|Publication number||US3704308 A|
|Publication date||Nov 28, 1972|
|Filing date||Apr 14, 1969|
|Priority date||Oct 22, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3704308 A, US 3704308A, US-A-3704308, US3704308 A, US3704308A|
|Inventors||Robert E Karll, Edmund J Piasek|
|Original Assignee||Standard Oil Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (103), Classifications (50)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,704,308 BORON-CONTAININ G HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT MANNICH CONDENSATION Edmund J. Piasek, Chicago, Ill., and Robert E. Karl], Munster, Ind., assignors to Standard Oil Company,
No Drawing. Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 502,368, Oct. 22, 1965. This application Apr. 14, 1969, Ser. No. 816,125
Int. Cl. C07f /04 US. Cl. 260462 R 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Oil-soluble boron-containing derivatives of Products of Mannich condensation from reactants (1) a high molecular Weight alkyl-substituted hydroxyaromatic compound whose alkyl substituent has upward from 40 to 20,000 carbon atoms, (2) a lower alkyl-substituted phenol whose alkyl group has 2 to 20 carbon atoms, (3) an amine which contains an HN group, and (4) an aldehyde in the respective molar ratio of 1.0:07:0.110: 1.0- wherein the boron content expressed as a boron to nitrogen weight ratio (B/N) is in the range of 0.15-5: 1.0. The boron derivatives as solutes in weight concentrations of 0.05 to 70 percent dissolved in mineral oil of the lubricating oil types are useful as crankcase lubricating compositions, concentrates for fortifying used crankcase lubricating composition and for preparation of crankcase lubricating compositions. Those boron derivatives provide detergency, dispersancy and anti-oxidant properties to lubricating oils.
RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part divided out of our copending application Ser. No. 502,368, filled Oct. 22, 1965, now US. Patent No. 3,539,633.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Present-day automobile and diesel engines have been designed for higher-power output, lower combustion products emission and longer in-service periods of use of crankcase lubricating oils. All of these design changes have necessitated devising higher efiiciency lubricating oils that will under the increased severity of in-service use afford protection against corrosion of and deposition of sludge and varnish on engine parts that otherwise tend to accelerate decrease in both operating efiiciency and life of the engine. The principal ingredient of crankcase lubricants is lubricating oil, a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum. There is a limit to which those hydrocarbon oils per se can be improved, e.g. removal of polymerizable components, acidic or acid-forming components, waxes and other low temperature solids formers, and other deleterious components. A lubricant base oil refined even to the optimum still requires certain oil-soluble chemical addition agents to resist oxidation of the oil, deposition of sludge and varnish on metal parts and corrosion of metal parts and to provide added lubricity and regulated viscosity change from low to high temperatures. No one chemical addition agent has been found that provides all those extra functions.
Combustion products from the burning of fuel, lubricating oil and nitrogen of air as well as products of thermal degradation of hydrocarbon lubricating oils and addition agents tend to concentrate in the crankcase oil. Those products of combustion and thermal degradation tend to form oil-insoluble products that either surface coat metal parts with lacquer or varnish-like films or settle ice out as viscous (sludge) deposits or form solid ash-like or carbonaceous deposits. Any of these deposits can restrict and even plug grooves, channels and holes provided for lubricant flow to moving surfaces requiring lubrication. Crankcase oils are formulated (dissolving of addition agents in highly refined hydrocarbon lubricating oils) not only to reduce thermal decomposition of oil solvent and addition agent solutes but also to keep in suspension (as a dispersant) or to resuspend (as a detergent) insoluble combustion and thermal degradation products as well as neutralize acidic products. Neutral and overbased metalloorganic compounds such as the alkaline earth metal salts of sulfonic acids and hydrocarbon-P 8 reaction products were first used as dispersant-detergent addition agents. Their in-service drawbacks were that their combustion and/ or thermal degradation products left metal ash solids, they could not elficiently resuspend or disperse lacquer and varnish formers or sludge formers to meet present-day engine requirements and they lost their dispersant-detergent function when their alkaline earth metal component had been consumed by neutralizing acidic products of combustion.
Thus as the periods of in-service use of crankcase oils were lengthened, lengthening of periods between oil drains for both automobile engines and railway diesel engines, more efiicient dispersancy and detergency performance acid neutralization and a lower ash-forming tendency were needed for chemical addition agents used in lubricating oils. Many researchers have recently expended much effort directed to this problem. One new approach taken by researchers in different laboratories was to devise amine derivatives, e.g. salts, amides, imides and amidines of polycarboxylic acids that would function as dispersant-detergent addition agents. Others devised polymeric compounds having pendent or grafted-on pendent polar groups that provided the dispersant-detergent function. Still others devised for that dispersant-detergent function combinations of alkaline earth metal sulfonates and Mannich condensation products of a low molecular weight alkyl-substituted (C to C hydroxyaromatic compound, an amine having at least one replaceable hydrogen on a nitrogen and an aldehyde or alkaline earth metal salts (phenates) of those Mannich condensation products. Those combinations did not overcome the formation of metal-ash nor were they particularly suitable for the increased dispersancy-detergency service for long drain service of presentday engine requirements even though the combination olfered some anti-oxidation activity.
The present invention is directed to ashless type boroncontaining derivatives of high molecular weight Mannich condensation products derived from high molecular weight alkylated hydroxyaromatic compounds. Mannich condensation products derived from alkyl-substituted hydroxyaromatic compounds having relatively low molecular weight alkyl substituents, i.e. 4 to 20 carbon atoms in the alkyl hydrocarbon substituent wax-hydrocarbon and chlorinated wax-hydrocarbon (both straight chain) type alkyl-substituents are known from prior US. Patents such as No. 2,403,453, No. 2,353,491, No. 2,459,112, No. 2,984,550 and No. 3,036,003. However, those prior Mannich condensation products are not particularly suitable as highly eflicient dispersant-detergent addition agents for the present-day long drain oil interval in service use. Boron derivatives of the lower molecular weight Mannich condensation products have not been proposed as useful lubricating oil addition agents.
The prior lower molecular weight Mannich condensation products are those illustrated below. The simplest Mannich condensation products can be illustrated from the reaction of an alkyl phenol, and N,N-disubstituted amine and formaldehyde according to the following equation:
wherein R is a C, to C alkyl group or wax-alkyl and chlorinated wax alkyl group and R and R are alkyl and/or aryl.
Prior Mannich condensation products also are those obtained by reacting C to C alkylphenols, formaldehyde and a diamino alkane in the ratio of two moles of said alkylphenol and two moles formaldehyde for each mole of diamino alkane of the formula where R is a divalent alkylene hydrocarbon. Such compounds have been illustrated in the prior art by the following structural formula:
on OH where A is a divalent alkyl hydrocarbon radical of 2 to 6 carbon atoms and n is an integer of from 1 to 10. The alkylene polyamines usually used are the di-, triand tetra-ethylene tri-, tetraand pentamines, that is A is CH,CH and n is 2, 3 and 4. The resulting products are illustrated in US. Pat. No. 3,036,003. For example the reaction of 3 moles each'of p-tertiary oetyl phenol and formaldehyde with one mole of diethylene triamine is illustrated as N ,N ,N -tri(2-hydroxy-5-t.-octylbenzyl) diethylene triamine; the reaction of 2 moles each of p.-t.5-ootyl phenol and one mole diethylene-triaimine is illustrated as being either N ,N -di-(2-hydroxy-5-t.-octylbenzyl) o'r N N -di(Z-hydroxy-S-t.-octylbenzyl) diethylene triamine. It would appear from this reference that the reactants used for the preparation of those Mannich condensation products react equally with either the primary amino (NH;) group or the secondary amino (NH-) group Whose nitrogen is part of the azaalkylenc amine chain substantially without preference.
