|Publication number||US3707506 A|
|Publication date||Dec 26, 1972|
|Filing date||Aug 19, 1968|
|Priority date||Aug 19, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3707506 A, US 3707506A, US-A-3707506, US3707506 A, US3707506A|
|Original Assignee||Basf Wyandotte Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (16), Classifications (20), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,707,506 NONIONIC DETERGENT COMPOSITIONS FOR CLEANING POLYESTER FABRICS William Lozo, Trenton, Mich., assignor to BASF Wyaudotte Corporation, Wyandotte, Mich. No Drawing. Filed Aug. 19, 1968, Ser. No. 753,787 Int. Cl. Clld l 68; D06l 1/02, 1/12 U.S. Cl. 252-439 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An aqueous washing solution of water and about 0.01 to 5.0 percent by weight of a detergent composition of A about 20 to 80 percent by weight of a mixture of (1) nonionic surface active agent selected from the class consisting of primary oxyalkylated aliphatic alcohols having from about 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the aliphatic portion and about 3 to 50 oxyalkylene units in the oxyalkylene portion and (2) nonionic surface active agent selected from the class consisting of secondary oxyalkylated aliphatic alcohols having from about 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the aliphatic portion and about 3 to 50 oxyalkylene units in the oxyalkylene portion and B about 80 to 20 percent by weight kerosene.
In conventional laundering for the removal of dirt from fabrics and garments, use is made of an aqueous solution of a surface active agent such as soap or other well-known detergents.
In the laundering of fabrics and garments made from artificial fibers, particularly polyester fibers and particularly in the removal of fatty soil, it has been found to be desirable to employ nonionic surface active agents since soil removal from such products is generally more difiicult than from natural fibers such as cotton. While prior art solutions of surface active agents have been employed to effectively remove dirt from a wide range of fabrics and garments, it is always desirable to find a way for greatly improved or greatly increased dirt removal and washing efiiciency.
One problem in attaining maximum efiiciency in the removal of dirt has been the belief that laundering must be at temperatures below the cloud point of the detergent. Thus, it was necessary where high temperatures, i.e., 160 F. to 190 F. were desired for maximum washing efiiciency to employ detergents having cloud points above the desired washing temperature. Conversely, where use of certain types of detergents with lower cloud points was desired, it was necessary to use lower temperatures than the cloud points which greatly reduced the efiiciency of laundering.
Accordingly, it is a purpose of the instant invention to provide a composition for use in laundering, particularly for laundering polyester fibers in an efficient and economical manner with a more complete removal of dirt.
This and other purposes are achieved in accordance with the instant invention by an aqueous solution consisting essentially of water and from about 0.01 to 5.0 weight percent of a detergent composition consisting essentially of (A) about 20 to 80 percent by weight of a mixture of (1) nonionic surface active agent selected from the 3,707,506 Patented Dec. 26, 1972 class consisting of secondary oxyalkylated alialcohols having from about 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the aliphatic portion and about 3 to 50 oxyalkylene units in the oxyalkylene portion and (2) nonionic surface active agent selected from the class consisting of secondary oxyalkylated aliphatic alcohols having from about 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the aliphatic portion and about 3 to 50 oxyalkylene units in the oxyalkylene portion, said nonionic surface active agents having a cloud point in a 1 percent aqueous concentration of about 140 C. to 155 C. and (B) about 80 to 20 percent by Weight kerosene.
In a preferred embodiment of this invention, mixture A is a mixture of about 20 to 80 percent by weight of (1) the primary oxyalkylated alcohol and about 80 to 20 percent by weight of (2) the secondary oxyalkylated alcohol.
A preferred detergent composition to be mixed with water to produce the washing solution consists essentially of from about 5 to percent by weight of (1) the above primary oxyalkylated alcohol, from about 5 to 70' percent by weight of (2) the above secondary oxyalkylated alcohol, and about to 20 percent by weight of B kerosense. The term kerosene as used herein defines a mixture of hydrocarbons having a boiling point from about C. to 350 C. wherein the mixture is usually obtained as a distillate from petroleum or shale oil.
The detergent composition of this invention is readily formulated with alkaline builder salts and auxiliary additives in order to provide a composition which is characterized in the art as a one-shot product, i.e., the product contains a balanced detergent formulation including the nonionic surface active agents, builders, and auxiliary additives along with the kerosene.
The alkaline builder salts which can be employed in the detergent composition include, for example, alkali metal silicates, phosphates, including the molecularly dehydrated phosphates, carbonates, and borates and, to a lesser extent, alkali metal hydroxides. Typical alkaline builder salts are sodium orthosilicate, sodium metasilicate, sodium carbonate, trisodium phosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, tetrasodiurn pyrophosphate, sodium hexametaphosp'nate and sodium tetraborate. Mixtures of the alkaline builder salts are often used advantageously to impart desired properties to the formulation such as pH and corrosion control.
