US 3709619 A
A pen has an apertured sliding protector cap that slides away from the pen body over a stationary writing point to protect it for storage and retracts to expose the point for writing. A lock for the extended position is a swinging tongue engaging the pen body and releasable by pressing inwardly on the clip. A clip is connected to the tongue and acts as a lock for the retracted position by the ball of the clip fitting in a recess in the pen body; that is, by retracting the clip. A lengthwise sliding action of the clip is utilized to move the sliding cap and to make both locking actions more positive.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
O Umted States Patent 11 1 1111 3,709,619 Zepell 1451 Jan. 9, 1972 154 WRITING IMPLEMENT WITH 2,559.555 1/1951 Zepelovitch ..401/1o7 x RETRACTABLE WRITING TIP 3.181.507 5/1965 Dannebaum ADI/99 ENcLOSURE FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS  Inventor: Nathan A. Zepell, 1359 Santa 49' 861 N 8] 4mm} y 3:3 Sam Barbara 1,253,614 11/1967 Germany ....401/213 1,485,772 5/1967 France ....40l/199 [221 Filed: May 3, 1971 1,075,981 2/1960 Germany ..401/109 ] Appl 139418 Primary Examiner-Lawrence Charles Related s n m Dam Attorney-Harris, Kern, Wallen & Tinsley  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 8,475, Feb. 4, 1970, 57 B R CT abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 798,322, Feb. 11, 1969, abandoned. A pen has an apertured sliding protector cap that slides away from the pen body over a stationary writ-  US. Cl. ..40l/108 ing point to protect it for storage and retracts to ex-  Int. Cl. ..B43k 9/00 pose the point for writing. A lock for the extended  Field of Search ..40l/188, 189, 109-111, position is a swinging tongue engaging the pen body 3, 2 3 and releasable by pressing inwardly on the clip. A clip is connected to the tongue and acts as a lock for the References Cilfid retracted position by the ball of the clip fitting in a recess in the pen body; that is, by retracting the clip. UNITED STATES PATENTS A lengthwise sliding action of the clip is utilized to 2,055,414 9/1936 Lehman move the sliding cap and to make both locking actions 2 111.767 3/1938 Gimonet ..401/59 more positive. 2,416,112 2/1947 Moore r ..40l/l07X 2,498,166 2/1950 Kuriyama ADI/104 26 Claims, 34 Drawing Figures PAIENTED JAN 9 I973 BHEU 1 BF 5 INVENTOR NATHAN A. ZEPELL BY )4 6% ATTORNEY PATENTEUJAN 9 I975 SHEET 3 OF 5 M m mum r K H EE 5PM 2 mlmm A 5 n i a gm 2 z m M b m m r5 WM WRITING IMPLEMENT WITH RETRACTABLE WRITING TIP ENCLOSURE DISCLOSURE This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Ser. No. 8475, filed Feb. 4, I970, and now abandoned, which, in turn, was a continuation-in-part of my application Ser. No. 798,322, filed Feb. 1 l 1969 and now abandoned.
This invention relates to pens with a sliding point protector or cap that is actuated by the clip and more particularly to an improved clip mechanism that selectively locks the protector in both an extended position and a retracted position.
Most writing instruments are cartridge type pens because of the general demand for a writing point that can be retracted inside the pen body when not in use. This retraction insures against ink getting on the pocket of the user, or in the purse of the user, depending upon how it is carried. Cartridge construction, however, is expensive, and there is a substantial demand for noncartridge inexpensive ball point and marker point pens. These pens are inexpensive because a body cavity of the pen can take the ink or marking fluid directly, thus saving the cost of a separate cartridge.