Certain of the hydroxy-C to C alkyl benzyl substituted alkylene polyamines are disclosed by US. Pat. 3,036,003 as useful per se in lubricant oil formulations as ashless-type detergents. For example the tetra-(hydroxy-S-tertiary-octyl-benzyl) substituted product resulting from the molar ratio reaction of 4 moles p-t.-octyl phenol, 4 moles formaldehyde and one mole tetraethylene pentamine did, in a carbon black suspension test reported in that patent, keep all the carbon black suspended in a solvent comprising a mixture of kerosome and a mineral oil. However, that patent demonstrates by an oxidation stability test that the same tetra- (hydroxy-t.-octylbenzyl) substituted tetraethylene pentamine alone (no other detergent) promotes sludge and varnish formulation as well as oxidation of the base oil solvent. Thus US. Pat. No. 3,036,003 demonstrates its Mannich condensation products are not satisfactory whenused alone as the sole dispersant or detergent addition agent.
Mannich condensation products of the above prior art are prepared by reacting the alkylphenol, lower aliphatic aldehyde such as formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and amine, diaminoalkane, diaminoarane or alkylene polyamine at 100 to 350 F. in the absence or presence of a solvent. When a solvent is used, benzene, toluene, xylene and others easily removed from the condensation product are useful as are light mineral oils such as those used in blending stocks to prepare lubricant oil formulations as well as mixtures of these two types of solvents. Since water is formed as a by-product, drying of the reaction mixture is accomplished by employing a reaction temperature sufficiently high, at least during the last part of the process, to drive off water alone,
or as an azeotropic mixture with the aromatic solvent, or to drive off water by the aid of an inert stripping gas such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.
Also the prior art type Mannich condensation products were mainly used as lubricant addition agents in the form of their exactlyneutralized or highly basic (or overbased) alkaline earth metal salts (alkaline earth metal phenate derivatives) to provide a combination of deter gent-inhibitor properties in one additive agent. The exactly neutralized alkaline earth metal salts have one equivalent of alkaline earth metal for each hydroxy group present. The highly basic or over-based alkaline earth metal salts have for each hydroxy group present more than one equivalent of alkaline earth metal in the form of a hydroxy metaloxy, alkoxy metaloxy and even alkaline earth metal carbonate complex with hydroxy metaloxy on each benzene ring as a replacement for the phenol hydroxy group.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Our invention is predicated upon the discoveries that: (a) boron-containing derivatives of high molecular weight Mannich condensation products prepared from reactants (1) an alkyl-substituted hydroxyaromatic (phenolic) compound having upward from 40 to about 20,000 carbon atoms in the alkyl shbstituent, (2) a lower molecular weight alkylphenol whose alkyl groups contain 2 to 20 carbon atoms, (3) a compound having an active hydrogen on a nitrogen, i.e. having an HN group, and (4) an aldehyde are novel oil-soluble compositions; (b) said boron-containing derivatives of those high molecular weight Mannich condensation products are useful as lubricant oil addition agent when having a boron to nitrogen (B/N) weight ratio of 0.1 to 5.5; (e) such boron-containing derivatives are novel dispersant-detergent addition agents even at relatively high in-service use temperatures; and '(d) useful lubricating oil solutions of those boron derivatives of the high molecular weight Mannich condensation products are useful as addition agents in amounts of 0.05 to 70 weight percent are novel compositions that provide or can be used to provide improved lubricant compositions that have highly efiicient dispersant-detergent properties and antioxidant properties because of the properties of the addition agents.
In general the high molecular Weight Mannich condensation products of this invention can be made by using the above named four reactants in the respective molar ratio of 1.0:0-0.7:0.1-10:l.0-l0 for reactants (1), (2), (3) and (4). The technique for preparing such high molecular weight condensation products is, in general, the same as that used to prepare the prior art low molecular weight Mannich condensation products. More specifically the reactants are combined in the desired reactive amounts and heated to a temperature to which by-products water can be removed. When both high molecular weight alkylsubstituted hydroxyaromatic reactant (I) and lower molecular weight alkyl-substituted phenol reactant (2) and when using an amine having two or more HN groups are used as reactants it 'is preferred to combine reactants (1), (3) and (4) in the respective molar ratio of 1.0:0.7-1.0:0.7-1.0 and heat to eliminate by-product Water and then react two moles of that product with 0.7 to 1.4 moles lower weight alkylphenol and 1.4 to 2.8 moles aldehyde at a temperature upward from 280 F. to eliminate by-product water.
The two step condensation provides predominantly the product obtained by coupling two moles of high molecular Mannich condensation with an alkyl-substituted hydroxyxylylene group, i.e. a group having the structure:
-H7C CH1 wherein R is an alkyl hydrocarbon having 2 to 20 car bon atoms.
Both the one condensation route and the two condensation step route produce mixtures of condensation products having one or more -CH-N radicals as a nuclear substituent on an aromatic ring carbon. The precise nature and character of the various condensation products is not understood. Since those mix tures of condensation products are reacted with boroncontaining reactants to prepare the boron-containing derivatives of this invention, the boron-containing compounds of this invention are likewise mixtures of various chemical entities.
Suitable as boron-containing addition agents according to this invention are those of the high molecular Weight Mannich condensation products derived from the high molecular weight alkyl-substituted hydroxy-aromatic compound whose alkyl substituent has upward from 40 to about 20,000 carbon atoms desirably polypropyl or polybutyl hydroxyaromatic compounds whose polybutyl or polypropyl substituents have a molecular weight in the range of 600-5000 and preferred are those derived from Mannich condensation products of the polybutyl and polypropyl phenols whose polybutyl and polypropyl groups have a number average molecular weight (NAMW) in the range suitably of 6005000, desirably 800 to 3000 and preferably 750-2000.
The boron-containing derivatives of any of the'foregoing high molecular weight Mannich condensation products, as before stated, are highly useful as lubricating oil addition agents. These boron-containing derivatives that have a B/N ratio of 0.1 to 5.5 can be made as reaction products of these high molecular weight Mannich condensation products and a boron compound reactive and/ or coordinatable with a polar group such as a hydroxy group and/or a nitrogen-containing group present in the Mannich condensation products. Boron compounds having that property of reaction and/or coordination include boron oxide, boron oxide hydrate, boron trifluoride, boron tribromide, boron trichloride, HB'F boron acids such as boronic acid (e.g., alkyl-B(OH) or aryl-B(OH) boric acid (i.e., H 30 tetraboric acid (i.e., H B O metaboric acid (i.e., H30 amides of such boron acids, and esters of such boron acids. The use of boric acid as the reactant to introduce boron into the high molecular weight Mannich condensation products is preferred. The general manner of using such boron reactants with nitrogen-containing compounds is known and is disclosed for example in U.S. Pats. No. 3,000,916 and No. 3,087,936 among others.