The detergent compositions of this invention are very readily formulated with auxiliary additives such as absorbent siliceous compounds including calcium silicate, fullers earth, silica gel, finely divided silica, diatomaceous earth and mixtures thereof, optical brighteners, for example, benzyl beta-methyl umbelliferone, anti-soil redeposition agents, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, anti-tarnishing agents such as mercaptobenzothiazole, benzotriazole, ethylene thiourea and the like, agents to supply higher or smaller proportions of foam or suds as desired, plasticizers, inert fillers, bleaches, solvents, dyes, perfumes, etc., in formulations in which those who practice the art of compounding cleaning compositions are well versed.
The alkaline builder salt Where employed is preferably employed in a weight ratio of builder salt to the total weight of the primary (1) and secondary (2) oxyalkylated alcohols of from about 1:1 to 16:1. The auxiliary additives are preferably employed in an amount from about 1 to 50 weight percent absorbent siliceous compounds, 0.01 to weight percent optical brighteners, 0.5 to 50 weight percent anti-soil redeposition agents, 0.5 to 20 weight percent anti-tarnishing agents, 0.5 to 50 weight percent of the foam agents, and 0.01 to 100' weight percent plasticizers, inert fillers, bleaches, solvents, dyes, perfumes, etc., all based on the total weight of the nonionic mixture A. The total amount of auxiliary additives, mentioned above, such as optical brighteners, foam stabilization or enhancing agents, anti-soil redeposition agents, etc., range from about 0.01 to 200 percent by weight based on the weight of the nonionic component A and are incorporated as substitutions for a portion of the alkaline builder salt.
The following examples are presented to particularly illustrate the invention.
EXAMPLES 1-12 In the examples below, 4%" x 4%" square swatches of polyester-cotton fabric which had been stained with 5 industrial stains were laundered in a Launder-Ometer at the temperature indicated in Table I below in 100 milliliters of an aqueous solution of 1.32 percent by weight sodium metasilicate plus 1.08 percent by weight of the detergent composition indicated in the table below.
The Launder-Ometer is an ofiicial test machine of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and is referred to on page B-5 of the 1967 technical manual of the association.
100 milliliters of distilled water, fifteen A" stainless steel balls, the sodium metasilicate, and the detergent undergoing test were added to a 3" x 5", one pint stainless steel Launder-Ometer cylinder. The Launder-Ometer cylinder was capped, placed in a preheating water bath, and conditioned to the temperature of the test.
The soiled swatch was placed in the Launder-Ometer cylinder, the cylinder was capped and sealed and transferred to the Launder-Ometer which was at the test temperature, and run for 20 minutes. The cylinder was removed from the Launder-Ometer, uncapped, and the swatch was transferred to a second Launder-Ometer cylinder containing 100 milliliters of distilled water and fifteen Vi" stainless steel balls which had been preheated to the test temperature in the preheating water bath. The cylinder was capped and sealed and run in the Launder- Ometer for 5 minutes at the test temperature. The cylinder was removed from the Launder-Ometer, uncapped, and the contents transferred into a 5" Buchner funnel. One and one-half Laundcr-Ometer cylinders of lukewarm tap water were poured over the swatch in the funnel. The swatch was separated from the stainless steel balls and hand-dipped 5 times in an 8-liter beaker of running tap water. The swatch was hand squeezed, placed on on aluminum plate and dried for 5 minutes at 120 C. in an air circulating oven.
Reflectance of the Laundered and dried fabric was measured on a Model 610 photovolt reflectometer with 610Y search unit. The photovolt reflectometer is described on page 170 of the second edition, 1961 catalog of Testing Machines -Inc., 72 Jericho Turnpike, Mineola, NY.
The reflectometer was standardized with green filter in place, adjusting the instrument to read 0.5 percent with 0.5 percent reflectance standard over the aperture and 80 percent with 80 percent reflectance standard over the aperture.
The swatch was placed over the aperture so that the center of a soiled spot was over the center of the aperture and the 80 percent reflectance standard was used as backing. Each soiled spot was read separately and their reflectances summed.
The sum of the reflectances of the 5 soiled spots (indicated in the table as EL AR) is the measure of the effectiveness of soil removal with the highest number indicating the best removal. Results of these tests are shown in Table I below.
The kerosene employed in the Detergent Composition of Table I above is a petroleum distillate having a boiling range of 190 C. to 237 C. and a flash point in the Tag Closed Cup of 65 C.
In all the compositions of Table I above, Nonionic No. 2 is a primary oxyalkylated alcohol wherein a mixture of by weight 75 percent ethylene oxide and 25 percent propylene oxide is condensed with a mixture of normal fatty alcohols having from 12 to 18 carbon atoms, the weight ratio of ethylene oxidepropylene oxide mixture to alcohols being 4: 1. i
In the compositions of Table I above, the nomonlcs in the column headed Nonionic No. 1 are as follows:
Nonionic A defines an ethoxylated mixture of secondary linear alcohols characterized by the following structural formula having from about 11 to carbon atoms in the alkyl group, (i.e., n ranges from about 9 to 13):
Nonionic B defines an ethoxylated linear alcohol as described for Nonionic A with the exception that there are 12 ethylene oxide groups in the ethylene oxide chain instead of 9.
