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Publication numberUS3707014 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 26, 1972
Filing dateOct 9, 1970
Priority dateOct 9, 1970
Also published asDE2150348A1
Publication numberUS 3707014 A, US 3707014A, US-A-3707014, US3707014 A, US3707014A
InventorsMauno Kalevi Koivusalo
Original AssigneeMauno Kalevi Koivusalo
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Device for closing, holding open and holding closed a door or equivalent, in particular one for doors with concealed hinges
US 3707014 A
Abstract
The present invention concerns a device for closing, holding open and holding closed a door or equivalent, in which device all the functions mentioned have been advantageously combined in one device entity. Furthermore, the invention concerns such a combination of a hinge of a door or equivalent and a device for closing, holding open and holding closed the same which can be countersunk out of sight in the door and/or its frame so that all these devices are invisible when the door is closed. When a device according to the invention is used, no particular device, provided with a turning handle, for keeping it closed need be installed because also this function has been combined with the other functions of the device.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Koivusalo 1 Dec. 26, 1972 [54] DEVICE FOR CLOSING, HOLDING OPEN AND HOLDING CLOSED A FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 24,951 1909 Great Britain ..l6/5l Primary Examiner-Donald A. Griffin Attorney-Richards 8L Geier [57] ABSTRACT The present invention concerns a device for closing, holding open and holding closed a door or equivalent, in which device all the functions mentioned have been advantageously combined in one device entity. Furthermore, the invention concerns such a combination of a hinge of a door or equivalent and a device for closing, holding open and holding closed the same which can be countersunk out of sight in the door and/or its frame so that all these devices are invisible when the door is closed. When a device according to the invention is used, no particular device, provided with a turning handle, for keeping it closed need be installed because also this function has been combined with the other functions of the device.

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INVENTOR: /V,/ J oz'vusaio ATT'QILN E55 DEVICE FOR CLOSING, HOLDING OPEN AND HOLDING CLOSED A DOOR OR EQUIVALENT, IN PARTICULAR ONE FOR DOORS WITH CONCEALED IIINGES The starting point of the invention was a door-closing device previously known in itself, in which within a tubular element there has been mounted a helical spring, which is placed under tension when the door is opened and which causes the force to close the door. A spring element of this kind may be muonted either in connection with the door or the frame or countersunk in them. If, for instance, the spring element has been mounted in connection with the door frame, the closing force has usually been conducted to act upon the door by means of various lever arms or equivalent elements. The doorclosing devices have included, mounted within the same tubular element as the spring device, hydraulic or pneumatic devices consisting of a piston and cylinder, which limit and retard the speed of the doors closing movement.

The device according to the present invention for closing, holding open and holding closed a door or equivalent has a design mainly as follows. Within a tubular cylinder there has been arranged a helical spring with one of its ends resting against the closed bottom of said cylinder. The other end of the helical spring rests against the closed end of another cylinder, which is movable within the said cylinder. The second cylinder encloses a cylindrical space, which is divided into two parts by a piston, which is rigidly connected with the first-mentioned tubular cylinder. The space enclosed by the second cylinder has been filled with hydraulic fluid, and the purpose of the piston moving in this space is to damp and restrict the speed of the doors closing movement. This is accomplished by means of the damping effect caused by throttled flow of the fluid from one side of the piston to the other. At the end of the said second cylinder opposite to the end at which the spring acts there has been turnably journalled a ball, roll or equivalent, which when the device assembly is in operation is in contact with a roller path member. This member is of such design, and it has been mounted on the door or frame in such manner, that its projection on the plane perpendicular to the door is a circular are having its center on the hinge axis of the door and somewhat larger of its arc length than the opening angle of the door. The roller path member, which has been rigidly mounted on the door or frame, constitutes an inclined rolling surface for the said ball or roll of the spring element. If the roller path member has been mounted on the door, then the spring element is attached to the frame, and vice versa. When the door is opened, the inclined rolling surface of the member causes compression of the spring element, whereby in this spring the energy required toclose the door is stored. At that point of the roller path member which is in contact with the ball or roll of the spring element when the door is in its full-open position there has been made a depression of the rolling surface, for the purpose of holding the door in opened positiomWhen the door has been opened and the ball or roll of the spring I element has entered the said depression, the door will remain in this open position. When the door is pushed from this position a small way towards its closed position, the ball or roll is set free from the depression and begins to roll along the roller path member by effect of the spring force, closing the door. On' the roller path member a projection has been provided a short distance before the point which is the point of contact of the ball or roll when the door is closed. The purpose of this projection is to retard the speed of the doors closing, counteracting its slamming. After the projection there is another short stretch of inclined rolling surface, which has such action that when the door is closed it is continuously subject to a small closing force, which serves the purpose of keeping the door tightly closed and preventing its unnecessary opening e. g., as a result of fluctuations in air pressure. Instead of an inclined surface there may be at the same point a depression, into which the ball or roll falls, causing a final push, which closes the door completely; this is necessary particularly when the door has been fitted with a lock with bevelled or roller bolt. In this manner, combination in one and the same device of the doorclosing, open-holding and closed-holding functions, has been simply accomplished.