The boron-containing derivatives of high molecular weight Mannich condensation products of this invention are exceptionally useful addition agents for lubricating oil imparting thereto dispersant-detergent and antioxidant properties at relatively low concentrations of the addition agents, eg 0.05 to 10 weight percent in formulated crankcase lubricating oil. Higher concentrations of those addition agents, e.g. 10 to 70 weight percent are useful concentrates for the preparation of those formulated crankcase lubricating oils and the fortification of crankcase oil in use prior to scheduled complete drain and replacement of crankcase oil. In contrast boron-containing derivatives of the prior known low molecular weight Mannich condensation products derived from low molecular weight C to C alkyl substituted phenols are wholly unacceptable as dispersant-detergent addition agents for crankcase lubricating oils.
Illustration of the foregoing superiority of the high molecular weight Mannich condensation products of this invention over the prior art low molecular weight Mannich condensation products can be made by consideration of their abilities to prevent sludge and varnish deposition in standardized, industry accepted engine tests. To be acceptable dispersant-detergent addition agents for such inservice use in present-day engines, the addition agents must provide dispersancy-detergency functions in those tests so that at the end of the engine test upon inspection of disassembled engine parts they provide over-all sludge and varnish deposit ratings of 40 and over. Those ratings are determined on a 050 scale where a rating of 50 for each of sludge and varnish means a clean engine free from detectable sludge and varnish. The low molecular weight prior art Mannich condensation products used in crankcase lubricating oils as the sole source of dispersant-detergent addition agent at maximum concentration levels at which they can be in corporated in lubricating oil cannot provide acceptable sludge or varnish ratings when used in such a standardized engine test. However, the boron-containing high molecular Weight Mannich condensation products of this invention used as the sole dispersant-detergent addition agent in lubricating oils suitably in the range of 0.0510 and preferably 0.5 to 5.0, Weight percent provide crankcase lubricating oils which in the same standardized engine tests give sludge and varnish ratings of 40 and over, even up to 45 to 49.5.
EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION Representative boron-containing derivatives of high molecular weight Mannich condensation products contemplated by this invention are prepared from Mannich products derived from the following representative reactants of the classes before defined.
(1) High molecular weight alkyl-substituted hydroxyaromatics Preferred of these high molecular weight alkyl-substituted hydroxyaromatic compounds are the polypropylphenol, polybutylphenol, polyamylphenol and other polyalkyl phenols having a single polypropyl, polybutyl, polyamyl or the like substituent on the ring of phenol. These polyalkylphenols can be obtained by known methods for alkylation of phenol with polypropylene, polybutylene, polyamylene and the like to give the suitable C to Czo'ooo nonoalkyl substituent on the benzene ring of phenol.
The C and higher high molecular Weight alkyl substituent can be derived from the appropriate polypropylenes, polybutenes, polyamylene or from appropriate copolymers of propylene with monomers copolymerizable therewith wherein the copolymer molecule contains at least of its units from propylene, or from copolymers of butenes (butene-l, butene-2 and isobutylene) with monomers copolymerizable therewith wherein the copolymer molecule contains at least 90% of its units from a butene. Said monomers copolymerizable with propylene or said butenes need not be hydrocarbon monomers for they can contain polar groups such as chloro, bromo, keto, ethereal, aldehydo and other polar groups. The comonomer polymerized with propylene or said butenes need not be aliphatic and can also contain non-aliphatic groups as are in styrene, u-methyl styrene, c p-dimethyl styrene, divinyl benzene and the like. From the foregoing limitation placed on the monomer copolymerized with propylene or said butenes, it is abundantly clear that said polymers and copolymers of propylene or butenes are substantially aliphatic hydrocarbon polymers. Thus the resulting alkylated phenols have C and higher carbon content substituent groups which are substantially alkyl hydrocarbon in nature.
In lieu of those polypropyl or polybutyl phenols there also can be used similarly high molecular weight (polypropyl or polybutyl) substituted derivatives of resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechol, cresol, xylenol, aimylphenol, hydroxy-biphenyl, benzylphenol, phenethylphenol, phenol resins, methylhydroxybiphenyl, guaiacol, alpha and beta naphthol, alpha and beta methylnaphthol, tolynaphthol, xylylnaphthol, benzylnaphthol, anthrol, phenylmethylnaphthol, phenanthrol, monomethyl ester of catechol, phenoxyphenol, chlorophenol and hydroxyphenol sulfides among others.
(2) HN group containing reactants Representative of this class of reactants are those having at least one active hydrogen atom on a nitrogen atom as the prior art pertinent to the lower molecular weight Mannich products have disclosed, such HN group containing reactants can contain only primary amino groups, only secondary amino groups or both primary and secondary amino groups. Monoand di-alkyl amines suitable for use in the preparation of lower molecular weight Mannich condensation products are suitable for the preparation of the high molecular weight Mannich products. Preferred for the purposes of this invention are the Mannich products from alkylene polyamine reactants which include ethylendiarnine, diethylene triamine, triethylene tetramine, tetraethylene pentamine, pentaethylene hexamine, hexaethylene hepta-amine, heptaethylene octamine, octaethylene nonamine, nonaethylcne decamine and decaethylene undecamine; the corresponding propylene polyamines and other alkylene polyamines of the formula mentioned before mixtures of polyethylene polyamines or polypropylene polyamines which mixtures have the same nitrogen content as a particular polyamine entity; and urea or thiourea derivatives of such alkylene polyamines as are obtained as condensation products of x mole urea or thiourea with 2x moles of alkylene polyamines which condensation products can be illustrated in one product form as the linear product of the formula:
wherein A and n have the meaning before disclosed and Z is oxygen or sulfur.
ALDEHY'DE REACT ANTS Aldehyde reactants suitable for the preparation of the high molecular weight Mannich condensation products used to prepare the boron-containing derivatives of this invention include the aldehydes disclosed in the prior art for the preparation of lower molecular weight Mannich products from the C to C alkyl phenols. We prefer to use a fonmaldehyde yielding compound such as Formalin, formaldehyde, and trioxymethylenes.
Since the products of this invention are ultimately for use in preparing lubricant oil formulations, it is advantageous to use light mineral oil, e.g. from white mineral oils to solvent extracted SAE 10 grade oils, as the reaction solvent. The boron-containing derivatives of high molecular weight Mannich condensation products of this invention are then obtained as solutes in concentrations of 40 to 70 weight percent in said mineral oil solvents. This is readily accomplished by using oil solutions of the C and higher carbon content alkyl-substituted phenol reactant dissolved in light mineral oil of from white mineral oil to SAE 10 grade oil.