Such body cavity ink reservoirs usually have a writing tip that is stationary with respect to the pen body, because it is too costly to effectively seal a writing tip that can reciprocate into the ink filled cavity. For this reason, inexpensive body filled pens have separate, removable caps that fit over the stationary writing tip. These caps usually become lost or broken or bent out of shape and thereby render the pen unfit for carrying.
l have devised a stationary point pen that has all the advantages of a body filled pen combined with the advantages of a retractable cartridge pen. This I achieve by providing a cap that remains attached to the pen body and which is apertured to slide over the pen point. My apertured cap slides outwardly from the pen body to surround the writing point, and slides toward the pen body to expose the writing point. I provide positive locks for both positions of the sliding cap. Thus, the pen can be safely carried either in a pocket or in a purse, or can be conveniently used for writing without interference from the cap sliding outwardly. Furthermore, I utilize a clip to provide most of this locking ac tion.
This design makes it possible for the first time to have an inexpensive body-filled pen with the safety and convenience of an expensive retractable cartridge pen. This economy is achieved by making the sliding cap serve many functions and by having the clip serve double duty as clip and as a lock. To this end the clip is made retractable; that is, the clip ball and, if desired, the body of the clip fit within a recess in the pen body when the pen is used for writing. I gain extraordinary safety against ink leakage by placing the writing tip at the clip end of the pen so that the writing tip is upright when the pen is clipped to a pocket. Thus gravity acts against any tendency of a pen to leak. I gain additional flexibility of my pen design by using non-drying inks so that a marker point, felt point, fiber point, porous point, or any capillary type point, may be used as the writing tip without the necessity for a hermetic seal about the writing tip. My design can therefore be used for ball points, regular wet ink points, felt tips or any other type of tip.
Non-drying inks, also called life-extended inks and unlimited cap-off inks, have been commercially available for several years. While there are various compositions, two well known types are water base inks to which diethylene glycol has been added for one type and formamide has been added for another type. These substances apparently form a non-evaporative film about the water at the writing point, vent holes and other exposed points and prevent evaporation of the water. The result is a wet point on the pen that will not dry out during months or even years of exposure to atmosphere and at any time will write instantly when used. These inks utilize absorption into paper and produce a non-smudgin g writing.
Commercial formulas for such inks are as follows: Blue Ink I percent Anthraquinone Blue 3 G (Dupont) 1 percent Acid Blue No. 9 (Allied Chemical Co.) 3 percent Acid Violet 4B (Pontacyl Violet Dupont) 65 percent Water 25 percent Glycol (either ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol) 5 percent Glycerin Black Ink 7 percent Black dye TLA1313 (Dupont) 63 percent Water 25 percent Glycol (either ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol) 5 percent Glycerin Other Colors In the black ink formula, there may be substituted for Black dye various green, violet and orange dyes in approximately 10 percent of the mixture with a 3 percent reduction in water to 60 percent.
It is therefore a general object of my invention to provide an improved stationary tip pen having a sliding cap for the writing tip.
Other objects, advantages and features of the invention will be apparent in the following description and claims, together with the accompanying drawings forming an integral part of this specification in which:
FIG. I is an elevation view in full section of a pen embodying the invention wherein the apertured cap is extended to protect the writing tip, and the clip is in position for fastening the pen in a pocket;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the pen of FIG. I but with the cap retracted to expose the stationary writing tip and with the clip retracted for ease in holding the pen. The lower part of FIG. 2 is a modification of FIG. 1 showing a different design for venting the ink reser' voir;
FIG. 3 is an elevation view in section of a modified form of the invention showing the cap retracted to expose the stationary writing tip and showing a resilient closure carried inside the cap for excluding lint and dust from contact with the writing tip when the cap is extended;
FIG. 4 is an elevation view in outline of the pen of FIG. 3 but rotated to show the clip;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view along the line 5-5 of FIG.
