US 3707863 A
A cylinder lock has tumblers mounted in two rows, the tumblers being arranged symmetrically in pairs, each pair having one tumbler from each row in a plane, and the tumblers in each pair being mutually offset and displaceable parallel to one another in opposite directions against biassing springs when a key is inserted, whereby protruding parts of the tumblers are withdrawn from recesses in the outer cylinder of the lock to allow the barrel to be turned. The key may be reversible, i.e. the profile on one edge may be a mirror image of that of the other edge about the longitudinal center line of the key. To shorten the length of the lock for a given number of tumblers the rows are staggered longitudinally of the lock. Each tumbler may have two key engaging edges, stepped relative to the diametral direction to engage correspondingly stepped key profiles. The invention increases the number of tumblers, and hence the number of alternative key profiles, in a given length of lock compared with conventional locks.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 91 Schwab et al.
Jan. 2, 1973  CYLINDER LOCK  Inventors: Dittmar Schwab; Heinz Schwab,
both of Hansen, Germany  Assignee: Ymos-Metallwerke Wolf 8: Becker Gmbl-i & Co., Offenbach/Main, Germany  Filed: Nov. 10, 1970  Appl. No.: 88,374
 Foreign Application Priority Data Nov. I7, 1969 Germany ..P 19 57 642.2
 US. Cl. ..70/364 R, 70/377  Int. Cl .Q ..E05b 15/14, E05b 29/00  Field of Search .....70/364 R, 358, 377, 419-421  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,264,852 8/1966 Gysin ..70/358 2,155,440 4/1939 Olson ..70/358 2,030,836 2/1936 Full ..70/358 FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS 3/1966 Italy ..70/377 Primary Examiner-Robert L. Wolfe Attorney-Hane, Baxley & Spiecens  ABSTRACT A cylinder lock has tumblers mounted in two rows, the tumblers being arranged symmetrically in pairs, each pair having one tumbler from each row in a plane, and the tumblers in each pair being mutually offset and displaceable parallel to one another in opposite directions against biassing springs when a key is inserted, whereby protruding parts of the tumblers are withdrawn from recesses in the outer cylinder of the lock to allow the barrel to be turned. The key may be reversible, i.e. the profile on one edge may be a mirror image of that of the other edge about the longitudinal center line of the key. To shorten the length of the lock for a given number of tumblers the rows are staggered longitudinally of the lock. Each tumbler may have two key engaging edges, stepped relative to the diametral direction to engage correspondingly stepped key profiles. The invention increases the number of tumblers, and hence the number of alternative key profiles, in a given length of lock compared with conventional locks.
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CYLINDER LOCK The invention relates to a cylinder lock having plate tumblers.
It is the object of the invention to be able to provide a lock having a large number of tumblers with a short key.
In order to achieve this object, the invention provides a lock having two rows of plate tumblers, which are arranged symmetrically in pairs, each pair having one tumbler from each row in a plane, the tumbler of each pair being mutually offset and displaceable parallel to one another in opposite directions.
The invention offers the advantage that, compared with previous locks, more tumblers can be accommodated in thelock cylinder over a short or extremely short length, and in addition the lock security and the number of possible locking combinations can be in creased. On deflection of the tumblers in the detent passages, they bear against the lateral walls of the barrel and so prevent the lock cylinder from being turned without a key or with the wrong key. Furthermore, the keyway is uninterrupted in the region of the tumbler passages so that deflection of the key is impossible.