It is known that boron halides such as boron trifluoride, boron triiodide and boron trichloride can form an interaction product with phenolic hydroxy groups, i.e. hydroxy group substituents on a benzene ring. It has also been demonstrated that boron oxide, boron oxide hydrate, boron trifluoride, boron triiodide, boron tribromide, boron trichloride, boric acid, boronic acids (such as alkyl- B-(OH) and aryl-B-(OH) tetraboric acid, metaboric acid and esters of boric acids form interaction products with other polar groups such as the primary and secondary amino (--NH and -NH) groups as well as phenolic hydroxy groups. 'Ethers, organic acids, inorganic acids or hydrocarbon complexes with boron halides can be used as convenient means for introducing the boron compound as a reactant into the oil solutions of the hydroxyalkylbenzyl substituted amine products of this invention. More specifically in place of the aqueous solution of boric acid, dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of. boric acid and oil slurry of boric acid used in the examples hereinbefore set forth, there can be used boron trifluoride-diethyl ether complex, boron trifiuoride-phosphoric acid complex, boron trichloride-chloroacetic acid complex, boron tribromide-dioxane complex, boron trifluoride-methyl ethyl ether complex.
The boron reactant when introduced as a boronic acid can be methylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, cyclohexylboronic acid, p-octylphenylboronic acid, decylboronic acid and the like. The boron reactant when introduced as an ester of boric acid can be mono-, diand triesters derived by a means well known to the chemist by reacting one mole boric acid or tetraboric acid with such hydroxy compounds as alkanols, alkylene diols, cycloalkanols and the like. These esters of boric acids can be used to replace boric acid reactant illustrated in the examples hereinbefore set forth.
Since the boron reactant can form an interaction product with any or all of the polar groups, the phenolic hydroxy, the secondary amino and primary amino groups present in the Mannich products, it is not known with certainty which of the polar groups are involved in the formation of the interaction product. It is not essential for the purposes of this invention for the boron compound reactant to form an interaction product with one or more particular polar group present as long as a stable boron compound interaction product forms. By stable boron compound interaction product is meant one that can be heated at least to 300350 F. and filtered at 300-350 F. without substantially completely removing boron from the solute in the filtrate. The B/N ratios (weight ratio of boron to nitrogen) in the boroncontaining derivatives of this invention are 'B/ N ratios in the range suitably of from 0.01 to 4.0, desirably from 0.01 to 1.0 and preferably from 0.05 to 0.5. Such boron interaction products when used in lubricant oil formulations provide better anti-corrosion and/or anti-wear protection especially when alkaline earth metal salts of alkylbenzene sulfonic acids (e.g. calcium or magnesium C to Cmmo alkyl substituted benzene sulfonic acids) are also employed as addition agents.
The following examples will illustrate specific embodiments of this invention.
Example l.There are combined 1000 grams of an SA'E 5 oil solution having 35 percent NAMW 892 alkylphenols (alkyl group from polypropylene) by weight (0.392 mole alkylphenol) and 0.392 mole TEPA. This mixture is stirred and heated to 210 F. and 32 milliliters formaldehyde (0.392 mole) are added slowly permitting the temperature of the reaction mixture to increase to about 240 F. The resulting mixture is heated to 340 F. and nitrogen is injected at 1.0 c.f.h. for minutes. The final temperature is 320 F. This mixture is stirred and cooled to 180 F. and an additional 32 milliliters formaldehyde are added increasing the reaction temperature to 200 F. At this temperature 409 grams (0.55 mole) boric acid (ratio of 0.4 B to 1.0 N) is added and the resulting mixture is stirred and heated to 330 F., held at this temperature with nitrogen injection at 1.0 c.f.h. for hours. The resulting hazy reaction mixture is filtered. The filtrate, a clear liquid is analyzed for nitrogen and boron. The nitrogen content is 1.7 percent and boron content is 0.16 percent, both by weight.
Example 2.There are combined, stirred and heated to 180 F., a solvent extracted SAE 5W oil solution containing 2.38 millimoles of alkylphenol obtained by alkylating phenol with a 70,000 NAMW polybutene (solution has a 100 F. viscosity of 38,880 SSU) and 2.38 millimoles TEPA. Then two additions of 2.38 millimoles formaldehyde are made at 140 F. and 160 F., respectively, with heating to 300320 F. and 1 c.f.h. nitrogen injection after each formaldehyde addition. Thereafter this very high molecular weight Mannich product is reacted with boric acid as in Example 1.
Example 3.There are combined, stirred and heated to 170 F., 630 grams solvent extracted SAE 5W oil, 0.29 mole TEPA and 700 grams of 1836 NAMW alkylphenol (alkyl group from polybutene of 124 average carbons) to provide 0.29 mole of alkylphenol. Thereafter 0.29 mole formaldehyde is added, the liquid mixture is stirred and held at 320 F. for two hours while injecting nitrogen at 2 c.f.h. Then 0.15 mole of p-nonylphenol is added, the resulting mixture stirred and cooled to 180 F. and a second addition of 0.29 mole formaldehyde is made. The resulting liquid mixture is stirred and heated to 340 F., held at 340 F. for 2 hours while injecting nitrogen at 2 c.f.h. The resulting liquid solution is filtered. The filtrate is a bright clear liquid having a 210 F. viscosity of 1018 SSU and is found by analysis to contain 1.4% nitrogen by weight and have a 33.02 TBN. The solute dissolved in the SAE 5W solvent extracted oil is reacted with boric acid to provide a B/N ratio of 3.0 using the technique described in Example 1 for such reaction with boric acid.
Example 4.-In this preparation, bis-carbamide of TEPA, i.e. the compound derived by reacting 2 moles TEPA with one mole urea to split out two moles ammonia is employed in place of TEPA. There is employed 0.031 mole of said bis-carbamide of TEPA, 0.031 mole of 1713 NAMW polybutylphenol dissolved in SAE 5W oil (143 grams of solution) and two 0.031 mole portions of CH O each added at 180 F. with heating to 320 F. for 90 minutes and 1.5 c.f.h. nitrogen injection after each addition. The resulting liquid product is filtered. The filtrate is reacted with boric acid to provide a B/N ratio of 0.5 using the technique of Example 1.
Example 5.As an example of such a sulfur-containing dispersant-detergent oxidation inhibiting compound of this invention, there are reacted 0.32 mole of thiourea and 0.64 mole of diethylene triamine to produce 0.32 mole bis-thiocarbamide of diethylene triamine:
under conditions splitting out two moles ammonia. Then 0.32 mole of this bis-thiocarbamide is combined with 1088 grams of 1836 NAMW C polybutylphenol to provide 0.32 mole of C alkylphenol. After stirring and heating this mixture to 140 F. there is added 0.32 mole formaldehyde, this mixture is heated to 340 F., held at 340 F. while injecting 2.2 c.f.h. nitrogen for 75-80 minutes, cooled to 200 R, an additional 0.32 mole CH O is added, and the resulting liquids stirred and heated to 340 F. and nitrogen at 2.2 c.f.h. is injected at 340 F. for 2 hours. The resulting mixture is filtered. The filtrate is reacted 10 with boric acid to provide a B/N ratio of 0.1 using the technique of that described in Example 1.
