703432 A, US3703432A|
|Inventors||Koski John T|
|Original Assignee||Koski John T|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (36), Classifications (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 21, 1972 J. T. KOSKI 3,703,432
- RAINPRQOF VENTILATED PLAST SHEET MATERIAL FOR RAINWEAR AND M 0D ING SAME Fi Nov. 1970 INVENTOR JOHN T. KOSKI GE QCBZMt ATTO R N EY United States Patent m U.S. Cl. 161110 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A rainproof, ventilating material is provided utilizing tabs bent at the location of slits in the material to provide shielded ventilation. The material adjacent each slit is bent to form a pair of fingernail-shaped tabs, the direction of the projection of one member of the pair from the surface of the material being opposite that of the other. The pairs of tabs are aligned in one direction, so that the tabs in that one direction alternate in their direction of projection, thus, when properly oriented shielding the lower tabs by the upper tabs.
The material is formed from a substance which may be subjected to molding or deforming conditions, and, which, when molded to the desired shape may be subjected to setting conditions to retain that shape permanently. The tabs are permanently formed by cutting the slits and bending the tabs while subjecting the material to molding conditions, as for example by heating and then setting the material, as for example by cooling.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is a well-known disadvantage of most raincoats and rainwear on the market today that they are not selfventilating, but, when worn, retain evaporated perspiration and tend to make the wearer hot. The obvious reason for this is that to make a sheet form material both ventilating and at the same time impervious to rain is to make almost impossible conflicting demands of the material. Generally enhancing one of the two properties results in the deterioration of the other. Previous efforts to provide a rainproof material which was at the same time ventilating involve such complicated structure as to be prohibitive in cost. Even the more successful efforts have resulted only in a structure in which the ventilating properties were not permanent, but which properties deteriorated after a period of time. An example of a complicated material is that disclosed in U.S. Pats. No. 2,697,832 and 3,228,821. An example of a prior art material whose rainproof properties were found to be nonpermanent is that disclosed in U.S. Pats. No. 315,806 and 3,296,626.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to rainproof, ventilating material which is greatly simplified in structure and which yet positively provides ventilation for the wearer of the material and a method for making the same. Specifically, the invention provides a rainproof, ventilating material comprising a sheet having a plurality of slits therethrough all oriented in the same direction, the portions of the sheet separated by each of the slits being deformed to provide a pair of tabs for each slit, one of the tabs in each of the pairs projecting outwardly from the surface of the sheet in a direction opposite to the projection of the other tab in the pair. This is accomplished by cutting the slits while deforming the material on the opposite sides of the slit in opposite directions, all while the material is subjected to molding conditions, as for example by heating, the material preferably being the type which is molded into a given shape by heating and subsequently by cooling.
Patented Nov. 21, 1972 Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide a rainproof material having ventilating properties which may be retained during use over a long period of time.
It is a further object of this invention to provide rainproof material of the above character which is greatly simplified in structure, thereby reducing the cost of manufacturing.
It is still another object of the invention to provide an inexpensive method for manufacturing the rainproof material of the above-described character.
It is still an additional object to provide an article of clothing prepared from the rainproof material of the invention.
Still further objects and advantages of the invention will appear as the description proceeds.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, the invention, then, consists of the improved ventilating rainproof material and article of clothing hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the annexed drawing and the following description setting forth in detail certain means for carrying out the invention, such disclosed means illustrating, however, but several of various ways in which the principles of the invention may be used.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the annexed drawing:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a material fabricated in accordance with the invention.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the lines IIII of FIG. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows.