Associated with the invention is a special hinge design intended to be used in connection with the door closer described above. It is then possible to preassemble the hinge and door closer to constitute one entity, whereby the hinge and the door closer can both be installed in one fixing operation. The hinge and door closer may be made separate, but they are so designed and dimensioned that they are fit to cooperate. Of course, a hinge according to the present invention may also be used in connection with door closers of a kind other than that concerned in this invention or even without any door closer. An important advantage gained when using a combination of door closer and hinge according to the invention is that all these can be made completely invisible when the door is closed.

Various details of the invention are described in the following, with reference to the embodiment examples shown by the figures in the accompanying drawing, without in any way confining the invention to these.

FIG. 1 presents, partly in section, the spring element and roller path member in the situation in which the door remains opened and the spring has been compressed.

FIG. 2 shows the same as FIG. 1, in the situation in which the door has nearly closed. FIG. 2a shows the section along line A A in FIG. 2.

FIG. 3, and 3a show a detail in the design of the roller path member and the rolls.

FIG. 4 and 4a show another design of the roller path member and rolls.

FIG. 5 and 5a show a design of the roller path member and rolls, which has been provided with additional support.

FIG. 6 shows the combined design of a hinge and door closing device according to the invention, with the door closed and with opening angle of the hinge.

FIG. 7 shows the same as FIG. 6, with the door fully opened.

FIG. 8 shows a hinge opening up to 90 and a closing device in cooperation, with the door opened. Dot-anddash lines indicate the situation when the door is closed.

FIG. 9 shows a hinge opening up to and two closing devices in cooperation, with the door in its closed position.

106012 OOOI FIG. shows the same as FIG. 9, with the door opened. Dot-and-dash lines illustrate the situation obtaining when the door capable of opening up to 180 has only been opened 90, in which position the door may be left.

FIG. 11 shows a rocking lever, which is intended to replace the projection on the roller path member, which retards the speed of the closing movement.

FIGS. 12, 13 and 14 show various designs of the control and adjustment devices and relief valves for hydraulic fluid flow provided in connection with the dashpot cylinder and piston.