Example 6.-This bis-carbamide (0.29 mole) derived from DETA (Example 5) is used in place of 0.29 mole TEPA with the 0.29 mole C polybutylphenol and 0.15 mole p-nonylphenol and two 0.29 mole portions formaldehyde in the process of Example 3 to produce a related sulfur-containing product as solute in SAE 5W oil. This solution is reacted with boric acid as before described to provide a B/N ratio of 0.05.
Example 7.There are combined, stirred and heated to 180 F. 0.482 mole TEPA and 2500 grams of 33% by weight 1713 NAMW alkylphenol in solvent extracted SAE 5W oil to provide 0.482 mole of said alkylphenol. Then 0.482 mole CH O is added and the liquid mixture is stirred and heated to 340 F. and held at that temperature for minutes While injecting nitrogen at 2 c.f.h. Thereafter the liquid reaction mixture is cooled to 180 R, an additional 0.482 mole formaldehyde is added and the resulting liquid is stirred and heated to 340 F. while 2 c.f.h. nitrogen is injected for 5 hours. The resulting liquid is filtered at 300 F.
The 300 F. filtrate, a clear-bright liquid, is cooled to 250 F. under a nitrogen gas blanket and then 9.5 grams boric acid slurried in 20 grams SAE 5W oil is added. The resulting mixture is held at 250 F. for 60 minutes, is then heated to 300 F. and held at 300 F. with nitrogen injection at 2 c.f.h. for 60 minutes. The resulting solution of borated product solute in SAE 5W oil is filtered through Oelite at about 300 F. The filtrate is a bright liquid, which from analysis, is found to contain 1.08% nitrogen and 0.04% boron, all by weight.
Example 8.There are combined, stirred and heated to F. 334 grams of 33 weight percent 1900 NAMW (0.058 mole) alkylphenol in SAE 5W oil and 0.058 mole of a boric acid derivative of TEPA (0.2 B/N). Then 0.058 mole CH O is added, the mixture is heated to 200 F. and an additional 0.05 8 mole CH O is added 45 minutes after the first addition. The mixture is stirred and heated to 270 F., held at 270 F. for 2 hours with 1.5 c.f.h. nitrogen injection. The liquid product is filtered at 27 0 F.
To 250 grams of filtrate there is slowly added 3.14 grams boric acid dissolved in 10 ml. dimethylformamide to minimize frothing by DMF boiling. This mixture is heated to 340 F. and 2 c.f.h. nitrogen is injected for 60 minutes. The liquid product is bright and clear. DMF appears to promote the interaction of boric acid with the free amine groups. The liquid product is filtered. The filtrate is a bright clear liquid having 0.25% boron and 0.83% nitrogen as determined by analysis.
When the foregoing process is repeated, the liquid reaction mixture became crystal clear in 30 minutes at 320 F. after addition of the DMF solution of boric acid.
Example 9.There are combined 0.217 mole TEPA and 1250 grams of 33 weight percent 1900 NAMW alkylphenol dissolved in SAE 5W oil to provide 0.217 mole of that alkylphenol and the mixture is stirred and heated to 120 F. The first 0.217 mole CH O is added at 120 F., nitrogen is injected at 2 c.f.h. for 30 minutes, the mixture is heated to and held at 220 F. for 105 minutes, then cooled to 200 F. at which temperature the second addition of 0.217 mole CH O is made and the reaction temperature is raised to 220 F. and there held for 2 hours. Thereafter 16 grams boric acid dissolved in 25 grams water is added at 200 F. by means of a dropping funnel. Then the reaction temperature is increased to 300 F. and held there for 90 minutes with 2 c.f.h. nitrogen injection. The liquid product is filtered. The clear bright filtrate is found, by analysis, to contain 0.16% boron and 1.07% nitrogen by weight.
Example 10.-(A) There are combined, stirred and heated to F. 0.05 8 mole diethylene triamine and 306 grams of a 38% solution of 2000 NAMW alkylphenol (0.05 8 mole) in white oil. A first addition of 0.058 mole formaldehyde is made and the mixture is stirred and heated to 220 F. and held at 220 F. for 60 minutes. Thereafter the mixture is cooled to 200 F. and the second addition of 0.058 mole formaldehyde is made. This mixture is stirred and heated to 300 F. and held at that temperature for 2 hours. There is no evidence of unreacted formaldehyde or amine. The liquid product is filtered. The filtrate, a light and clear liquid has a 210 F. viscosity of 1531 SSU, a specific gravity of 0.8996 at 77 F. and from analysis is found to contain 0.67% nitrogen by weight.
(B) By substituting 0.058 mole bis-carbamide derived from DETA in the foregoing reaction, a liquid product of 1.3 to 1.5% nitrogen by weight may be obtained.
Both (A) and .(B) are reacted with boric acid to provide products having 0.5 and 0.3 B/N ratios respectively.
Example 11.There are combined, stirred and heated to 140 F. while injecting 2 c.f.h. nitrogen, 0.48 mole TEPA and 2500 grams of solution containing 33% by weight 1713 NAMW alkylphenol in SAE W oil. The first addition of 0.48 mole formaldehyde is made and the liquid mixture is heated to 220 F. while stirring and nitrogen injection is continued for 105 minutes. The liquid reaction mixture is cooled to 200 F., the second addition of 0.48 mole formaldehyde is made and the liquid mixture is heated to 220 F. with continued stirring and nitrogen injection for 105 minutes. Thereafter a solution of 32 grams boric acid in 76 grams water heated to 210 F. is added dropwise to the stirred liquid reaction product still at 220 F. After the aqueous solution of boric acid is added, the reaction temperature is increased to 300 F. and held at 300 F. for 90 minutes with continued stirring and nitrogen injection. The resulting oil solution of borated reaction product is filtered at 300 F. The filtrate is a clear, bright liquid and by analysis is found to contain 0.17% boron and 1.05% nitrogen, both by weight. The weight ratio B/N in said product is 0.16.
Example 12.There are combined, stirred and heated to 140 F. with nitrogen injection at 1.5 c.f.h., a solution of 33% alkylphenol of 1713 NAMW (0.159 mole) in SAE 5W oil and 0.159 mole TEPA. The first addition of 0.159 mole formaldehyde is made, the reaction temperature is increased to 320 and held there for 90 minutes with continued stirring and nitrogen injection. The reaction mixture is cooled to 160 F. and the second addition of 0.159 mole formaldehyde is made and 11.5 grams boric acid crystals are also added. This mixture is stirred and heated to 300 F. under a nitrogen atmosphere and held at 300 F. until no solid boric acid can be seen. Thereafter nitrogen is injected at 1.5 c.f.h. until water is substantially removed. The filtered solution of reaction product is found by analysis to have 1.11% nitrogen and 0.18% boron, both by weight. The solute reaction product has a B/ N weight ratio of 0.16.
