US 3705725 A
A shooting target having at least two electrically conductive sheets, which are connected to circuits for automatically indicating position and point value of hit scored, the projectile fired simultaneously contacting the two sheets to close the circuit. The circuit utilizes two shift registers, each of which is connected to an oscillator. Each shift register comprises flip-flops each connected to respective conductive zones and sectors of the target. The flip-flop of the shift register is triggered via a NAND gate when a target zone is hit, and it, in turn triggers an oscillator. The pulses of the oscillator are directed on one hand to the flip-flops and returns them to their steady-state condition. On the other hand, the pulses of the oscillator are directed to the counter of a receiver which indicates the value which corresponds to that of the target zone hit.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[451 Dec. 12, 1972 TARGET AND CIRCUIT MEANS FOR AUTOMATICALLY INDICATING THE SCORE OF A PROJECTILE SHOT FROM A TARGET Inventor: Claude Thalmann, Egg Bei Zurich,
Switzerland Polytronic Ltd., Saint-Aubin, Switzerland Filed: Oct. 23, 1969 Appl. No.: 871,368
Related US. Application Data I Division of Ser. No. 638,692, May 2, 1967, Pat. No. 3,529,828.
Foreign Application Priority Data May 3, 1966 Switzerland ..637l/66 US. Cl. ..273/l02.2 A, 331/145, 235/92 GA, 235/92 SH, 340/323 Int. Cl. ..F4lj 5/04 Field of Search .331/145; 273/102.2 R, 102.2 B, 273/1022 A; 307/22] R References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 11/1954 Ross ..273/102.2:A
Groder ..273/ 102.2 B
3,454,277 7/1969 La Mura ..273/102.2 A 2,506,475 5/1950 Traub ..273/l02.2 A 3,323,800 6/1967 Knight ..273/l02.2 R
Primary Examiner-Richard C. Pinkham Assistant Examiner-Marvin Siskind Attorney-Ostrolenk, Faber, Gerb & Soffen ductive sheets, which are connected to circuits for automatically indicating position and point value of hit scored, the projectile fired simultaneously contacting the two sheets to close the circuit. The circuit utilizes two shift registers, each of which is connected to an oscillator. Each shift register comprises flip-flops each connected to respectiveconductive zones and sectors of the target. The flip-flop of the shift register is triggered via a NAND gate when a target zone is hit, and it, in turn triggers an oscillator. The pulses of the oscillator are directed on one hand to the flip-flops and returns them to their steady-state condition. On the other hand, the pulses of the oscillator are directed to the counter of a receiver which indicates the value which corresponds to that of the target zone hit.
7 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PATENTED DEC 12 I972 SHEET 1 BF 6 PATENTED um: 12 m2 SHEET 2 0F 6 PATENTED an: 12 I972 SHEET 3 OF 6 TARGET AND CIRCUIT MEANS FOR AUTOMATICALLY INDIC ATING THE SCORE OF A PROJECTILE SHOT FROM A TARGET This is a division of Ser. No. 683,692, now US. Pat. No. 3,529,828.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to targets for shooting practice and to the associated electrical circuitry.
The arrangement of present-day shooting ranges is unsatisfactory in a number of respects. A single marksman requires two assistants if the shooting is to proceed relatively smoothly. One assistant, located at the target, indicates, by means of paddles or flags, where the bullet struck the target, and then changes the target for the next shot. The other assistant, the scorekeeper seated behind or to one side of the marksman, marks the score of each hit on a card, and orders that the target be changed after each shot. He has at hand a button controlling an incandescent bulb, for example located next to the first assistant when the bulb is illuminated the first assistant knows that a shot has just been fired and that he must, therefore, change targets, mark down the shot and put away the target that has just been fired at.
In the case of a difference of opinion if, for example, the first assistant says that the target was altogether missed by the last shot, whereas the marksman maintains that he scored a hit the score-keeper must leave his seat to telephone the first assistant to request that he verify the result. The first assistant must leave the target to answer the telephone and then return to the target to reexamine it. He reconsiders the shot and the shooting proceeds.
The very considerable time lost, and the consequent vexation produced, is avoided by the present invention.
SUMMARY An object of the invention is a target for shooting practice having at least two electrically conductive sheets that are separated by a distance less than the length of the projectile used, so that whether or not a hit was scored can be automatically determined and indicated with an appropriate electrical circuit connected to the two sheets, the electrical circuit being completed by the projectile when it simultaneously contacts the two sheets.
A further object of the invention is a target having three electrically conductive sheets, one behind the other and adjacent sheets being separated by less than the length of the projectile, said sheets being of such configuration that, when appropriate circuitry is connected to the three sheets, the position and of the hit scored is automatically determined and indicated, the electrical circuitry being completed by the bullet as it passes through the target.
Another object of the invention is a circuit for use with the target of the first object.
A still further object of the invention is a circuit for use with the target of the second object.