FIG. 6 is a sectional view along the line 66 of FIG. 2, showing the modified form of reservoir venting;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view of a portion of the pen of FIG. 3 showing the clip in a position for holding the pen in the pocket of a user;
FIG. 8 is an elevation view of the pen or pens of FIGS. 1 to 4 being held in the hand of a user with the clip flush with the pen body;
FIG. 9 is an elevation view of an integrally molded cap and clip with the clip cut off;
FIG. 10 is a sectional view of the cap of FIG. 9 rotated 90 with the integrally molded clip attached thereto;
FIG. 11 is a three dimensional exploded view of the pen of FIG. 1 showing the various components thereof;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged partly sectioned elevation view of the cap of FIGS. 1 through 4, showing the method of attaching the clip thereto prior to assembly of the cap to the pen body;
FIG. 13 is an elevation view of the cap of FIG. 12 but with the clip removed and rotated 90 about its axis in the counterclockwise direction;
FIG. 14 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale along the line l4 -l6 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 15 is a sectional view along the line l5l5 of FIG. 12;
FIG. 16 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale along the line l4-16 of FIG. 1, and is similar to FIG. 14 but shows the tongue pressed inwardly by the clip to release the extending latch;
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary elevation view in full section of a mechanism similar to that on the top part of FIG. 3 but with the writing point retracted and the closures protecting the writing tip against dust and lint;
FIG. 18 is a three dimensional view on an enlarged scale of the closure mechanism and apertured cup illustrated in the upper part of FIG. 3;
FIG. 19 is a longitudinal sectional view of another writing instrument of the invention, a cap for covering the writing tip being shown in its retracted position;
FIG. 20 is a view similar to FIG. 19, but showing the cap extended to cover the tip;
FIG. 21 is an enlarged transverse sectional view taken as indicated by the arrowed line 21-21 of FIG. 19;
FIG. 22 is an enlarged elevational view showing one sideof the cap of FIGS. 19 and 20;
FIG. 23 is a longitudinal sectional view of still another species of the invention, a cap for covering the writing tip being shown retracted;
FIG. 24 is an elevational view taken as indicated by the arrowed line 24-24 of FIG. 23;
FIG. 25 is a partial longitudinal sectional view similar to FIG. 23, but illustrating a modification;
FIGS. 26, 27 and 28 are views, partially in longitudinal section and partially in elevation, showing various cartridge units for use in the instruments of FIGS. 19 to 25 ofthe drawings;
FIG. 29 is a longitudinal sectional view of still another, and presently preferred, species of the invention and is taken as indicated by the arrowed line 29- 29 of FIG. 34, an enclosure or cap for covering the writing tip being shown retracted;
FIG. 30 is a view similar to FIG. 29, but showing one way of releasing the cap from its retracted position;
FIG. 31 is a view similar to FIGS. 29 and 30, but showing the cap extended to cover the writing tip;
FIGS. 32 and 33 are fragmentary elevational views respectively taken as indicated by the arrowed lines 3232 and 33-33 of FIG. 31; and
FIG. 34 is an enlarged, transverse sectional view taken as indicated by the arrowed line 34-34 of FIG. 31.
FIGS. 1, 2 AND 8.
Referring first to FIG. 8, there is illustrated a pen 20 held in the hand of a user between thumb 21 and fingers 22. One finger 22 depresses a clip 23 into a cavity in the pen 20 to retract a protector cap 24 which exposes a writing tip 26. When the user finishes writing and lifts his finger, the clip is caused to move outwardly so that the ball thereof is ready for engagement of a pocket edge of the user. This condition of the pen is illustrated in FIG. I. There it will be noted that the cap 24 is extended over the writing tip to protect it and also that the clip 23 has ball plates 53 that ride on the outside of the barrel. The pen 20 is thus in a condition for insertion into the pocket of a user without likelihood of ink damaging the fabric.
Referring now to FIG. 1, the pen 20 has a body 27 having an ink reservoir 28 in which is disposed a mass of fibrous material 29 into which ink is absorbed to supply the writing tip 26. An end cap 29b seals the reservoir 28 against leakage.
The upper end of the body 27 has a central bore 31 which has a slot 32 part way down the right side and an interior enlargement or groove 33 over part of its length opposite the slot 32. Formed coaxially in the recess 31 is a smaller bore 34 which is reduced in diameter at a shoulder 36 to communicate with the reservoir 28. Also leading from the bottom of the bore 31 is an air passage 37 which supplies air to one or more grooved passages 30 (FIG. 5) running the length of reservoir 28. These passages allow air to replace the ink that is used by the pen and thereby insure free flow ofink to the writing tip 26.