Example 13.--There are combined, stirred and heated to 140 F., 2700 grams of solution of 1713 NAMW alkylphenol (0.58 mole) in SAE 5W oil and 0.58 mole TEPA. At 140 F. the first addition of 0.58 mole formaldehyde is made and the mixture is stirred and heated to 200 F. while injecting nitrogen at 1.0 c.f.h. for 30 minutes and then the second 0.58 mole formaldehyde addition is made at 200 F. with no nitrogen injection. This mixture is heated to 260 F. with nitrogen injection and stirred for 3 hours at 260 F. Thereafter a slurry of 63 grams boric acid in. 50 grams SAE 5W oil is added with no nitrogen injection but while stirring the resulting mixture under a nitrogen blanket atmosphere. The oil solution-boric acid slurry is stirred and heated to 300 F. and held at 290 to 300 F. for 60 minutes while injecting nitrogen at 1.0 c.f.h. The resulting SAE 5W oil solution of reaction product is filtered at 320 F. The filtrate is found by analysis to contain 0.16% boron and 1.12% nitrogen (B/N weight ratio of 0.14) and has a 210 F. viscosity of 1700 SSU.
Example 14.The process of Example 13 is repeated using 2990 grams of 37.2% by weight 1900 NAMW alkylphenol (0.58 mole), 0.58 mole TEPA, two additions of 0.58 mole each of formaldehyde, and 43 grams boric acid slurried in 50 grams SAE 5W oil. The filtrate has a 210 F. viscosity of 1766 SSU and is found by analysis to contain 0.08% boron and 1% nitrogen with weight ratio of B/N of 0.08.
Example 15.The process of Example 13 is repeated using 2255 gallons of 46% by weight 1750 NAMW alkylphenol ,(4.32 pound moles), 376 gallons SAE 5W oil, 98 gallons (4.42 pound moles) TEPA, two additions of 350 pounds Formalin (37% CH O) to provide 4.32 pound moles formaldehyde at each addition, 200 pounds boric acid slurried in 100 gallons SAE 5W oil at 250 F., and 50 gallons SAE 5W oil at 250 F. to wash boric acid slurry transfer line into the reactor. The filtrate obtained from such a process typically has a 210 F. viscosity in the range of 800 to 900 SSU and contains about 40 weight percent borated reaction product dissolved in SAE 5W oil (40% product-60% oil by weight), 1.18 to 1.22% nitrogen by weight, 0.09 to 0.11% boron by weight and a B/ N ratio of 0.075 to 0.085.
A screening detergent-dispersant test is made using crankcase oil drained from a Lincoln Sequence V Engine Test. Two equal volumes of the drained oil are taken as sample. To one volume there is added 0.56 gram of the product of Example 7. Nothing is added to the second volume (control sample). The treated and untreated samples of the drained oil are heated and stirred at 300 F. for 16 hours. An aliquot of each is transferred to blotlated. For the used oil with product of Example 7 added the O0/Ds 100 is 91.5. For tht used oil untreated (control) the D0/Ds 100 is 60. This establishes the super detergency-dispersancy power of the boron-containing high molecular weight Mannich products of this invention.
The same test procedure conducted with borated Mannich condensation products of C to C alkyl-substituted phenol, typical of boron derivatives of prior art products made for example from 2 moles nonylphenolzl mole TEPA and 2 moles formaldehyde, do not impart sufficiently good dispersancy-detergency properties to show improvement over the control.
Example 16.-There are combined, stirred and heated to 180 F., grams SAE 5W weight oil, 0.056 mole (50 grams) of 892 NAMW polypropyl substituted phenol (polypropyl group of 57 average carbon content) and 2.62 grams (0.014 mole) tetraethylene pentamine. Thereafter 0.06 mole of formaldehyde (4.9 grams of Formalin) are added over a two minute period causing the temperature of the reaction mixture to rise to 210 F. The reaction mixture is held at 210 F. for about one hour. Nitrogen is injected into the stirred mixture heated to about 230 F. to remove by-products water. The resulting oil solution prepared in this manner contains as solute about 34.6% of 3580 (calculated) molecular weight Mannich condensation product having 1.84% nitrogen, the solution has 0.64% nitrogen. A 0.3 B/N product solute is prepared by reacting'that solution with boric acid in DMF as before described.
Example 17.There are combined, stirred and heated to 180 F., 0.222 mole of polypropyl substituted phenol (900 NAMW) and 0.222 mole of diethanolamine. Thereafter 0.222 mole of formaldehyde is added and then the temperature of the stirred mixture is raised to 310 F. At that temperature nitrogen was injected into the stirred liquid to remove by-product water. The respective molar ratio of phenolzaminezaldehyde used is 1:1:1. The dried liquid product is clear but upon cooling becomes a dark viscous liquid and has a molecular weight (1005 NAMW) and a viscosity of 16,269 SSU at 210 F. This product is reacted at 220 F. with boric acid in DMF as before described to obtain a solute having a B/N ratio of 0.59.
Example 18.-There are combined, stirred and heated to 200 F., 200 grams of a solution of (83%) polypropyl-suhstituted phenol (0.186 mole) of 892 NAMW in SAE W weight oil and 7.8 grams (0.062 mole) of melamine. Then milliliters of Formalin (37% CH O) to provide 0.186 mole formaldehyde is added and the mixture became milky White. The milky white appearance remained until the stirred mixture is heated to 470480 F. whereupon water vapors came off and water condensate appeared in an air cooled vapor take ofI condenser. The resulting product is reacted with boric acid in DMF to provide a B/N ratio of 0.3.
Example l9.--The use of high molecular weight alkylsubstituted phenol and low molecular weight alkyl-substituted phenol in a one step Mannich condensation reaction is conducted in the following manner. There are combined, stirred and heated to 180 F., 200' grams of the oil solution (83%) of the polypropyl-substituted phenol (0.186 mole) of 892 NAMW, 123 grams (0.558 mole) of nonylphenol and 35 milliliters (0.186 mole) of tetraethylene pentamine. To this mixture there is added 60 milliliters of Formalin (37% CH O') to provide 0.744 mole formaldehyde. The resulting mixture is heated first to 320 F. and then held at 280300 F. for four hours to remove by-product water. The resulting oil solution is deep red in color, has a nitrogen content of 2.97 and an oxygen content of 4.13%. The molecular weight (NAMW) of the dissolved high molecular weight Mannich condensation product is 1339. This solution is reacted with boric acid in DMF to obtain a product with a B/N ratio of 0.5.
Example 20.There are combined, stirred and heated to 300 F., 100 grams (0.093 mole) of the oil solution (83%) of polypropyl-substituted phenol (892 NAMW) described in Example 18, 0.093 mole nonylphenol and 0.093 mole of hydrazine hydrate. To this stirred mixture there is added 15 milliliters of Formalin (37% CH O) to provide 0.186 mole formaldehyde. The mixture is maintained at 300 F. for hours. The dried product is dark in color and is an oil solution of high molecular weight Mannich condensation product of hydrazine as the NH compound reactant. Boration with boric acid in DMF readily can provide B/N ratios of 0.05 to 0.6.
Example 21.A high molecular weight Mannich condensation product is prepared by the one step process before described using high molecular weight alkyl-substituted (alkyl has an average of 60 carbons) phenol (916 NAMW) dissolved in SAE 5W oil, 0.9 mole tetraethylene pentamine and 1.8 mole formaldehyde for a respective molar ratio of reactants of 120.521. The dry product contains 82% high molecular weight Mannich condensation product (2000 NAMW) in the solvent oil.