These and further objects of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a front view of one embodiment of the field target;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line II ll of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a rear view of a second embodiment of the field target;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along line IV IV of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a front view of a third embodiment of the field target;
FIG. 6 is a rear view of the form of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along line VII VII of FIGS. 5 or 6;
FIG. 8 shows an automatic indicating circuit for the target of FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 9 shows an automatic indicating circuit for use with the target of FIGS. 5 to 7;
FIG. 10 shows a receiving circuit to be employed with the circuit of FIG. 9; and
FIG. 11 shows a second embodiment of a circuit to be used with the target of FIGS. 5 to 7.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS With reference to FIGS. 1 and 2, the field target illus trated includes a frame I mounted on a foot 2. A layer or sheet of electrically conductive rubber 3 is stretched across the frame 1. An electrically insulating layer 4 of sponge rubber or synthetic foam is glued to the sheet 3, and a second layer or sheet 5 of electrically conductive rubber is glued to the layer 4, whereby the latter is located between the two conductive sheets 3 and 5.
Using an electrically conductive adhesive, a strip 6 or 7 of electrically conductive rubber is glued to the sheet 3 or 5, respectively, and connected to a terminal or plug 8 or 9, respectively. Each terminal is located on a respective face of the foot 2 and outside of the line of fire.
The field target just described is intended to be used with an electrical circuit, which is briefly described at this point and further described below. This circuit includes a stage of amplification, connected to a thyristor, for example, signaling means, and a current source. The amplification stage is connected to the terminals 8 and 9, one of which latter is at a predetermined voltage. When a projectile, such as a bullet from a firearm, passes through the target, the electrical contact established between the connecting series 3 and 5 causes a current to flow in the amplifier, which current fires the thyristor, which then conducts and allows the current to flow to the signaling means.
With reference to FIGS. 3 and 4, the rectangular equipotential target includes an electrically insulating sheet 10, on respective faces of which two sheets 11 and 12 of electrically conductive rubber are glued. The sheet 10 is made of a synthetic plastic material that has a certain degree of rigidity, but which is unbreakable, such that the perforations caused by the projectiles close themselves nearly completely. The sheet 11 is a unitary piece, but the face of sheet 12 is cut into separate pieces or zones l3, l4, l5, 16. These four zones are electrically insulated from each other and the width of the cut away band is less than the diameter of the projectile used. Five electrical terminals 18 I9, 20, 21, 22 are located on a plate 23 mounted of a foot 17 fixed to the base of the target. A strip 24 of electrically conductive rubber is glued with an electrically conductive adhesive to the bottom of sheet 11 and connected IOGOIO 0297 to the terminal 18. Similarly, strips 25, 26, 27, 28 are glued with an electrically conductive adhesive to respective zones 15, 14, I3, 16 and connected to respective terminals 19, 20, 21, 22. Supports 29, 30, 31, 32 of synthetic foam are located just below the places where the strips 25-28 are glued to the respective zones so that the spacing between the strips and the target is greater than the length of the projectile. In this way, any disturbing contact between a conductive sheet and a strip is prevented. The rectangular target just described is for use with the circuits shown in FIGS. 9, 10, 11.
The circular ring target shown in FIGS. 5, 6, 7 employs the principles of the target of FIGS. 3 and 4, but is an improvement over the latter. The target not only gives the value in points of the hit but indicates where the projectile hit the target. It includes three electrically conductive sheets, mutually insulated from each other. The first sheet (FIG. is subdivided into five zones 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 glued on one face of a piece of cloth 40. An electrically insulating sheet 41 is glued on the opposite face of the cloth. A second electrically conductive sheet 42 is glued on the sheet 41 and comprises a single piece covering the entire surface of the target. The sheet 42 will be held at a predetermined voltage. A second electrically insulating sheet 43 is glued on the sheet 42 and a third conductive sheet 44, subdivided into sectors 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 (FIG. 6), is carried by the sheet 43. A cloth 53 is glued to sheet 44. The combination of the conductive and non-conductive sheets and of the two cloths is mounted on a frame 54 by nails 55. The thickness of this combination is less than the length of the projectile used; and the separation between the zones 35 39, which are electrically insulated from one another, and the sectors 45 52, which are also insulated from one another, is less than the diameter of the projectile. Electrically conductive strips 56, 57, 58, 59, 60 are glued with electrically conductive adhesive to respective zones 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and connected to respective terminals 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. A piece of synthetic foam is placed between the strips and the zones of the first conductive sheet. The thickness of the foam 66 is greater than the length of the projectile, so as to prevent any undesirable contact between strip and zone. A piece of cloth 67 is fixed on the front of the frame (FIG. 5), and the target design 68 (FIG. 7) is glued to the front face of the cloth. The third conductive sheet, which is divided into sectors (FIG. 6) that are insulated from each other, has electrically conductive strips 69 to 76, which are glued with an electrically conductive adhesive to respective sectors 45 to 52 and connected to respective terminals 77 to 84. Terminal 85 and strip 86 of the second conductive sheet are shown at the bottom of FIG. 7. The conductive strips and sheets are made of conductive rubber and the insulating sheets of synthetic foam.
In the early development of the targets, shooting tests were conducted using aluminum for the sheets and strips. The electrical contact made by the bullets was so much better than when the sheets and strips were made of conductive rubber that the circuit of FIGS. 9 and 10, employed to indicate the hits on a target using aluminum conductive sheets, can be relatively simple. On the other hand, the substitution of conductive rubber results in a target that is more robust and that has a far longer life. The circuit used in conjunction with target employing conductive rubber sheets will be described in connection with FIG. 11.