Referring now to the figures in the drawing, the design of devices according to the present invention shall be described in detail in the following. In FIGS. 1 and 2 is seen the design of a closing, open-holding and closed-holding device for a door. The tubular cylinder 7 has been mounted, most appropriately by countersinking, e.g., with the aid of screws 10 to the door frame 8. The longitudinal direction of cylinder 7 is most appropriately parallel to the hinge axis of the door or equivalent. Within the cylinder 7, at its upper end, there has been fitted a helical spring 9, one end of which rests against the closed upper end of cylinder 7, the position of which with reference to the cylinder 7 can be adjusted in axialdirection in order to adjust the compression force of spring 9. This possibility of adjustment is most simply realized by means of thread engagement between the bottom and mantle portions of cylinder 7. The other end of the spring 9 meets another cylinder 6, which is axially movable within the firstmentioned cylinder 7. Within the cylinder 6 also remains a cylindrical, enclosed space, which is divided into two partial spaces 32 and 33 by the piston 13. The piston 12 is integrally connected with the cylinder 7 by means of piston rod 12, which at its upper end has been attached to the upper bottom of cylinder 7 by means of threads. By turning the piston rod 12 by its end, the position of piston 13 with reference to cylinders 6 and 7 can be adjusted. The piston rod 12 passes into the space 32 through a packing. The spaces 32 and 33 are most suitably filled with hydraulic liquid. In the surface of cylinder 6 an axial groove has been provided, in which the guiding screw 18 moves, which serves the purpose of preventing the cylinder 6 from being rotated with reference to cylinder 7. On the lower end of cylinder 6 there has been rotatably journalled a roll, most appropriately provided with a groove, or ball 1, various possible designs of which shall be presented later. In F I08. 1 and 2 the cylinder 7 has been depicted as fixed to the door frame. In that instance, the roller path member 2 has been rigidly fixed to the door 14 by screws 11. The projection of the roller path member 2 on the horizontal plane is a circular arc with the turning axis of the door passing through its center. The roller path member 2 constitutes for the roll or equivalent, an inclined rolling surface 15. The roller path member can be pivoted on a shaft 17, whereby in certain applications the roller path member may be straight or nearly straight. Close to the end of the roller path member2 opposite to the end at which it has been fixed, there has been made a depression 3 having a radius of curvature most appropriately equal to the radius of curvature of the contact surface of the roll 1 or equivalent. The rolling surface 15 starting at the depression 3 continues at uniform inclination up to a point close to the at- The roller path member 2 may be provided, coincident with or replacing the projection 16, with an adjustment plate 34, the position of which with reference to the roller path member is adjusted by means of the adjusting and locking screw 36. In this case in the roller path member 2 an opening has been made (FIG. 2a) which partly forms the space 37, within the confines of which the adjustment plate 34 can move. In FIG. 1 l a solution has been presented by which it is also possible to replace the projection 16. Inthis solution, at the same point where the projection 16 would be located there-is attached to the roller path member 2 a rocker arm 34a, which is turnable about the shaft 36a. The rocker arm 340 has two stable positions, which are achieved by means of the spring arrangement 37a. When the roll 1 rolls along the rolling surface 'from the top and downwardly, the rocker arm 34a is in its stable position indicated by dot-and-dash lines in FIG. 11. When the roll 1 arrives at the rocker arm 34a, the roll 1 turns the rocker arm 34a into its other extreme position. In this connection the convex upper surface of the rocker arm 34a forces the roll 1 to rise upwardly, which action corresponds to that of the projection 16. Since the rocker arm 34a is spring-loaded, its function also corresponds to that of the depression 5.

ln FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 various designs relating to the cooperation of the roller path member 2 and the roll I or equivalent have been shown. According to FIG. 3, the roller path member has been made to be of equal width over its entire length, and it is contacted by rollers from both sides. The roll 1 has been journalled by shaft 28 at the lower end of cylinder 6, and the roll 1 is in rolling contact with the roller path member 2 on its topside. Similarly, to the lower end of cylinder 6 there has been rotatably fixed with the aid of shaft 29, another roll 27, which is in rolling contact with the roller path member 2 on its underside. In this manner more positive interaction of the roller path member 2 and cylinder 6 is accomplished than in the preceding design.

According to FIG. 4, in the lower end of the cylinder 6 a guiding slot parallelling the roller path member 2 and of equal width as this has been provided and, in connection with it, rolls 1 and 27 similarly as in the case depicted in FIG. 3. By this design very positive sidewise guidance is achieved. According to FIG. 5, the lower roller 27 according to the preceding figure has been replaced by guiding shoulders 30, sliding in corresponding guiding slots of the roller path member 2 In FIGS. 12, 13 and 14 various designs have been shown by which it is intended to improve the action of the damping piston and cylinder. According to FIG. 12, the spaces 32 and 33 have been mutually connected by a hydraulic liquid flow duct 43. In association with the flow duct 43 there are over-pressure limiting elements, consisting of pressure relief ball 39 and its spring 41.

The pressure relief ball 39 has been pierced with a small hole through which the differential pressure between spaces 32 and 33 caused by such flow as takes place may equalize if the door is pulled open with normal speed. If the speed of opening is greater than normal, the spring 41 is compressed and the flow resistance of duct 43 decreases, and no excessive pressure can develop in space 33. The flow resistance of duct 43 is adjustable from the outside by the aid of needle valve 42, by turning the screw 50, which passes through a packing 44 and can be locked with the locking screw 45. The piston 38 has also been provided with a pressure relief valve, 40 and 41, for the event that the door is forcibly closed at higher speed than normal. In FIG. 12 also the design of the sealing between piston rod 12 and space 32 has been shown. The packing 48 is locked against the backing and pressure spring plate 49 by the locking ring 46. For enhanced sealing, the packing 48 has been provided with pressure spring plates 47 and 52. In the design shown in FIG. 13, the pressure relief valve 39 and 41 intended to operate when the door is opened has been installed in the piston 38.