The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to embodiments, by way of example, which will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 shows a view of a lock cylinder;
FIG. 2 shows a sectional view on the line II-II of FIG. 1, with key withdrawn and tumblers locking;
FIG. 3 shows a longitudinal section through the lock cylinder of FIG. 2 with key inserted and tumblers not projecting;
FIG. 4 shows a reversible key;
FIG. 5 shows a section on the line V-V of FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 shows an end view of a cylinder lock;
FIG. 7 shows a view corresponding to FIG. 3 for a normal key;
FIG. 8 shows a non-reversible key;
FIG. 9 shows an end view of a cylinder lock shown in FIG. 10 shows a view similar to FIGS;
FIGS. 10a and 10b show enlarged lengthwise sections of two types'of keys;
FIGS. ll, 12 and 13 each show a cross-section for a further development of the subject of the invention;
FIGS. 14 to 19 represent a further development, namely:
FIG. 14 corresponding to FIG. 1
FIG. 15 corresponding to FIG. 2
FIG. 16 corresponding to FIG. 3
FIG. 17 corresponding to FIG. 4
FIG. 18 corresponding to FIG. 5
FIG. 19 corresponding to FIG. 6;
FIGS. 20 to 23 represent a further form of construction, namely:
FIG. 20 corresponding to FIG. 2
FIG. 21 correspondingto FIG. 3
FIG. 22 corresponding to FIG. 4
FIG. 23 corresponding to FIG. 5.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. l-6, a lock cylinder 1 is adapted to receive a key 2 in such a manner that flat tumblers 3, 4 in the form of small plates are brought into an unlocking position when the key is inserted (FIG. 3).
One pair of tumblers 3, 4 is mounted in each plane of action 7.
The tumblers are guided in guide passages or slots 5, 6 which are parallel to one another and which are disposed on either side of the central longitudinal axis of the lock. cylinder, perpendicular to this axis. In the example shown, six pairs of tumblers are provided over the length of the lock cylinder 1.
The key 2 comprises symmetrical recesses 8 and projections-9 and is a reversible key.
The construction of the tumblers and their mode of operation can best be seen from FIG. 5. The outer cylinder 10 is provided with recesses 11 and 12 to receive the tumblers 4 and with recesses 11a, 12a to receive the tumblers 3 in the locked state, as detent passages. The surfaces of webs l3 and 13a between the recesses 11, 11a and 12, 12a respectively serve as stop surfaces which are machined precisely in alignment.
Mounted in the guide passages 5, 6 are compression springs 14 which bear on the one hand against inserted strips 15 and on the other hand against projections 17 on the tumblers 3, 4. The tumblers each include a step 18, the face of which is pressed against a key under this spring force when the key is inserted. The keyway 16 extends over the entire length of the key passage without interruption. This is rendered possible by the arrangement of the guide passages 5, 6.
The embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 7 to 9 is adapted for use with a non-reversible, key 2a. In these Figures, parts corresponding to those in the first embodiment are designated by the same reference numerals with the index a.
With modification of the profile of the key 2, shapes are obtained for the tumblers 3 and 4 as well as for the webs 13 and 13a as illustrated in FIG. 11 by way of example. The so-called security against the Hobbs method is represented by the dogs 24 on the tumblers in conjunction with shoulders 26 on the detent passages. It is assumed that the direction of rotation is towards the right.
A possible mirror image" construction in relation to FIG. 11 is illustrated in FIG. 12. The dogs 24 and 25 on the tumblers 3 and 4 and the shoulders 26 and 27 are designed for both directions of rotation.
FIG. 13 again shows a different profile of the key 2. It is assumed that the direction of rotation is towards the right.
In the construction of a cylinder lock in accordance with the invention, it is possible to construct the key 2 or 2a with an optimum, relatively broad width. This results primarily from the formation of the tumblers in conjunction with the arrangement and formation of the guide passages.
Altogether, there is a large number of possible combinations for the step projections (recesses 8) in the keys. In addition, for these reasons, so-called master keys can be provided, for example for all the locks of the motor vehicle which are otherwise different, without greatly detracting from the number of combinations. A separate pair of tumblers can easily be associated with this master key, and form a relatively large barrier surface (for example 19 in FIG. 10) for each subsidiary key which does not fit. In FIG. 10, the master key indicated in cross-section is designated by 20 and the subsidiary key for individual use by 21.
Another form of construction of the invention is illustrated in FIGS. 14 to 19, the purpose of which is to develop the cylinder lock described above so that it permits a large number of variations with a favorable structural length. The lock cylinder remains in one piece. As favorable a load distribution as possible is achieved by the arrangement of the plate tumblers.
For this purpose, the plate tumblers are distributed in two rows which are mounted eccentrically and, in addition, are staggered. They are displaceable in opposite directions in relation to one another.
One advantage of this modified form of construction lies in the short structural length already mentioned and furthermore in the increase in the security of the lock. The keyway is uninterrupted in the region of the tumblers so that deflection of the key is impossible.