The writing tip 26 is the end of a bundle of fibers or other capillary structure which is enclosed by a tip tube 38 which has a friction fit in the bore 34 and seats solidly against the shoulder 36. The fibers of the tip 26 extend into the fibrous mass 29, and the fibers are identified as 26a in FIG. 1. In this fashion the writing tip 26 receives a direct ink supply from the reservoir 28.
The protector cap 24 has a frusto-conical end 24a which terminates in a transverse end having an aperture 41 through which the writing tip 26 and the tip tube 38 project. Surrounding the tip tube 38 is a helical spring 39 having an enlarged upper end to engage the tapering sides of the frusto-conical end 24a to urge the entire cap 24 outwardly. The outward movement of the cap 24 is halted by a bent out ear 42 formed on the cap 24 engaging the upper end of the enlargement or groove 33. The downward movement of the cap 24 is halted by the bottom edge of the cap 24 striking the bottom of the bore 31.
The details of construction of the cap 24 are best illustrated in FIGS. 12 through 16. Referring especially to FIG. 13, there it will be noted that one side of the tubular cap 24 is slotted to define a downwardly pointing tongue 43 having a dimple 44 formed on the bottom edge. The tongue, in effect, hinges from the region 46 which is at the top of two wide slots 47. The lower part of the tongue 43 is wider as at 43b than the top part of 43a. To limit inward movement of the tongue 43, two pairs of transverse slots are formed opposite the wide part 43b of the tongue and the material is bent inwardly to define stops 48 best shown in FIGS. 14 and 16. Outward movement of the tongue is limited by the fact that its wide part 4319 is wider than the slot 32 as shown best in FIGS. 14 and 16.
Referring now to the clip 23 and the mode of its attachment to the protector cap 24, it will be noted in FIG. 13 that the bottom ends of the wide slots 47 define shoulders 49 which act as part of a hinge joint. Referring now to FIG. 12, the upper end of the clip 23 has a pair of parallel inwardly bent plates 51 each of which has a notch 52 which fit on the shoulders 49. The height of the plates 51 from the top of the notch to the top of the plates is slightly less than the length of the slots 47 and accordingly when the plates 51 are fully inside of the slots 47, the clip cannot come loose from the cap 24.
The manner of assembly of the clip 23 to the cap 24 is illustrated in FIG. 12, and this is done before the cap is inserted in the pen body. The clip notches 52 are simply fitted over the shoulders of 49 and the clip 23 then rotated counter clockwise, as viewed in FIG. 12. Thereafter the cap with clip hinged to it is fitted inside of the body of the pen. The clip 23 is thereafter unable to rotate to the position of FIG. 12, and the hinge becomes permanent.
Referring now again to FIG. I it will be noted that the dimple 44 on the tongue of 43 hits against the bottom end of the slot 32 in the body, and this bottom end is designated as 35 and acts as a retraction stop. This dimple 44 accordingly keeps the cap 24 in the extended position illustrated in FIG. 1. When it is desired to retract the cap 24 a user places manual pressure on the upper end of the clip 23, causing the hinge notch 52 to exert an inward force on the tongue 43 (FIG. I3) and thus the dimple 44 is displaced inwardly enough to clear the bottom 35 of the slot 32. A manual push downwardly, as viewed in FIG. 1 on the clip 23, causes the entire cap 24 to slide downwardly exposing the writing tip 26. When the bottom of the cap 24 reaches the bottom of the bore 31 the cap stops and at this point a pair of ball plates 53 formed on the bottom of the clip 23 fit within cavities 54 formed in the pen body 27. It will be noted that the side of each ball plate 53 toward the writing tip 26 is flatted as at 53a and that the cavity 54 is similarly flatted at 54a. These two flats engage each other and under the urging of the spring 39 surrounding the tip tube 38, the clip is held in this position. The clip ball 53, accordingly, acts as a positive lock to keep the cap 24 in a retracted position, as illustrated in FIG. 2. If desired, the pen body 27 may be recessed also for the body of the clip 23, and this recess is indicated on FIG. 1 at 56. This recessing of the clip in the pen body presents a smooth outline for the user as shown in FIG. 8.