The indicating circuit shown in FIG. 8 is for use with the field target of FIGS. 1 and 2. The circuit is very simple and indicates whether or not the target has been hit. It includes two input terminals 90 and 91, each being connected to a respective one of the sheets 3, 5 of the target (FIGS. 1 and 2) by respective terminals 8, 9. A switch 92 represents the electrical contact made by the projectile when it passes through the target. The terminal 90 is connected to the positive terminal 93 of a battery (not shown), and the terminal 91 is connected with the negative terminal 94 of the battery through resistors 95, 96. The base 97 of a transistor 98 is connected to the junction between the resistors 95, 96. The collector 99 of the transistor is connected via a resistor 100 to the positive battery terminal 93. The transistor emitter 101 is connected via a diode 102 to the firing gate or electrode 1030f a thyristor 104. The thyristor is connected between the battery terminals 93, 94 via an incandescent bulb 105 and a time delay relay 106 connected in series with the thyristor. A resistor 107 is connected to the negative battery terminal 94 and to the junction between the diode 102 and the thyristor firing electrode 103.
The circuit operates in the following manner:
When a projectile, which is electrically conductive and momentarily in simultaneous contact with the two conductive sheets 3 and 5, passes through the target, the switch 92 (which merely represents the momentary electrical contact made and actually is not part of the circuit) is closed for a brief instant, and a pulse appears at the base 97 of the transistor. A current passes through the resistor 100, the collector 99 and emitter 101, the diode 102 and arrives at the gate or firing electrode 103, firing the thyristor I04 and rendering it conductive. The indicating means, which may be an incandescent bulb 105, is turned on, and after a lapse of time, set by the time delay relay 106, the current flow is cut off. The bulb 105, which is located near the target but out of line of the shooting, has indicated that the target was hit. The bulb 105 can be replaced, for example, by an apparatus delivering an audible signal, as known to those skilled in the art.
The arrangement shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 will be described when connected to a five-point target of the kind shown in FIGS. 5, 6, 7.
Inasmuch as it is the projectile that, in virtue of its electrical conductivity, establishes the electrical contact between the conductive sheets, it is essential that the separation between the first and second sheets and between the second and third sheets be less than the length of the projectile. Each sector 45 to 52 (FIG. 6) of the third sheet, and each zone 35 to 39 (FIG. 5) of the first sheet, is connected to an input of the sender to be described. The second sheet is also connected to an input of the sender. The electrical contact made by the projectile (as it passes through the target) between, for example, the second sheet and the sector 46 of the third sheet is represented by the switch Y1 in FIG. 9. Contact between sector 45 and the second sheet is represented by switch Y2 in FIG. 9. Each of the sectors 47 to 52 corresponds to a respective switch Y3,
Y4, Y5, Y6, Y7, Y8. The electrical contact established by the projectile where it passes through zone 39 (of the first sheet) and the second sheet is represented by switch X1 in FIG. 9. Each of the zones 38, 37, 36, 35 corresponds to a respective switch X2, X3, X4, X5.
The right hand portion of the sender shown in FIG. 9 is electrically connected to the sectors 45 to 52 of the third conductive sheet (FIG. 6). Each sector is connected to the firing electrods of a respective thyristor 120 to 127. Each thyristor is series connected with an individual incandescent bulb L1 to L8, bulb L1 being connected to thyristor 120, L2 to 121, etc. The eight thyristors 120 to 127 and their bulbs are connected in parallel with a time delay relay 128 that controls a switch 129. The eight thyristors 120 to 127 are put under voltage via the leads 130 and 131, which are connected to terminals 130a, 131a of a direct current voltage source. The positive terminal 132 serves to put the second conductive sheet under a positive voltage. The switch 129 is normally closed and is opened by the relay 128 two to five seconds after the latter has been energized. The incandescent bulbs L1 to L8 are grouped on an indicating panel placed above the target or near the shooter and having a face similar to that of the target. The face is divided into sectors corresponding to the sectors 45 to 52 (FIG. 6) of the third conductive sheet of the target. The bulbs L1 to L8 are located at the centers of the panel sectors, bulb L1 being located at the center of the panel sector corresponding to target sector 45 of the third conductive sheet, bulb L2 at the center of the panel sector corresponding to target sector 46, etc.
With reference to the left hand portion of FIG. 9, the firing electrodes of the thyristors 133, 134, 135, 136, l37.are respectively connected to the zones 39, 38, 37, 36, 35 of the first conductive sheet (FIG. 5). The thyristors 133 to 137 are also placed under voltage by the leads 130, 131. The anodes of these thyristors are connected to a relay 138 that controls a switch 139. The relay is connected to lead 130 via a switch controlled by a camwheel P0, the function of which will be explained later. Lead 130 is connected to a positive terminal 130a. The switch 139 controls a motor 140 energized with alternating current from terminals 141, 142. The thyristor anodes are also connected via respective leads 143 to 147 to respective switches 143a, 144a, 145a, 146a, 147a, which are connected to a relay 148. This relay controls a switch 149 that closes an output circuit connected to two output terminals 150, 151 of the sender. When a thyristor 133 to 137 is rendered conductive, the relay 138, which is thus energized, operates the switch 139, which turns on the motor 140. The relay 138 is such that it holds the switch 139 closed for a time approximately corresponding to one revolution of the motor 140. The wheels P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P turn with the motor. The cam wheel P0 keeps the switch located above it closed during the entire course of the revolution of the motor. The cam wheel allows the switch to open when the motor has completed one revolution, and recloses it when the motor has stopped. Since wheel P1 has a single tooth, it closes switch 143a once during a revolution of the motor and causes a single pulse to be conducted to relay 148. Wheel P2 having two teeth, switch 144a is closed twice and two pulses are sent to relay 148. Wheels P3, P4, P having respectively three, four, and five teeth, three, four, or five pulses will be conducted to relay 148. The pulse thus delivered to the relay are conducted to the output terminals 150, 151.