" According to FIG. 14, the needle valve 42 with its adjusting screw 50 has been installed in oblique position, whereby the adjusting screw 50 is more easily accessible.

In FIGS. 6 10 various combinations of a hinge and closing device according to the invention have been shown. According to FIG. 6, the hinge is composed of two hinge halves joined by the hinge pivot 24, of which the hinge half 22 intended to be fixed to the door frame is of conventional plane type, while the other hinge half 21 has a substantially U-shaped profile. According to FIG. 6 the door has been presented as closed and in FIG. 7, correspondingly, as opened with about l opening angle of the hinge. The hinge half 22 has been countersunk and fixed in a recess made in the door frame 19 so that the hinge pivot 24 does not remain in sight. The hinge half 22 has an aperture 31, which has been made for a device for closing, holding open and holding closed the door according to the present invention and described in the foregoing, 23 and 2, which for the sake of simplicity shall be referred to as closing device in the following. The other component of the closing device 23, which comprises the spring cylinder with its damping equipment, has been rigidly mounted on the hinge half 21, to that leg of its U-shaped profile which is connected with the hinge pivot 24. The roller path member 2 has been attached to the door frame 19 e.g., by means of a mounting member 26, whereby the roller path member 2 passes through the aperture 31 in the hinge half 22. Both the hinge and the closing device may advantageously be manufactured as one entity so that already at the manufacturing stage one component 23 of the closing device is permanently fixed in its place in conjunction with one hinge half 21 and to the other hinge half 22 is permanently fixed the roller path member 2. By this means a functional device entity is accomplished, which takes care of all the functions required in connection with a door: it provides hinges for the door and acts as a device closing, holding open and holding closed the door. One or several such devices can be installed on one door. If only one such combination device is installed, the second hinge is naturally a corresponding hinge without closing device. l-Iinges according to the invention can be easily adapted to various opening angles of the door. Thus, FIG. 8 shows a hinging arrangement with 90 opening angle. In FIG. 8 the door has been shown with solid lines in its opened and with dot-and-dash lines in its closed position.

FIGS. 9 and 10 show a hinge arrangement with 180 opening angle of the door and in connection with which two closing devices according to the invention have been installed. The hinge itself is composed of two planar hinge members 22, one of which has been mounted on the door and the other, on the door frame. The planar hinge members 22 are connected with each other, by means of two hinge pivots 24, by an intermediate member 25 of U-shaped cross section. On both legs of the intermediate member 25 connecting with hinge pivots 24 there have been mounted components 23 of a closing device, one on each, and which cooperate with roller path members 2, one of which has been mounted on the door frame 19 or in connection with the planar hinge member mounted on the frame, while the other has been mounted on the door 20 or in connection with the planar hinge member mounted on the door. The hinge arrangement may be made to operate so that the door may be opened 9O" and left open at this angle. This is accomplished by making e.g., the closing device operating in connection with the door frame to be more sensitive so that it operates first and holds the door in the 90 opened position. The door can be caused to close from this90-open position by the aid of the first-mentioned, first operating closing device, or the door may be opened from 90 to 180 open position, in which case the second closing device functions, being primed for action of its spring and keeping the door in this fully opened position. The closing devices may be so built that the door closes from its l-open position. This is accomplished by taking care that the door, in its closing motion, at the position has sufficient momentum to release the roll 1 of the other closing device from the recess 3.