This action of the dimple 44 in latching the cap 24 in its extended position is further illustrated in FIGS. 14 and 16. It will be noted in FIG. 14 that the dimple 44 overlies the bottom 35 of the slot 32 and is thereby latching the cap 24 in its extended position shown in FIG. 1. Shown in FIG. 16 is the position of the tongue 43 and its dimple 44, for unlatching the cap, and it will be noted that the dimple 44 clears the slot bottom 35 which permits the entire cap to be retracted. This is accomplished by a manual push to the left as viewed in FIG. l6 which moves the tongue 43 against its stops 48.
Referring now to FIG. 2 it will be noted that the upper part of that figure and the clip are identical to that shown in FIG. 1. The reservoir, however, is of a different construction in that there are no lengthwise grooves for ventilation, and instead the groove is cut into the fibrous mass as best illustrated in FIG. 6. Accordingly in FIG. 2 there is a reservoir 280 which is smooth in outline, and there is fitted within this reservoir 280 a fibrous mass 29a which has a groove 57 which communicates with a vent passage 60 at the top of reservoir 28a and shown in FIG. 2.
FIGS. 3 AND 4.
Referring now to FIGS. 3 and 4, there is illustrated a modified form of the invention wherein a cartridge is used instead of a body reservoir, a different type of ball is used on the clip, and a resilient closure is provided for covering the writing tip when the cap covers the writing tip. A pen body 61 has a central cavity 62 which retains a cartridge 63 having a tip tube 64 and a writing tip 66. A screwed-in bottom cap 67 integrally formed on the cartridge retains the cartridge 63 in place and may be readily unscrewed for removing a spent cartridge and inserting a fresh cartridge.
The upper end of the pen body 61 may be coaxially bored at 68 and a side groove or enlargement 69 may be provided similar to the groove 33 of FIG. I. The right hand side of the pen body is slotted into the bore 68 as at 71 to permit the reciprocation of clip plates 72 formed on the upper end of a clip 73. The lower end of the clip 73 has a ball 74 which fits within a crescent shaped recess 76. The body 61 may be recessed at 77 to receive the body of the clip 73 to present a smooth outline to the user. Referring especially to FIG. 4 it will be noted that the ball plates 74 are wider than the clip slot 77, and this relationship causes the ball to ride on the very exterior of the pen body as best shown in FIG. 7.
Referring still to FIG. 7 it will be noted that the outlines of the ball plates 74 and the ball recess 76 are a flat crescent and that the ball plates come to rest very close to the upper end of recess 76. A very slight downward movement of the clip 73 engages the plates 74 with the recess 76 and an inward manual pressure on the ball plates 74 gives rise to a cam action that pulls the clip downwardly and seats the plates in the recess.
In FIG. 4 broken lines are used to show the projected or extended position of the cap 24 and the clip 73. The clip upper plates 72 are hinged to the protector cap 24 in the same fashion as the clip 23 as shown in FIG. 12. As shown in FIG. 3, a compression spring 78 bears against the top of the cartridge 63 and against an apertured inverted cup 79 best shown in FIG. 18. The top of spring 78 is belled outwardly to grip the inverted cup 79 so that it will remain in place when cartridges are changed.
Referring to FIG. 18, it will be noted that the inverted apertured cup 79 has a cylindrical skirt 8| fitted about the outside thereof from which project upwardly a pair of resilient fingers 82 having an inwardly projecting portion 83. The fingers touch at their tops 84 to form a closure against lint or filaments that might accidentally work into the open end of the cap 24 and touch the tip 66 which is wet with ink at all times.
Shown in FIG. 17 is a structure similar to that in the top of FIG. 3 and in FIG. 18. There it will be noted that a cup 79a frictionally engages the skirts 81 to force them against the interior of a protector cap 86, preferably at the point where it changes from a cylinder to a tapering end. A tip tube 87 has a frusto-conical portion 88 which engages the inwardly bending parts 83 of the fingers, and when this tip tube 87 is moved upwardly in FIG. 17, these fingers are pushed apart so that the tips 84 open up before a writing tip 78 touches them. Accordingly, the fingers 82 are at all times out of contact with the writing tip.