FIG. 10 shows a receiver connected to the sender just described. The receiver is located near the shooter; and since the sender is located near the target, bell wire such as already is used on rifle ranges suffices to connect together the sender and the receiver. The output terminals 150, 151 of the sender are shown in FIG. 10. These terminals are connected to a relay 156 controlling a switch 157. The receiver is supplied with power from the terminals 152, 153 of an alternating current source. These latter terminals are connected to a rectifying circuit 155 which supplies direct current voltage to the receiver. The one or more pulses from the sender arriving at the relay 156 close the switch 157 for a brief period, and a current passes through a zero reset switch 159 and through a counter 158 which registers the one or more pulses. The counter 158 is set to zero on operating the zero reset switch 159. The schematic diagram of FIG. 10 also shows two decades 161, 163 of a second counter, which are controlled by a switch 164 and serve to add up the total number of points gotten by a shooter during practice. The first counter 158 is reset to zero after each hit.
The arrangement just described, comprising a target, a sender, and a receiver, operates as follows:
With reference to FIG. 9, before a projectile has hit the target the thyristors to 127 are non conductive and the bulbs L7 to L8 therefore are extinguished. The switch 129 is closed, and no current passes through the relay 128. Similarly, thyristors 133 to 137 are non conductive; the relay 138 is not energized; and the motor is shut off. Suppose now that a projectile passes through the target. The point of impact of the projectile is indicated in FIGS. 5 and 6 by reference number 86. The projectile struck the target in its lower right hand portion, and the shooter gets one point. The target of FIGS. 5 and 6 is a five-point target, the smallest zone located in the center of the target surface being worth five points, and the four circular zones of successively greater radius being worth respectively four, three, two, one points.
The manner in how the position of the impact is indicated will first be described. When the projectile passes through sector 51 of the third conductive sheet (FIG. 6) and the second conductive sheet, the switch Y7 is momentarily closed, and the firing electrode of the thyristor 126 goes positive and the thyristor, under voltage, conducts, permitting a current to flow to bulb L7. This current energizes relay 128, which, after an interval of 2 to 5 seconds, opens the switch 129, cutting off the current flowing through the thyristor 126. The switch 129 recloses immediately after the current through the thyristor 126 is cut off, so that the circuit is ready to indicate the next hit. However, during the two to five second time delay the bulb L7 located in the center of the panel sector corresponding to sector 51 of the third conductive sheet remains illuminated, so that the shooter can see that he hit the target at the lower right. When the projectile passes through zone 39 (corresponding to one point) of the first conductive sheet, it makes an electrical contact between the zone 39 and the second conductive sheet. Referring to FIG. 9, this contact is represented by the switch X1. Inasmuch as the second conductive sheet is at a positive voltage, the firing electrode of thyristor 133 goes positive and the thyristor conducts a current to the relay 138. This current causes a potential difference between contacts of switch 143a. Relay 138, which is energized, operates switch 139, which closes the motor circuit. The motor turns one revolution, turning with it the toothed wheels P1 to P0. When the wheel P has turned through one revolution, it permits the switch, which has been held closed throughout the single rotation, to open, thereby removing the voltage which has been applied to relay 138. Switch 139 opens, the motor 140 stops, and the switch 139 recloses, to be ready for the indication of the next hit. During the revolution of the motor only the contacts of switch 143a are under a potential difference. The toothed wheel Pl has closed switch 143a once, and a single pulse appears at relay 148 and is conducted to the output terminals 150, 151 of the sender. This pulse appears at relay 156 of the receiver (FIG. and is conducted via the switch 157 to the first counter 158 and to the decade 161 of the second counter. This pulse causes a single point to be registered on the counter 158 and on the decade 161. The shooter, who already knows that he has hit the target in the lower right hand part thereof, now also knows that he has gotten one point. He presses the zero reset switch 159, and the counter 158 is reset to zero, but the decade 161 continues to register the single point. The marksman can now prepare himself for the second shot.
Suppose that the second shot hits the target somewhat to the right of center, as shown by the reference numeral 87 in FIGS. 5 and 6. The projectile has hit the target exactly between the zones 36 and 37, striking both zones. ln passing through the sector 52 of the third conductive sheet (FIG. 6) and the second conductive sheet, the projectile has closed switch Y8. Since the second conductive sheet is held at a positive potential, the firing electrode of the thyristor 127 goes positive. The thyristor conducts, and a current is conducted to the bulb L8 and to the relay 128. The bulb remains lighted until the circuit is cut by relay 128, which opens the switch 129 after a period of time of from two to five seconds. During this period the bulb is lighted, and the shooter sees that he has hit the target somewhat right of center.