A short structural length of the key is particularly important for so-called reversible keys, that is to say those keys wherein it is immaterial with which edge upwards they are introduced into the lock.
As shown in FIGS. 14 to 19, a lock cylinder 1 to receive the key 2 is constructed so that the plate shaped tumblers 3 and 4 are brought into the unlocked position when the key is inserted (FIG. 19).
The tumblers are guided in guide passages 5 and 6 which are parallel to one another but staggered and which are disposed outside the central longitudinal axis of the lock cylinder, perpendicular to this axis.
The construction of the tumblers and their mode of operation can be seen from FIGS. 15 to 19. The outer cylinder 10 is provided with recesses 11 and 12 to receive the tumblers 4 and with recesses 11a and 12 a to receive the tumblers 3 (detent passages). The webs 13 or 13a respectively provide stop surfaces for key 2 and tumblers 3, 4.
Compression springs 14 are mounted in the guide passages 5, 6 and bear on the one hand against inserted strips 15 and on the other hand against projections 17 of the tumblers 3, 4. The tumblers have a step 18 which is guided by the spring force against the key 2. As a result of the arrangement of the guide passages 5, 6, the keyway 16 is uninterrupted over the whole length of the key.
In this embodiment, it is possible to construct the key 2 with an optimum width. The construction for master key and subsidiary keys, reversible keys etc. is likewise possible.
A further embodiment of the invention relates to a further development of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 14 to 19. This development is illustrated in FIGS. 20 to 23.
Its object is to reduce the structural length of the lock cylinder and hence of the key, still further with a reversible key. For this purpose, each edge of the key is milled in two planes so that double the number of steps otherwise possible can be accommodated over a given length of key.
As shown in FIGS. 20 to 23, the key 2 is milled in two planes on each key edge, namely in the planes E, and E at the upper edge of the key as illustrated in FIG. 23, and in the planes E and E at the lower edge of the key.
In this case, the steps in the planes E, and E cooperate as a reversible key; furthermore the steps in the planes E and E co-operate as a reversible key.
The number of steps in the plane E, and E provides the total number of effective key steps.
e tumblers associated with the individual steps of the key are appropriately dimensioned.
As a result of this form of construction, the number of possible variations is increased without the number of tumblers having to be increased.
The short structural length remains unaltered. In addition, the construction of the master key and subsidiary keys in the reversible-key system is simplified.
What is claimed is:
l. A key operable cylinder lock comprising:
a hollow outer cylinder and a generally solid inner cylinder rotatably fitted in the outer cylinder coaxially therewith, said inner cylinder including a keyhole extending through the length of said cylinder in a diametrical plane and two rows of spaced crosswise slots of unround cross-section extending through the width of the inner cylinder, said slots being disposed on opposite sides of said keyhole plane parallel thereto, each slot in one row being located in alignment with a slot in the other row to form pairs of slots;
a plurality of elongate tumblers, one for each slot, said tumblers having a peripheral outline matching the cross-sectional outline of the slots and being lengthwise slidable in the same;
said outer cylinder having in its inner wall recesses, one for each slot, each of said recesses being disposed to be in registry with the respective slot in a predetermined angular position of the inner cylinder relative to the outer cylinder for receiving a portion of the respective tumbler thereby locking the inner cylinder to the outer cylinder;
a compression spring in each of said slots; and
a strip mounted in each slot, each of said strips defining in the respective slot a shoulder and each of said tumblers having a laterally protruding nose, each of said springs abutting with its ends against the respective shoulder and nose to bias the tumblers toward the outer cylinder.
2. The cylinder lock as claimed in claim 1 wherein said strips have an angular cross-section.
3. A cylinder lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein the tumblers provide steps for engagement by the key.
4. A cylinder lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of the tumblers of a pair have the same locking .height.
5. A cylinder lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of the tumblers in a pair has a different locking height.
6. A cylinder lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein two rows of tumblers are provided which are staggered in relation to one another longitudinally of the inner cylinder.
7. A cylinder lock as claimed in claim 1 and comprising a stepped key, the key being a non-reversible key, the steps of the edges of the key being distributed uniformly over all four planes.