The action of devices according to the invention is described in detail with particular reference to FIGS. 1, 2, 6 and 7. When the door is closed, or in the position depicted in FIG. 6, the cylinder 6 is in its lower position so that the roll 1 rests in the recess 5 or equivalent. The shape of recess 5 is such that a small closing force acts upon the door, keeping it tightly closed. When one starts to open the door 20, the roll 1 rises over the projection 16 into the position seen in FIG. 2. The projection 16 acts as closed-holding step for the door, preventing the door from opening under effect of minor forces. When the door is further opened, the component 23 of the closing device passes through the aperture 31 in hinge member 22, following along with hinge member 21, and the roll 1 rolls along the rolling surface 15. At the same time the spring 9 is compressed and hydraulic fluid passes from space 33 into space 32 e.g., by the duct 43 or through the gap between piston 13 and cylinder 6. If the door is opened with greater than normal force, the over-pressure limiting elements 39 and 41 (FIGS. 12, 13 and 14) operate. When the door has been fully opened, or into the position shown in FIG. 7, the roll 1 enters the recess 3, as has been shown in FIG. 1. The door remains in this opened position until it is pushed slightly towards its closed position so that the roll 1 rises out of recess 3 and the spring 9, by mediation of cylinder 6, forces the roll 1 to roll along the rolling surface of the roll path member 2. This action causes by mediation of the hinge member 21 a moment acting upon the door and closing it. The throttled flow of hydraulic fluid from space 32 to space 33 damps the rate at which the door closes, and it can be adjusted by the needle valve 42, by turning the screw 50. If the door is forced to close with higher than normal speed, the over-pressure limiting elements 40 and 41 operate, preventing excessive rise of pressure in the space 32. Closing of the door takes place with substantially constant speed until the rolling surface begins, at the recess 4, to rise up to the projection 16. When the roll 1 has ascended to the peak of projection 16 (this position of roll 1 has been indicated with dotand-dash lines in FIG. 1), the closing speed of the door has slowed down nearly to zero, and the door closes slowly, without slamming, when the roll 1 descends into recess 5.

I claim:

1. A device for controlling a closure member to enable said closure member to be held in open or closed position comprising, in combination, a first cylinder having an end portion, a helical spring within said first cylinder disposed at the bottom thereof and projecting therefrom, a second cylinder axially movable within said first cylinder, said helical spring having its opposite end portion disposed within the bottom portion of said second cylinder, said second cylinder provided with a substantially cylindrical enclosed space, a fluid actuatable piston rigidly connected with said first cylinder and operatively connected with said second cylinder, a rotatably journalled roll member carried by the opposite end portion of said second cylinder, an inclined roller path member engageable with said roll member, the projection of said roller path member upon the plane perpendicular to the closure member being a circular arc concentric with the hinge axis of the closure member, the points within said roller path member wherein said roll member contacts said roller path member being provided with a plurality of spaced recesses, said recesses corresponding to the position upon said roller path member that said roll member ascylinder has been mounted on the door frame and the said roller path member has been mounted on the door.

4. Device according to claim 1, in which on the rolling surface of the said roller path member there has been provided a projection which compresses said helical spring and retards the speed of the closing movement of the door at the final stage of closing.

5. Device according to claim 4, in which the height of Y 6. Device according to claim 1, in which to the roller path member has been pivotally fixed a rocker arm close to that end at which the said ball or roll contacts the rolling surface of the roller path member when the door is closed and the said rockerarrn has been provided with a spring arrangement determining two stable extreme positions of the rocker arm, in one of which the ball or roll takes the rocker arm along with it when the door is moving towards its closed position, when the rocker arm forces the said helical spring to become further compressed and thus reduces the closing speed of the door at the final stage of closing and the rocker arm, when turning into its other stable extreme position, holds the door closed.

7. Device according to claim '1, in which the said roll member has been provided with a groove having the width of the roller path member at the rolling surface.

8. Device according to claim 1, in which'the said second cylinder has been provided, at its end opposite to the end under action of said helical spring, with two rolls rotatably mounted on it, of which rolls one is in topside rolling contact with the roller path member and the other roll is in underside rolling contact with the roller path member.

9. Device according to claim 8, in which the rolling contact is on one margin of the roller path member, where the roller path memberhas a shoulder, which moves in a groove in the second cylinder, on the bottom of which groove the other said roll is located.

10. Device according to claim 8, in which the said second cylinder has been provided with a groove, with both sides of which the two sides of the roller path member engage.

11. Device according to claim 1, in which the said second cylinder has at its lower end guiding shoulders, which are in underside sliding contact with guiding grooves on the lower margin of the roller path member.