The projectile also establishes an electrical contact between the zone 36 (of the first conductive sheet) and the second conductive sheet, on the one hand, and between the zone 37 (of the first conductive sheet) and the second conductive sheet. With reference to FIG. 9, we see that the switches" X3 and X4 are therefore closed. The gates of thyristors 136 and 137 go positive, and the two thyristors conduct. The relay 138 is energized, operating the switch 139, which closes the circuit powering the motor 140. The motor is started, causing the wheels P1 to P0 to turn. When the motor and the wheels have described one revolution, cam wheel P0 allows theswitch, which has been held closed during the revolution, to open, and then recloses it. Since the relay 138 is no longer energized, the switch 139 opens, and the motor stops. Only the leads 145 and t 146 are under voltage during this revolution. The lead 145 conducts three pulses, and the lead 146 four pulses, to the relay 148. Since, however, the toothed wheels P3 and P4 are synchronized, the first pulse on lead and the first pulse on lead 146 appear simultaneously at relay 148. The same is true of each of the second and third pulses. As a result, actually only four pulses appear at the relay 148, which corresponds, in accordance with the rules of marksmanship, with the points gotten by the shooter. The four pulses are conducted via the switch 149 to the relay 156 of the receiver in FIG. 10.
It is apparent that if the projectile passes through the target exactly between the sectors 45 and 52 (of the first conductive sheet), for example, the switches Y1 and Y8 are closed and the bulbs L1 and L8 are lighted. This is not a major drawback, because the shooter would know that the hit was scored to the right of center and slightly above the horizontal median of the target.
A recorder that prints on a score sheet the results of the markmans shooting can advantageously be combined with the receiver of FIG. 10. If such a recorder is connected to the receiver, one must know at the end of the practice how many shots have been fired. In the embodiment just described, those shots which miss the target are not indicated. In order to determine accurately the number of shots fired, an induction coil can be placed on the shooters firearm and connected to a means which indicates that a shot has been fired.
The embodiment of FIGS. 9 and 10 can also be used with a target of the kind shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. This kind of target is used in shooting matches and in combat training. It is not a target for target practice, and the third conductive sheet (for determining the position of the hit) has been eliminated. The terminal 19 of the target (FIG. 3) is connected to the terminal 132 (FIG. 9) of the sender, and the switches X1, X2, X3, X4 correspond to the zones l5, l4, 16, 13, respectively.
FIG. 11 shows a second embodiment, intended to be used with a five-point target. A sender 200 (left-hand side of FIG. 11) is connected via wires 234 and'254 to a receiver 260 having an indicating panel represented by the box 283 similar to the panel described above, and showing the shooter where the projectile has hit. The receiver also has a decimal counter 278 that gives the number of points gotten by the shooter. As is apparent from FIG. 11, only two wires are necessary for the sender, located near the target, to send to the receiver, located near the shooter, all of the information relating to the shot the points gotten and where the hit was scored. The fact that only two wires are needed is of great advantage, since every shooting range has at least two wires for each target. The sender and receiver can simply be connected to these wires, virtually eliminating installation costs. The sender 200 and receiver 260 are intended to be used with a target of the kind described in connection with FIGS. 5 to 7.
The wire Z of the sender 200 is connected to the conductive target sheet that is at a positive voltage, and each of the switches X1, X2, X3, X4, X5 represent the electrical contacts established by the projectile between the sheet at positive voltage and which correspond to respective rings of the design on the target surface (FIGS. 5 to 7). The switches Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, Y7, Y8 represent the electrical contacts made by the projectile between the sheet at positive voltage and the sectors of the conductive sheet. The contacts made by the switches X1 to X5 give information relating to the value in points of the hits, on a scale of one to five points for a five-point target. In the embodiment shown, a five-point target is used, but the embodiment can also be used with targets of greater value, such as a ten-point target, merely by adding the necessary number of additional stages to the sender 200. As many stages as desired can be added to the sender.
Each switch X1 to X5, representing an electrical contact made by the projectile between the conductive sheet at positive voltage and a zone of the conductive sheet corresponding to a ring on the face of the target, is connected to a respective one of the inputs of a NAND gate 201, 202, 203, 204, 205. Only the gates 201, 204, 205 are shown in FIG. 11. The second input of each NAND gate is connected to a wire 206. The output of each NAND gate is connected to the input of a respective flip-flop 207 to 21 1. The flip-flops are connected together by the connections 212 to 215, on the one hand, and by the connections 216 to 220, on the other, to form a shift register. The flip-flop outputs 221 to 225 are connected to an AND gate 226, the output of which is connected to an oscillator 227 and to an input 228 of a NAND gate 229, of which the output 230 is connected to the wire 206 via a one-shot multivibrator 231. The output of oscillator 227 is connected to the junction 232 which is connected to the connections 216 to 220 of the flip-flops 207 to 211 and to an amplifier 233, which is directly connected to the wire 234 connecting the sender 200 to the receiver 260.
The contacts made by the switches'Y1 to Y8 give information relating to the position of the hit on the target. Since the target is divided into eight sectors, the sender has eight stages. Obviously, the target could have a greater number of sectors, in which case the sender will have as many stages as there are. sectors. Each of the switches Y1 to Y8, representing a contact made by the projectile between the conductive sheet at positive voltage and a sector of the conductive sheet, is connected to an input of a respective NAND gate 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242. Each gate is connected to a respective flip flop 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250. These flip flops form a shift register and are connected via an AND gate 251 to an oscillator 252 and to a second input of the NAND gate 229. The oscillator 252 is connected to an amplifier 253, connected to the wire 254 connecting the sender 200 to the receiver 260, and to the shift register formed by the flip flops 243 to 250.