FIGS. 9 AND 10.
Illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10 is an inexpensive type of plastic molding for achieving the structure of the cap 24 and the attached slip 23 or 73 of FIGS. I and 3. A one-piece or integral combined cap 91 and clip 92 are illustrated and a tongue 93 is formed in the cap with a projecting dimple 94. The clip 92 is hinged to the tongue 93 at 96, and this forms a living hinge which allows the clip 92 to rotate with respect to the cap 91. Shown in FIG. 10 is an ear 97 which may be used to limit outward movement of the cap 91. The cap of FIGS. 9 and 10 operates in the same fashion as the cap 24 of FIGS. 1 through 4.
OPERATION OF FIGS. 1 AND 2.
The pen of FIG. 1 has the cap 24 extended to surround the writing tip 26 thus making the pen safe to clip into a pocket or carry in a purse. Blows on the cap 24 do not move it because it is latched in position by the downwardly extending tongue 43 and its dimple 44 engaging the bottom 35 of slot 32. If it is desired to retract the cap 24, the user grasps the pen as for writing and presses on the upper end of the clip 23. This pressure bends the tongue 43 inwardly until the dimple 44 clears the inside of slot bottom 35 whereupon the user, with his finger still on the clip 23, pulls the clip downwardly until the clip ball plates 53 fit in the ball recess 54. At the same time the body of clip 23 moves into the recess 56 so that the entire clip is flush with the pen body.
The cap 24 is hinged at 52 to the clip and moves downwardly with the clip as shown in FIG. 2. The pen is now ready for writing as shown in FIG. 8.
If the user of the pen of FIG. 1 lays it down, the point still remains exposed because the clip ball plates 53 have the flat 53a that engages the flat 54a of recess 54. The compression spring 39 keeps these two parts in contact.
If it is desired to cover the writing tip 26, the user presses against the upper part of the clip 23 above the hinge joint at 52 and rotates it counterclockwise. This uncouples the flats 53a and 54a and the compression spring 39 snaps the cap 24 and the clip 23 upwardly until the projecting ear 42 strikes the upper end of groove 33 at which position the tongue dimple 44 is opposite the slot bottom 35. The resiliency of the tongue 43, and the outward pull thereon by the clip 23, cause the tongue to rotate counterclockwise until the dimple 44 seats on the stop 35 as shown in FIG. I.
OPERATION OF FIGS. 3, 4. AND 17.
The operation of the pen of FIGS. 3 and 4 is similar to FIGS. 1 and 2 except that there is no locking action of the clip ball. When the user releases his finger grip (FIG. 8) on the clip 73, the compression spring 78 moves the cap and clip upwardly causing the clip 73 to fly outwardly.
The resilient closure fingers 82 of FIGS. 3, l7 and 18 are closed when the writing tip is covered by the cap 24 (86 in FIG. 17). These fingers 82 protect the writing tip from lint and fabric filaments found in purses and pockets and prevent any accidental inking by the tip. When it is desired to retract the protector cap 24. the fingers 82 are bodily pulled downwardly and inwardly projecting parts 83 contact frusto-conical portions of tip tubes 64 and 88 which move the fingers outwardly as best shown in FIG. 3.
OPERATION OF FIGS. 9 AND 10.
These figures show only an integrally molded cap and clip, and these operate in the same fashion as cap 24 and clip 23 in FIG. 1.
It will be apparent that the cap 24 serves many functions: 1, it protects the writing point; 2, its ear 42 limits outward movement of the cap; 3, its bottom limits inward movement of the cap; 4, it provides a tongue for latching the cap in an extended position; 5, it provides a hinge joint for the clip; 6, the ears 48 (FIGS. 14 and 16) provide stops against inward movement of the tongue; and 7, the wide part of tongue 43 provides a stop against outward movement of the tongue being wider than the slot SI (FIGS. I4 and 16). These many functions built into one member help to make my pen inexpensive, yet gives it the characteristic of an expensive pen. These and other economies make possible an inexpensive direct-fill pen having all the safety features of an expensive retractable cartridge pen.