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary, partially broken away, elevational view of rollers utilized to perform the method of manufacturing of the material of the invention; and
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary, partially broken away, sectional view taken along the lines IV-IV of FIG. 3, looking in the direction of the arrows.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Material Referring to FIG. 1, in accordance with the invention, the material comprises a flexible water-impervious sheet or film 10 having, using the terms for purposes of orientation, an outer surface 12 and an inner surface 14, the sheet being generally planar. The sheet is provided with a plurality of slits 16 aligned in the same direction in rows with other slits, the slits of one row preferably being parallel with the slits of another row. The portions of the sheet 10 separated by a slit 16 are bent, molded, or otherwise deformed to produce fingernail-shaped tabs or louvers 18 and 20. The term fingernail is intended to denote tabs which have the general shape of a fingernail, the base of which forms the edge or lip of the slit 16, although the shape can in fact be hemispherical, semi-elliptical, or even triangular. In order to form a rainproof shield or garment which still provides ventilating conditions, the tabs 18 all project outwardly away from or convexly arcuate with respect to the outer surface, and are hinged at the top as seen in FIGS. 1 and 2. The tabs 20 when oriented for wear project inwardly from surface 14 or are concavely arcuate with respect thereto, and are hinged at the bottom, as seen in the drawings, FIGS. 1 and 2. Thus, considering the pairs of tabs 18 and 20 provided by each slit 16, it will be apparent that, for the tabs aligned in any one column, such as column 22 (FIG. 1), the tabs 18 and 20 alternate in the direction in which the project from the plane of the sheet.
The opening formed at each slit 16, as enlarged during molding of the tabs, permits ventilation to occur, the lower tabs 20 being shielded by the convex upper tabs 18 from the rain when used in a rain shielding item. Obviously, the sheet is formed into a rainproof garment so that the tabs and slits are oriented as shown in FIG. 2, with the tabs 18 being above the tabs 20.
Because of the nature of the material forming the sheet 10, which is hereinafter discussed, the tabs 18 and 20 are flexibly but permanently bent away from the sheet so as to regain their original projecting positions after being depressed under compressive loading. Thus, brushing the fabric against a surface will only temporarily tend to close the tabs against the material so as to close off air access through the slits.
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING Sheet 10 is a sheet form material having moldable properties, these properties permitting the tabs 18 and 20 to be molded or deformed under molding conditions. Consequently, when the molded material is subsequently set by placing under the proper setting conditions, the tabs thus molded are permanently retained in form, even when they are placed under slight compressive loading during normal use. Specifically, several ways may be used to form the tabs, dependent upon the type of material used. Normally, the sheet 10 is a film of a thermoplastic or heatsoftening material, or, alternatively, a cloth fabric impregnated with a thermoplastic material. With such compositions the material is heated to moldable conditions, that is, to a temperature above the softening point. The material is then slit and molded or deformed by suitable devices such as cooperating rollers. The material is then cooled while deformed, and when it attains a temperature lower than the softening point, the molded form is permanently retained as long as the softening point is not reached. Materials should preferably be chosen having a softening point higher than the highest temperature to which the article is to be subjected during use or storage. Alternatively, thermosetting or heat-settable materials may be used, for example, vulcanizable rubber or a three-dimensional resin such as a thermosetting polyester resin or a polyurethane resin may be used. Such materials are set by continuing the application of heat even after the softened and molded form has been attained, the continued application of heat causing the material to vulcanize or cross-link and to form a permanently infusible material. These materials have the advantage that the final product may be subjected to high temperatures without the loss of its shape. Some materials may be molded or embossed at room temperature, the pressure of the molding or embossing rolls being sufficient to provide a molding action of the material, the shape reached being retained after the material leaves the rolls.
Among the materials which may be used in the present invention are rubber, synthetic rubber such as butadiene, acrylonitrile, neoprene, polysiloxane, polyurethane, or other synthetic materials such as cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, or polypropylene.
Specifically, in the case of a thermoplastic sheet, the rainproof ventiliating material of the invention is formed by heating the sheet 10, cutting a slit in the sheet for the location of each pair of tabs, bending the heated material on opposite sides of the slit in opposite directions to form the pair of tabs, and allowing the bent material to cool while in the bent configuration. These steps are repeated so as to ventilate the entire surface of the sheet with pairs of tabs, each of which are aligned in the same direction.