The receiver 260 is placed near the shooter and connected by the wires 234 and 254 to the sender 200, which is placed near the target and out of the line of fire. The wires 234, 254 are connected to respective inputs 261, 262 of a respective NAND gate 263, 264. The output of NAND gate 263 is connected via a oneshot multivibrator 265 and a NOT gate 266 to the inputs 267, 268 of respective NAND gates 269, 270. The output of gate 269 is connected to an amplifier 271 and via a counter 272 and a decoder 273 to a read out 274 that indicates the point value of the hit. The output of gate 270 is connected via 21 NOT gate 276 to an amplifier 275. The amplifier 271 is connected to a counter 277 of a pulse printing counter 278, and the amplifier 275 is connected to the zero reset 279 of counter 278. The output of the zero reset 279 is connected to the input 280 of a NAND gate 281. The printing counter 278 has five decades (not shown), of which the first two indicate each individual hit, and the remaining three add the points of a series of hits. The zero reset of the first two decades occurs automatically for each hit. The zero reset for the remaining three decades is done manually by means of switch 282 shown schematically. The output of the NAND gate 264, which forms a part of the circuit for indicating where the hit was scored, is connected to an illuminated read out 283 via counter 284 and a decoder 285. The read out 283 consists of a group of eight incandescent bulbs (not shown), located on a panel divided into sectors corresponding to the sectors of the target, a bulb being located at the center of a sector. The bulbs are connected in a logical sequence, so that if three pulses are conducted to the read out 283, the third bulb of the sequence lights; if eight pulses, the eight bulb lights, etc.
An induction coil which is located in front of the mouth of the firearm the core of the coil being aligned with the path of the projectile as it leaves the firearm has a primary winding 286 under voltage and producing a steady magnetic field, and a secondary winding 287 connected to an amplifier 288, which is connected to an input 289 of a flip-flop 290. One output 291 of the flip-flop is connected to the inputs 292 and 293 of respective NAND gates 263 and 264 and to inputs 294 and 295 of respective NAND gates 269 and 296. The other output 297 of the flip-flop 290 is connected, on the one hand, to an input 298 of the NAND gate 270 and to a junction 299 and, on the other, to an input 300 of the NAND gate 296 via a one-shot multivibrator 301. The output of NAND gate 296 is connected via a NOT gate 303 and an amplifier 304 to the printer 302, which is a part of the printer-counter 278 and includes an electromagnet (not shown) that presses the decades onto web of paper and that moves the web. Each movement of the electromagnet operates a switch connected to an input 305 of flip-flop 290. Each input 261, 262 of respective NAND gates 263, 264 is connected to respective inputs 306, 307 of respective NAND gates 308, 309. A second input 310, 311 of respective NAND gates 308, 309 is connected to the junction 299, which is connected to a second input 312 of the NAND gate 281. The output of this latter gate is connected via an oscillator 320 to the oneshot multivibrator 265. The outputs of gates 308 and 309 are connected to the inputs of a NAND gate 313, of which the output is connected via a flip-flop 316, an amplifier 317, and a relay 318 to a summer 319. A switch 315 connected to a second input 314 of the flipflop enables the flip-flop 316 to be triggered and thus to switch off 'the summer when the latter is operating.
The embodiment just described operates in the following manner. Assume that the circuit is supplied with power and ready to operate before a projectile is fired. The switches X1 to X5 are open and the corresponding inputs of the gates 210 to 205 are at zero voltage or in state 0". The second inputs of these gates connected to wire 206 are at a positive voltage or in state L. Thus, the outputs of the NAND gates 201 to 205 are positive or in state L. The state L is with respect to the inputs of the flip-flops 207 to 21 1. The outputs 221 to 225 of the flip-flops that form a shift register, which is empty, are in state L; and the output of the AND gate 226 is also positive or in the state L. State L prevents the oscillator 227 from operating, so that no pulses appear at junction 232, and puts the input 228 of NAND gate 229 in a state L.
Similarly, in the lower part of the sender 200, where the position of the hits is determined, the switches" Y1 to Y8 are open, the outputs of NAND gates 235 to 242 are in state L, the oscillator 252 is prevented from operating, and the input 256 of NAND gate 229 is in state L. ln these conditions the output 230 of gate 229 is in state 0, the one-shot multivibrator 231 in not under voltage, and the multivibrator output 206 is in state L. The inputs of the gates 201 to 205 and 235 to 242, corresponding to the switches X1 to X5 and to switches Y 1 to Y8 are ready to receive information.
If no information comes from the sender 200, nothing appears at the receiver, and' the inputs 261, 262 of the respective receiver NAND gates 263, 264 are in state 0. The flip-flop 290, connected via the amplifier 288 with the winding 287 of the coil on the firearm, being without a signal, its output 291 is in state 0, and the two inputs 292, 293 of respective gates 263, 264 are also in state 0, so that the outputs of gates 263, 264 are in state L. Similarly, the outputs of NAND gates 308 and 309 are in state L. Consequently, the output of NAND gate 313 is in state 0, as well as the output of flip-flop 316. Thus, the summer 319 is stopped.