I presently prefer to make my cap 24 of metal, and preferably a bright metal. This is because most expensive retractable pens have a bright metal piece on the body at the writing tip, primarily for decorative purposes. My functional cap 24 has the appearance of an expensive decorative cap and enhances the desirability of my pen.
The protector cap 24 is normally in place about the writing tip. Any blows to the clip might momentarily unlatch the dimple 44 from the slot bottom 35, but it will instantly snap back to latching position and insure continued protection. Blows on the cap will not retract it. Likewise the action of clipping the pen to a pocket pulls on the tongue 43 to insure that it maintains a locking position.
This positive lock is implemented by the necessity of manually pulling the clip downwardly in order to expose the tip for writing. Thus, two movements at right angles to each other are required, which gives rise to a double safety. If a user of the FIG. 1 pen forgets to cover the point, he automatically does so when extending the clip to clip the pen in his pocket. The fact that the cap of FIGS. 3 and 4 always covers the writing point when the user puts it down is an added safety.
The provision of the closure fingers of FIGS. 3, l7 and I8 makes the pen into an ideal ladies" pen. It is notorious that women's purses contain paper tissue, handkerchiefs, threads and other filaments that might find their way into the hole in the sliding cap. In this event the ink would run from the tip, spoiling the handkerchief or purse. The resilient fingers 82 close over the tip and prevent this from happening, thus providing an extreme degree of safety.
FIGS. 19 TO 22.
These figures illustrate a writing instrument 110 of the invention which is generally similar to those previously disclosed, but which incorporates various improvements thereover.
More particularly, the writing instrument 110 includes an elongated tubular body 112 containing a cartridge unit 114 generally similar to that shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the unit 114 being an ink unit, for example. The cartridge unit 114 includes a writing tip 116 which projects from one end of the body 112, and has a plug 118 suitably secured to its other end. The plug 118 in cludes a cylindrical portion 120 which is frictionally retained in a counterbore 122 in the end 124 of the body 112 opposite the writing tip 116. The plug 118 is faired into the body 112 and is provided with an annular shoulder 126 seated against the end 124 of the body. A vent 128 for admitting air into the cartridge unit 114 as ink is used is provided in the plug 118.
With the foregoing construction, the cartridge unit 114 may be assembled with the body 112 very readily by inserting it into the body until the annular shoulder 126 on the plug 118 engages the end 124 of the body. If it is desired to withdraw the cartridge unit 114 for replacement, or substitution of another, different cartridge unit, such as one of those to be described hereinafter, this may be accomplished readily by grasping the plug 118 and withdrawing the unit.
A tubular cap 130, which, together with the body 112, is preferably made of a suitable plastic, is reciprocable in the end 132 of the body 112 between a retracted position, FIG. 19, wherein the writing tip 116 is exposed, and an extended position, FIG. 20, wherein the writing tip is enclosed. An external stop 134 on the cap 130 is engageable with an internal stop 136 in the body 112 to prevent longitudinally outward movement ofthe cap beyond its extended position. The cap 130 is sufficiently flexible to permit insertion into the end 132 of the body 112 during assembly despite the presence of the external stop 134. Preferably, a compression coil spring 138 seated against an external annular shoulder on the cartridge unit 114 and an internal annular shoulder in the cap 130 biases the cap toward its extended position.