12. Device according to claim 1, in which the enclosed space remaining within the said second cylinder and which is divided into two partial spaces by a piston, has been provided with a duct connecting said partial spaces, the flow resistance of which is adjustable by the aid of a needle valve, the adjusting screw of which is accessible from the outside of the said second cylinder.

13. Device according to claim 12, in which the duct connecting the said partial spaces has been provided with an over-pressure limiting element, which reduces the flow resistance of said flow duct when the differential pressure between said partial spaces rises to excessive height in connection of opening or closing the door.

14. Device according to claim 1, in which the piston dividing enclosed space remaining within said second cylinder into two partial spaces has been provided with over-pressure limiting elements, which reduce the flow resistance of the duct in said piston between the said partial spaces when the differential pressure between these spaces rises to excessive height in connection of opening or closing the door.

15. Device according to claim 1, wherein said closure member is a door and a door frame, comprising a planar hinge member, which is fixed to the door frame, and another hinge member having substantially U- shaped cross section and connected at its end to the said planar hinge member by means of a hinge pivot, and the outer leg of which is fixed to the door, the said hinge having been mounted in a recess provided in the door frame so that the said hinge pivot and other parts of the hinge do not remain in sight from outside the door, and the said first cylinder of the door closing device being mounted on the leg of the said hinge member with U-shaped cross section which is opposite to the leg fixed to the door, and said roller path member being fixed to the door frame, in which an aperture has been provided through which the door closing device may pass into the space behind said planar hinge member when the door is closed, so that the closing equipment is not visible when the door is closed.

16. Device according to claim 15, in which both leg opposite to each other of the said second hinge member with U-shaped cross section are parallel, the opening angle of a door hinged with this hinge being 90.

17. Device according to claim 15, in which the greater angle enclosed by the opposite legs of said second hinge member with U-shaped cross section is 150, the opening angle of a door hinged with this hinge being 120.

18. Device according to claim 15, in which the planar leg, intended for attachment to the door, of the said hinge member with U-shaped cross section has at its end been provided with a second hinge pivot, to which is connected a second planar hingemember, to which the door is attached and in connection with which second planar hinge member, or in connection with the door, there is attached the roller path member of a second door closing device, the first cylinder being attached to the second leg of the said hinge member with U-shaped cross section and said second planar hinge member being provided with an aperture through which the door closing device may pass into the space behind the hinge member in question when the door is closed, so that the second door closing device does not remain in sight when the door is closed.

19. Device according to claim 18, a door hinged with which has an opening angle of 180.

20. Device according to claim 18, in which the first closing device operating in connection with the door frame has been made more sensitive in regard of its springs, so that it operates first when the door is opened from its fully closed position, whereby the door can be left in 90 opened position, the first closing device holding the door in this position.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US663504 *Sep 23, 1899Dec 11, 1900Charles F SimesDoor check and closer.
US1919338 *May 14, 1932Jul 25, 1933Levene Louis LDoorcheck
US2166651 *Apr 28, 1938Jul 18, 1939William WennmannDoor closer
GB190924957A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4190925 *Apr 4, 1978Mar 4, 1980Koivusalo Mauno KDoor-closer and hinge combination
US5966778 *Feb 25, 1998Oct 19, 1999Ray; Billy JackDoor positioning hinge
US6823927 *Mar 5, 2003Nov 30, 2004Charles F. SteelPocket door with pivoting panel
US7219391 *Mar 23, 2004May 22, 2007Valentin LucaDoor assembly with concealed door closer
US7600295 *Apr 30, 2003Oct 13, 2009Herbert ZimmerArrangement for damping pivot movements
WO2011035499A1 *Oct 15, 2009Mar 31, 2011Pikyou ChenGlass clamp
WO2014006587A1Jul 4, 2013Jan 9, 2014In & Tec S.R.L.Hinge for rotatably moving a door, in particular a reinforced door
Classifications
U.S. Classification16/52
International ClassificationE05D5/06, E05F1/10, E05F3/22
Cooperative ClassificationE05F1/1016, E05D5/06, E05F3/20, E05F1/1215, E05Y2900/132, E05F3/22, E05F3/221, E05Y2201/218, E05D2005/067, E05Y2201/638
European ClassificationE05D5/06, E05F3/22