Nonionic C defines an ethoxylated linear alcohol as described for Nonionic A with the exception that there are 7 ethylene oxide groups in the ethylene oxide chain instead of 9.
It is to be understood that various changes and modifications may be made in the foregoing composition and process without departing from the spirit of the invention and scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A detergent composition consisting essentially of (A) about to 80 percent by weight of a mixture of about 80 to 20 percent by weight of (1) nonionic surface active agent produced by condensing a mixture of by weight 75 percent ethylene oxide and percent propylene oxide with a mixture of normal primary fatty alcohols having from about 12 to 18 carbon atoms, the weight ratio of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide mixture to alcohols being about 4: 1; and about 20 to 80 percent by weight of (2) nonionic surface active agent which is an ethoxylated mixture of secondary linear alcohols characterized by the structural formula:
wherein n is from about 9 to 13 and m is from about 7 to 12, and
(B) about 80 to 20 percent by weight kerosene.
2. The detergent composition of claim 1 including sodium metasilicate wherein the weight ratio of sodium metasilicate to the total weight of the primary and second- 75 ary oxyalkylated alcohols is from about 1:1 to 16:1.
3. The detergent composition of claim 1 wherein said detergent composition consists essentially of about 5 to 70 percent by weight of said primary oxyalkylated alcohol, about 5 to 70 percent by weight of said secondary oxyalkylated alcohol, and about 80 to 20 percent by weight of kerosene.
4. An aqueous washing solution consisting essentially of water and from about 0.01 to 5.0 weight percent of a detergent composition consisting essentially of (A) about 20 to 80 percent by weight of a mixture of about 80 to 20 percent by weight of (1) nonionic surface active agent produced by condensing a mixture of by weight 75 percent ethylene oxide and 25 percent propylene oxide with a mixture of normal primary fatty alcohols having from about 12 to 18 carbon atoms, the weight ratio of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide mixture to alcohols being about 4:1; and about 20 to 80 percent by weight of (2) nonionic surface active agent which is an ethoxylated mixture of secondary linear alcohols characterized by the structural formula:
om-Cm-mm-H wherein n is from about 9 to 13 and m is from about 7 to 12, and
(B) about 80 to 20 percent by weight kerosene.
5. The washing solution of claim 4 including sodium metasilicate wherein the weight ratio of sodium metasili- UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,485,762 12/1969 Gower et al. 252-152 FOREIGN PATENTS 698,560. 11/1964 Canada 252-139 OTHER REFERENCES Plurafac Nonionic Surfactants published by Wyandotte Chemicals Co., 1967, pp. 1-4, 6, 8, 16-18 and 25.
Tergitol S Surfactants by Union Carbide Co., 1966, pp. 2, 9-11, 21, 22, 31, 32 and 35.
McCutcheons Detergents & Emulsifiers-1967 Annual, p. 202.
LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner D. L. ALBRECHT, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
8-139; 252-89, 135, Dig. 1
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US4048121 *||Jan 24, 1977||Sep 13, 1977||Fremont Industries, Inc.||Low temperature metal cleaning composition|
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|US5597792 *||Aug 10, 1994||Jan 28, 1997||The Dow Chemical Company||High water content, low viscosity, oil continuous microemulsions and emulsions, and their use in cleaning applications|
|US5811383 *||Jan 27, 1997||Sep 22, 1998||The Dow Chemical Company||High water content, low viscosity, oil continuous microemulsions and emulsions, and their use in cleaning applications|
|US6559112||Jan 30, 2001||May 6, 2003||Johnsondiversey, Inc.||Neutral cleaning composition with moderate and low foaming surfactants|
|WO1991009925A2 *||Dec 13, 1990||Jul 11, 1991||Henkel Kgaa||Use of a combination of non-ionic surface-active agents|
|WO1996019555A1 *||Dec 13, 1995||Jun 27, 1996||Yoshihiro Iwamoto||Liquid detergent composition|
|U.S. Classification||510/338, 510/506, 510/340, 510/422, 8/139, 510/413|
|International Classification||C11D1/722, C11D1/825, C11D1/72, C11D3/43|
|Cooperative Classification||C11D1/722, C11D3/43, C11D1/8255, C11D1/72, C11D1/825|
|European Classification||C11D1/825, C11D1/722, C11D3/43, C11D1/72, C11D1/825B|
|Jan 28, 1982||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DIVERSEY WYANDOTTE CORPORATION, 1532 BIDDLE AVE.,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:DIVERSEY CORPORATION THE;REEL/FRAME:003954/0125
Effective date: 19820107
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DIVERSEY CORPORATION THE;REEL/FRAME:003954/0125
Owner name: DIVERSEY WYANDOTTE CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DE., MI