This product is borated in the following manner. For each 250 grams of product (82% of 2000 NAMW Mannich condensation product) there is added 250 grams of SAE 5W oil and 19 grams boric acid. The mixture is stirred, heated slowly to and held at 300 F. for 7 hours while injecting nitrogen to remove by-product water. The dried product is filtered to remove unreacted boric acid using Celite filter-aid. The filtrate is a clear solution containing 0.23% boron.
Example 22.There are combined, stirred and heated to 160 F., 2000 grams of SAE 5W oil solution of (45.9%) polybutyl-substituted phenol of 1600 NAMW to provide 0.716 mole of that substituted phenol, 94 grams (0.495 mole) tetraethylene pentamine and 420 grams of SAE 5W oil. Then one drop of liquid silicon anti-foam agent and 100 milliliters of Formalin (37% CH O) to provide 1.318 moles formaldehyde are added at one time to the hot stirred mixture. After the temperature increase from the reaction of the added formaldehyde has occurred, the temperature of the stirred solution of reaction product is increased to 300 F. and nitrogen is injected into stirred and heated solution. Nitrogen injection and stirring is continued while the solution is held at a temperature of about 310 F. (:10 F.) for two hours to drive off by-product water. Then the solution is filtered.
The hot filtrate is bright, i.e., has a good clarity. The solution contains about 42% by weight of high molecular weight Mannich condensation product, a nitrogen content of 1.02% and a viscosity of 1013 SSU at 210 F. The reactants polybutyl-substituted phenol, amine and formaldehyde are used in the respective molar ratio of 1:0.69:1.835.
The product of the foregoing example, oil solution having 1.07% nitrogen and of the high molecular weight Mannich condensation product as solute in the 42% concentration, is borated with boric acid to a boron content of 0.1%. This boric acid borated derivative is used in a crankcase lubricant oil formulation at a 4.5 volume percent concentration (about 23 weight percent of condensation product) with either 2.0 volume percent of 300 total base number (TBN) calcium sulfonate or 1.0 volume percent 300 TBN magnesium sulfonate and 1.0 volume percent of the solution of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate anti-wear and anti-corrosion agent (hereafter more specifically defined). Both crankcase lubricant oil formulations (one with 300 TBN Ca-sulfonate and the other with 300 TBN Mg-sulfonate) when used in the Ford- 2-89 cubic inch displacement Engine Test hereafter described, result in Total Sludge values in the range of 41 to 48 and Total Varnish values in the range of 41 to 43. Similar crankcase lubricant oil formulations, the only exception being the use of 3 volume percent of boric acid borated product of the foregoing example having 0.3% boron produce equivalent high detergency-dispersancy results in the Ford-289 'Engine Test (Sludge values of 41 to 48 and varnish values of 40 to 43) and provide in the CLRL38 Engine Test (hereafter described) designed to evaluate high temperature oxidation stability of crankcase lubricant oils, varnish and bearing loss values in the passing range for premium oils. Spot Dispersancy Test (hereafter described) using 3.1 volume percent of the oil solution having 0.3% boron produced a value of 88.5.
ENGINE TESTS The effectiveness of the substituted amine products of this invention as detergent-dispersant addition agent for lubricant oil compositions can be demonstrated by their use in such compositions as crankcase lubricants in actual engine tests such as the Lincoln Sequence V Engine Test, the Ford 289 Engine Test and the L-38 Engine Test aforementioned.
It will be noted that the hydroxyalkyl benzyl substituted amine products of this invention used in said tests unlike hydroxyalkyl benzyl substituted amines of the prior art are not used as their calcium, barium, magnesium or other alkaline earth metal or alkali metal salts.
The compounds of this invention can function as detergent-dispersant addition agents in lubricant oil compositions in the weight percent range suitably of from 0.1 to 10%, desirably in the range of 0.2 to 8.0% and preferably in the range of 0.5 to 5%. However, lubricant oil solutions having 10 to 50% or more by weight of the novel hydroxyalkyl benzyl substituted polyalkylene amines of this invention including the bis(polyalkylene amine) carbamides and thiocarbamides are useful in the preparation of finished lubricant oil compositions because they can be readily and conveniently combined with concentrates of other lubricant oil addition agents such as oil solutions of the alkaline earth metal sulfonates, e.g. normal and high based calcium and magnesium salts of petroleum sulfonic acids such as sour oil, mahogany acid and alkyl substituted benzene sulfonic acids having alkyl hydrocarbon groups of a carbon content of greater than 16 and more specifically of 30 to 20,000 carbon atom alkyl hydrocarbon group size, oil solutions of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and other concentrate solutions of lubricant addition agents all of which are used for their antiwear, anti-corrosion, anti-foam, oxidation inhibition, oiliness, viscosity-index improving properties. For example, the oil solution concentrates having 10 to 50% by weight of the novel substituted amine products of this invention can be easily blend mixed with base oils and oil solution concentrates of the aforementioned addition agents having anti-wear, anti-corrosion, viscosityduring test operation.
16 L-38 ENGINE TEST The L38 Engine Test is also known as CLR L-38 Engine Test and is designed to evaluate high temperature oxidation stability of the formulated lubricant oil irldex improving, anti-roam, Properties in trensfer and such evaluation is based on piston varnish deposit lmo blendmg, o concentrate and base oil are and copper-lead bearing corrosion. In this test a single charged to atransfer 1111c. from sources of pp y of each cylinder water cooled Labeco oil test engine is operated Concentrate 111 the reellllred Proportions 5o filer there at 3150 r.p.m. for 40 hours with the test oil formulaflows from the transfer line a completely finished, fu l tion. The oil is maintained at 300 F. and cooling water formulated lubricant oil composition ready for packaging iS maintained at copper iead connecting rod r quart gallon: 5 quart, 30 gallon 55 gallon bearings are weighed before and after the 40 hour test. tarners or tank car and/or truck for dehvery to the ult Bearing weight loss (BWL) f 50 milligrams or less is more oorlsumerfimshed and fully formulated desired. After the 40 hour test the piston is visually evalucant 011 compositions are useful as crankcase lubncants ated d a ish value is assigned by comparison to flutomohlle, truck and railway gasoline and/01' dlesel varnish deposit pictorial standards having assigned values englnesof l to 10 for the color and extent of varnish deposit.