When a projectile leaves the barrel of the firearm, the magnetic field of winding 286 is amplified as the projectile passes through the winding core, and the change in the field induces a current in winding 287. This current passes through amplifier 288 to input 289 of flip-flop 290, which is triggered to its other state. Thus, the inputs 292, 293 of respective gates 263, 264 go from state 0 to state L, and the outputs of gates 263, 264 are capable of going from state L to state 0 as soon as one or more pulses appear at the inputs 261, 262.
Assume that the projectile in hitting the target passes through the ring of the target design worth four points and corresponding to the zone corresponding to switch X4 and through the sector (for determining the position of the hit) corresponding to switch Y7.
The momentary closure of switch X4 produces a momentary state L at the second input of gate 204 and therefore a momentary state 0 at its output. The flip-flop changes to its other state, and the input 224 of gate 226 changes to state 0, while the inputs 221, 222, 223, 224, 225 remain in state L. The output 214 of flipflop 210 changes to state L. The output of gate 226 changes to state 0, starts up the oscillator 227, and causes input 228 of NAND gate 229 to change from state L to state 0.
The pulses delivered by oscillator 227 appear on wire 234 via amplifier 233 and at the inputs 216 to 220 of the flip-flops 207 to 211.
The first pulse from the oscillator 227 is delivered to flip-flop 210 via connection 219 and changes the flopflop, which had previously been changed to its second state, back to its original state. The same pulse is conducted to flip-flop 209 (not shown) via connection 214, and causes the flip-flop 209 to change to its second state. The second pulse triggers flip-flop 209 back to its original state and flip-flop 208 (not shown) to its second state. This continues until flip flop 207 has been returned to its original state. Thus, four pulses are required to return the shift register (flip-flops 207 to 211) to its original state. When the shift register is thus returned to itsoriginal state, the inputs 221 to 225 are in state L, and the output of gate 226 changes from state 0 to state L, stopping the oscillator 227.
An identical process occurs for determining the position of the hit. Continuing the above example, when switch Y7 is momentarily closed, seven amplified pulses appear on wire 254. As soon as the output of gate 226 or 251, or of both gates, has or have changed from state L to state 0, input(s) 228 and/or 256 of gate 229 change to state 0; and in both cases output 230 of gate 229 changes to state L, which changes the one-shot multivibrator 231 to the other state until the shift register formed by the flip-flops is empty. As soon as the one-shot multivibrator has changed its state, its output changes to state 0; and the NAND gates 201 to 205 and 235 to 242 are closed. As long as the flip-flops 207 to 211 and 243 to 250 are not empty that is, as long as all of the information has not been transmitted the wire 206 remains in state 0 and thus prevents the outputs of gates 201 to 205 and 235 to 242 from changing to state 0, in order to prevent pulses being superimposed in the instance when two projectiles are fired within a very short period of time.
In summary, four pulses appear on wire 234 and seven on wire 254. We shall now see what happens in the receiver 260, and consider, first of all, the series of seven pulses, which appears at the input 262 of NAND gate 264. Since the input 293 of gate 264 is already in state L, these seven pulses pass trough the gate and are inverted. These inverted pulses operate the binary electronic counter 284, which is composed of four flipflops, and appear at the decoder 285, where they are changed into the decimal system. On leaving the decoder, the seven pulses light up, one after the other, the sequence of bulbs, the seventh bulb corresponding to the target sector hit remaining illuminated.
We now turn our attention to the series of four pulses on wire 234. Inasmuch as the conduction of the pulses through the gates, flip-flops, decoders, counters, etc., is simple and known to the expert in the art, we shall describe the upper part of the receiver 260 in less detail. The four pulses pass through the gate 263 and operate the one-shot multivibrator 265 which transforms and broadens the pulses, so that they can be counted in the mechanical counter 277. The pulses thus transformed are conducted via a NOT gate 266 to two NAND gates 269, 270. Gate 269 was opened by the flip-flop 290 after the projectile had caused a current to be induced in winding 287. Gate 270 is closed. The pulses, therefore, only pass through gate 269, and are conducted via amplifier 271 to the mechanical counter 277 of the printing counter 278 and also conducted to the binary counter 272, of which the output is connected to a decoder 273 transforming the binary information into decimal information. Upon leaving the decoder the four pulses are summed up in a digital electronic counter placed near the shooter. The oneshot multivibrator 301, which was controlled by the flip-flop 290 when the latter received the current induced by the projectile, return to its other state after a predetermined period of time, which corresponds to the time required for the pulses to arrive at the digital counters. When the one-shot multivibrator has returned to its stable state, input 300 of gate 296 changes to state L; and input 295 is in state L, since flip-flop 290 has changed its state. The output of gate 296 changes to state 0, which is changed to state L by NOT gate 303, which state is amplified by amplifier 304 and controls the electromagnet (not shown) of the printer 302. The number four located on the first decade of counter 277 is printed on the paper web. When the electromagnet returns to its rest state, it operates a switch (not shown) that causes an L state, which is conducted to the input 305 of flip-flop 290, which latter is triggered to its other state.