These steps of manufacturing are preferably accomplished by progressing through the sheet in the direction of the alignment of the tabs so that the tabs are formed in columns, one row at a time. This lends itself to the use of a pair of rollers to cut out the slits and to form the tabs, the rollers being shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. Specifically, a pair of counter-rotating rollers 40 and 42 are mounted on shafts 44 and 46, respectively. Each of the rollers is formed with alternating teeth 48 and depressions 50, the rollers being geared and meshed together so that where they come together, a tooth 48 from one roller engages and is depressed into a groove or depression 50 of the other roller, while the groove 50 of the one roller accommodates the tooth 48 of the other roller. Preferably, the teeth 48 and the grooves 50 are fingernail-shaped to provide the corresponding shape to the tabs 18 and 20. Thus, as a sheet S, FIG. 4, is fed between the nip of the rollers 40 and 42, rows of tabs are formed, one row at a time, the bending of the material to form the tabs altermating in the direction in which the bending of the tab occurs from the plane of the sheet S. It will be apparent that by using the rollers 40 and 42, the cutting of the slits and the bending of the tabs occur simultaneously.
To heat the rollers 40 and 42 to sufliciently high temperature to cause the sheet S to be molded in the cut and bent configuration, heating ducts 60 are provided in each of the rollers, the ducts carrying heating elements or fluid sufficient to heat the material of the sheet S to a temperature moderately above the softening point.
Because of its very slightly thickness, the sheet S cools rapidly upon leaving the rollers, cooling below the softening point occurring with the tabs still bent in their configuration as determined by the rollers 40 and 42. Additionally, the material may be quickly cooled by directing a blast of cold air on the material as it leaves the hot forming rolls.
Other modes of applying the principle of my invention may be employed instead of those explained, change being made as regards the means, methods and final products herein disclosed, provided those stated by any of the following claims or their equivalent be employed.
I therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim as my invention:
1. A flexible sheet form material selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic resins, thermosetting resins, and rubbers, and suitable for wearing apparel use having a rainproof ventilating louver assembly provided therein, said assembly comprising a slit having its lips arcuately displaced in opposite directions to form a pair of tabs, the upper tab being arcuately convex and the lower tab arcuately concave with respect to the surface which is to be subjected to rain.
2. A flexible sheet according to claim 1, wherein said tabs have fingernail shapes.
3. A flexible sheet according to claim 1, wherein said material is water-impermeable.
4. A method for forming a rainproof ventilating louver assembly in a flexible sheet form material selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic resins, thermosetting resins, and rubbers, which comprises the steps of:
(a) heating said material to a temperature at which it is moldable,
(1)) cutting a slit in said material and displacing the material on opposite sides of said slit in opposite directions to form a pair of tabs; and
(c) while said material is so arranged cooling said material to a temperature below that at which it is moldable, thereby enabling said tabs to remain permanently formed in said material.
5. A flexible rainproof, ventilated material selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic resins, thermosetting resins, and rubbers, and suitable for Wearing apparel use comprising a sheet having a plurality of slits therethrough, the portions of said sheet separated by each of said slits displaced to form a pair of tabs for each slit, one of said tabs in each of said pair projecting outwardly from the surface of said sheet in a direction opposite to the projection of the other tab in said such pair.
6. The material as defined in claim 5, wherein said slits are parallel and said pairs are each aligned in the same direction.
7. The material as defined in claim 6, wherein each of said tabs aligned in said direction alternate in the direction 5 in which they project from the surfaces of said sheet, said projecting direction being measured from the plane of said sheet.
8. ,The material as defined in claim 5, wherein said slits are straight lines.
9. The material as defined in claim 5, wherein said tabs are flexibly but permanently displaced from said sheet so as to regain their original projecting position after being depressed under compressive loading.
10. The material as defined in claim 5, wherein said tabs are fingernail shaped.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 6 Bailey 161111 Balfe 161-l11 Lash et a1 287 X Hess 287 Stich 287 Ludwikowski 287 Ludwikowski 287 Cowan 161-111 Chase 287 Chalon 161--110 PHILIP DIER, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||428/132, 264/156, 2/87, 428/134, 156/270, 428/136, 428/492, 156/257, 156/202|
|International Classification||A41D3/04, A41D3/00, A41D31/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A41D31/00, A41D3/04|
|European Classification||A41D31/00, A41D3/04|