The aforementloned Lincoln q e V Englne Test, In this varnish value scale of l to 10, the value 10 repre- Ford Englfle T and Engme Test are seuts a clean and varnish free piston and the value 1 ducted 111 the followlng mahnerrepresents a substantially complete dark varnish coated LINCOLN SEQUEN V ENGINE TEST piston. To qualify as a premium oil additive the varnish value should be 9.0 and above.
i fl thls test deslgned evaluate dlspefsancy f The following lubricant formulations in which all peracteristrcs of formulated lubricant oiis consists of us1ng cent of the addition agent indicated are by volume are the P to be tested lubncamfg 011 m a Lmcoln prepared for use in the foregoing engine tests. Products Engme 9 prescnbed F condltlons' Accordlnglyi fi of this invention are identified by reference to the approguarts of 011 are Qlaced m the crrimkcase and the engm? priate example of preparation and the volume percent 15 started and run in accordance with the four-hour cycle. Solution produced The weight percent of the solute prod uct or dissolved is that of the active ingredient, i.e. the Phasel Phase 2 Phases dissolved substituted amine product, is shown under weight percent. Where used Ca-300 and Mg-300 g g g g 45 min gg 6 designate the respective sulfonates dissolved as concen Loed '.II NolodIIII IIII tra es in SAE 5W oil with a total base number of 300 for gi'gfg f 115 to 120 125 to 130 170 to 175 the solution and other higher or lower numbers designate onsum .'.'lIIIIIIIIIIIIII 120 to 1251:: 175tc1s0III 205m 210I higher or lower solution total base numbers. The desig- A/F nation ZOP is used to identify a zinc dialkyldithiophos- 1 105 H.P. phate anti-wear anti-corrosion addition agent whose alkyl groups are derived from the conjoint reaction of three The f h cycle iS reset a total f 48 times (192 different alcohols (two of which are primary alcohols such hours running time). After each 16 hours of operation as 5 and 10 oXo-derlvefi alcohols h e thlrd 18 a the engine is shut down for 8 hours. Two-ounce samples fig h rgeohol g lg p ayih t z l y f i lgl il are taken ever 30 hours and the oil level is ad- W1 P osP orus Po e an e o a mo es o iii st d with fresh oil t o a level of five quarts. Added oil three alcohols the stoichiometric amount required to is weighed. At the time of the test, the hot oil is drained, qbtam hligp gp g vtvlih wei hed and recorded. The en ine is then disassembled Zlne 2111C 0X1 115 e is a S a is lea miX llfe and tested for deposits of varnish and sludge among other of the zinc salts having the three aforementioned alcohol observable results as set out in the table below. Engine dark/(62d alltyl groups. gince the relatlivehpioportigns ofpd com onents are examined visuall and rated on a scale s p y an 10 p 'y a C0 0 S can 6 Vane of l to 10, 10 being a perfect reading indicating no considerably to provide an oil-soluble zinc salt, their sludge or varnish. A rating of for total sludge and precise proportions need not be indicated. A ZOP prodfor total varnish is considered perfect; a rating of 50 e typi l f th t d is a c c tr te zinc i ky percent or lower is considered passing for screen clogging; dithiophosphate in SAE 5W oil having the following and a rating of 50 percent or lower is considered passing typical properties: Solution has 210 F. viscosity of 67 for ring plugging. SSU, 8% Zn, 8% P and 16% S, all by weight.
TABLE I.-'IEST OIL FORMULATIONS Example Percent Vol. Weight Base Formulation No. Number percent percent ZOP (Ia-300 Mg-300 oil I 14 5.2 2. 0a 0.62 0 0 94.18 H 11 5.0 2.0 0.62 o 0 94.38 III 9 2.5 1.0 0.62 o 1.0 95.88 IV 9 5.0 2.0 0.85 o 2.0 92.15
FORD-289 ENGINE TEST The results of using above formulations in the Lincoln The Ford 289 cubic inch displacement engine test, 60 Sequence V Engine Test are Presented in Table hereinafter designated as F-289 Test, is conducted in the same manner as the Lincoln Sequence V Test except TABLE O E V ENGINE S for the apparent difference in test engines. This F-28c91 P t 1 Test is more severe with respect to both sludge an ercen oi varnish formation and deposition. Also the F-289 Test 70 Fmmulatwn sludge Varmsh mgpluggmg is conducted with vapors from the crankcase being i 3g 8 troduced into the engine fuel intake system by means of a positive crankcase ventilation system which, in part, results in the more severe sludge and varnish formation T esul s of the e Of t lndlcated fo S n the Ford-289 Engine Test are given in Table III.
The results from the CLR L-38 Engine Test using the formulations indicated are given in Table IV.
TABLE IV.CLR 14-38 ENGINE TEST RESULTS Piston Bearing Weight Formulation varnish loss, mg.
I 9. 8 35 II 9. 8 45 Lubricant oil formulations prepared from other of the products of this invention when used in the foregoing engine tests in the same or higher amounts of active ingredient will provide for the obtention of the same superior results.
In general, the active ingredient product of this invention obtained as solute in light minenal .oil has structural formulae as hereinbefore shown.
1. An oil soluble boron-containing product comprising a boron-containing derivative of a Mannich condensation product of the reactants (l) a high molecular weight alkylsubstituted hydroxyaromatic compound wherein said alkyl substitutent has from 40 to 20,000 carbon atoms, (2) a lower molecular weight alkyl phenol whose alkyl group has 2 to 20 carbon atoms, (3) a polyamine of the formula wherein n is an integer of from 1 to 10, A is the divalent ethylene radical and Z is oxygen or sulfur, and (4) a formaldehyde affording compound wherein the respective molar ratio of reactants is l.0:0.350.7:0.71.0: 1.4-2 condensed with a boron compound selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron halide and boron acid to provide a boron-containing product having a B/N weight ratio of 0.1-4: 1.0.
2. The boron-containing product of claim 1 wherein the high molecular weight alkyl-substituted phenol has an alkyl substituent of molecular weight of 600-3000.
3. The boron-containing product of claim 2 wherein the high molecular weight alkyl-substituted phenol is polypropyl-substituted or polybutyl-substituted phenol of 600-3000 molecular weight.
4. The product of claim 1 derived from boric acid condensed with the Mannich condensation derived from (1) a polybutylphenol whose polybutyl-substituent has a molecular weight of 800 to 2500; and (2) nonylphenol.
5. The product of claim 4 wherein the polyamine is tetraethylene polyamine.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,000,916 9/1961 Klass let a1 260-462 R X 3,036,003 5/1962 Verdol 25223.4 3,087,936 4/1963 Le Suer 260326.3
LEON ZITVER, Primary Examiner L. B. DE CRESCENTE, Assistant Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||558/294, 564/9, 508/195, 558/286, 558/292, 564/8|
|International Classification||C07C275/14, C07F5/04, C10M159/16, C08F8/42, C08F8/32, C07F5/02|
|Cooperative Classification||C10M2215/224, C07F5/022, C10N2230/12, C10M2221/00, C10N2270/02, C10M159/16, C10N2210/03, C10M2215/26, C10M2215/30, C07F5/04, C10M2215/226, C10M2215/225, C10M2215/065, C10M2215/221, C10M2227/061, C10M2219/044, C10M2219/066, C10N2250/121, C10N2210/02, C10M2223/045, C10M2215/04, C10M2217/046, C07C275/14, C08F8/32, C10M2217/06, C10M2219/046, C10M2215/22, C10M2215/102, C08F8/42, C10M2219/064, C10M2227/06, C10M2215/062|
|European Classification||C08F8/42, C08F8/32, C07C275/14, C07F5/02B, C10M159/16, C07F5/04|