If a number other than zero was registered in the counter 277, the input 280 of gate 281 is put into state L by the switch of the zero reset 279. The input 312 is also put into state L when the flip flop 290 is triggered. Thus, the output of gate 281 is put into state 0. The oscillator 320 is turned on and controls the gates 269, 270 via the NOT gate 266. Gate 270 is open, and gate 269 is closed by flip flop 290. The gate 270 thus enables the counter 277 to be reset to zero via the NOT gate 276, amplifier 275, and the zero reset 279. Input 280 of gate 281 returns to state 0, and the output of this gate changes to state L, turning off the oscillator. The total points added up on the higher order decades after a series of shots can be reset to zero by the manual switch 282.
Suppose that the shooter did not hit the target. No pulse appears at the decimal counter 274 and at the numerical counter 277, the latter remaining on zero. But the flight of the projectile through the coil windings 286 and 287 puts into operation the flip-flop 290 and the one-shot multivibrator 301, which, after a time delay corresponding to the period necessary to conduct the pulses in the receiver 260, operates the electromagnet of the printer; and the zero is printed on the paper web.
If a projectile should hit exactly between two equipotential surfaces of the target, it will touch two zones of the conductive target sheet that gives information relating to the point value of the hit scored, because the separation between two zones is less than the diameter of the projectile. If two zones are contacted, the corresponding switches are closed. Suppose that the switches X4 and X5 are simultaneously closed. The two flip-flops 210, 211 switch their states, and the oscillator 227 is turned on. The first pulse from oscillator 227 will return flip-flop 211 to its original state. Flip-flop 210 which has previously switched remains switched. The second pulse switches flip-flop 210 to its original state, and switches flip-flop 209, etc., until the shift register of flip-flops 207 to 211 is in its original state. Five pulses, therefore, appear on wire 234 and five points are indicated by the counter 278. In accordance with the scoring rules, the shooter is given the benefit of the higher point value, if the projectile hits exactly between two rings of the design on the target surface.
Assume that a shooter should aim at the wrong target, hitting that of the marksman next to him. Suppose that the switches Y1 to Y5 of the sender 200 are closed. One pulse appears on wire 234 and five on wire 254. Since no current has been induced in coil winding 287, flip-flop 290 does not switch states; and the outputs of gates 263, 264 remain in state L. The pulses conducted towards the counters 284 and 277 cannot pass through the gates 263, 264. Moreover, when the pulses on wires 234, 254 appear in one or both gates 308 and 309, the flip-flop 316 will be operated via the gate 313 and triggered. A pulse appears in amplifier 317 and operates relay 318 which is energized with a summer which is turned on and shows that a projectile from a wrong firearm has struck the target. The summer is stopped by pressing switch 315, causing the flip-flop to be switched back. The relay is then deenergized, and an audible signal is sounded.
1. A combination, a shooting target and an indicator connected tosaid. target for automatically indicating the value and the position of a hit scored on the target; said target including means defining a design having different zones each of which is assigned a score value, at least two electrically conductive sheets insulated from each other and located one behind the other and substantially parallel to the plane of said design, means for applying a predetermined voltage to one of the conductive sheets, a first sheet of the conductive sheets being divided into zones corresponding to those of the design and being electrically insulated from each other, a second sheet of the conductive sheets being divided into sectors defining subdivisions relative to orthogonal coordinates of the target, the sectors being electrically insulated one from the other, said indicator including a receiver and a sender with first and second shift registers with said first shift register having an individual flip-flop connected to an individual zone of said first sheet and said second shift register having an individual flip-flop connected to an individual one of said sectors, first and second oscillators for the respective first and second shift registers, NAND gate means connecting said oscillators to said flip-flops, whereby a hit on a zone and on a sector triggers the respective flip-flop corresponding to the hit zone and the respective flipflop corresponding to the hit sector, for each hit of said target said first oscillator producing a number of pulses related to the particular flip-flop of said first shift register that is triggered, said first shift register being returned to its ready state under control of said pulses produced by said first oscillator, for each hit of said target said second oscillator producing a number of pulses related to the particular flip-flop of said second shift register that is triggered, said second shift register being returned to its ready state under control of said pulses produced by said second oscillator; said receiver including indicating means; said pulses produced by each of said oscillators being transmitted to said receiver and actuating said indicating means for indicating the zone value and the sector position of a hit scored.
2. The combination according to claim 1, wherein said indicating means includes a counter means having first and second sections; said first section being automatically reset to zero after each hit value is indicated and said second section adding up the values of a series of hits; and means for manually resetting said second section to zero.
3. The combination according to claim 2 wherein said indicating means also includes a panel divided into panel sectors corresponding to the sectors of said second conductive sheet, said panel sectors being numbered in accordance with said sectors of said second conductive sheet, each said panel sector having means for producing a visible signal, whereby said pulses from said oscillators connected to the second shift register cause a visible signal to be produced on that panel sector corresponding to the sector of said second conductive sheet that is hit 4. The combination according to claim 1 wherein each said zone and each said sector of the conductive sheets is connected to its respective flip-flop via a NAND gate with the zone or sector, as the case may be, being connected to one input of the respective NAND gate, and the other input of the NAND gate being connected to said oscillators through a one shot multivibrator and said NAND means which renders all of the said NAND gates connected to inputs of said flip-flops nonconductive during the period of time that information relating to a shot is still being conducted through the said receiver after each shot has been fired, said signal opening the circuit of the receiver and giving to said printing counter an order to print the result as soon as a predetermined time has expired; said control means including an alarm means that starts a summer when any information comes from said sender without said control means having delivered a signal.