The cap 130 is provided therein, as best shown in FIGS. 21 and 22, with two longitudinal slits 140 extend ing from the longitudinally inner end of the cap toward the outer end thereof and providing therebetween a cantilevered, flexible and resilient, latch tongue 142 cxtending toward the end 124 of the body 112. The free end 144 of the latch tongue 142 is engageable with a retraction stop 146 formed by the inner end wall of a longitudinal notch 148, FIG. 21, in the end 132 of the body 112. As will be clear from FIG. 20, the inherent resilience of the latch tongue 142, and the outward pull thereon by a clip 152 to be described, bias the tongue laterally outwardly into a position such that, when the cap 130 is extended, the free end 144 of the latch tongue engages the retraction stop 146 to positively prevent retraction of the cap. However, the latch tongue 142 may be flexed laterally inwardly by the clip 152, as will be described hereinafter, to cause the free end 144 of the latch tongue to clear the retraction stop 146 so that the cap may be retracted for writing purposes. When the cap is in its retracted position, an external limit stop 1S0 thereon engages the retraction stop 146, as shown in FIG. 19, to prevent longitudinally inward movement of the cap beyond its retracted position.
The clip 152, which is a pocket clip, is connected adjacent one end 154 thereof to and is carried by the latch tongue 142, the clip 152 extending longitudinally of the body 112 toward the opposite end 124 thereof. The clip 152 is provided with two tabs 156, FIG. 21, which are bent around a portion of the latch tongue 142 and which have their ends disposed in an undercut 158 in the latch tongue laterally inwardly of the stop 150. A button 160 formed integrally with the latch tongue 142 projects laterally outwardly through an opening in the clip 152 adjacent the tabs 156 and cooperates with such tabs to secure the clip to the latch tongue. The clip 152 is bent to provide an external transverse shoulder 162 engageable by the user's thumb (or finger) to assist in moving the cap 130 toward its extended position in a manner to be described hereinafter. Bending the clip 152 in this fashion also forms a transverse internal shoulder which may, if desired, abut the stop to assist in transferring to the cap 130 any extension force applied to the shoulder 162. However, the button performs this function independently of the internal shoulder mentioned.
The clip 152 is provided at its free end with a ball" 164 receivable in a ball recess 166 in the body 112 when the cap 130 is retracted. lnterengageable retain ing shoulders 168 and 170 respectively provided in the ball recess 166 and on the ball 164 serve to releasably retain the cap 130 in its retracted position when the ball 164 of the clip 152 is in its recess 166, as shown in full lines in FIG. 19.
Underlying the clip 152 is a longitudinal groove 172 formed in the body 112 in longitudinal alignment with the notch 148 and the ball recess 166, and of a width slightly greater than that of the clip. This groove ends intermediate the connection of the clip 152 to the latch tongue 142 and the ball recess 166, and provides at its inner end a pivot or pivot means 174 engageable by a point on the clip 152 near the midpoint thereof when the cap 130 is retracted.
Considering the operation of the writing instrument 110, it will be assumed that the cap 130 is in its retracted position, as shown in FIG. 19, to expose the writing tip 116. In order to extend the cap 130, the user merely presses laterally inwardly and longitudinally forwardly on the portion of the clip 152 overlying the groove 172. This causes the clip 152 to flex, about the pivot or pivot means 174, into the broken-line position of FIG. 19, thereby withdrawing the ball 164 from the ball recess 166, and thus disengaging the retaining shoulder 170 from the retaining shoulder 168. At the same time, the user's thumb acts longitudinally outwardly on the shoulder 162 on the clip 152 to displace the cap 130 longitudinally outwardly to its extended position, FIG. 20, assisted by the spring 138. Releasing the retaining means formed by the shoulders 168 and 170 in this fashion requires sufficient force that it cannot normally be accomplished accidentally while writing with the instrument 110.
Once the cap 130 reaches its extended position, it is positively latched in that position by engagement of the free end 144 of the latch tongue 142 with the retraction stop 146, as shown in FIG. 20. When it is desired to retract the cap 130 to place the instrument 110 in condition for use, the operator presses inwardly on the portion of the clip 152 overlying the latch tongue 142, thereby displacing the free end 144 of the latch tongue laterally inwardly out of engagement with the retraction stop 146. The cap 130 may be displaced longitudinally inwardly into its retracted position, FIG. 19, by simultaneously applying a longitudinally inward and then a rearward force to the clip 152. Once the cap 130 reaches its retracted position, it is retained therein by the shoulders 168 and 170.
An important feature of the writing instrument 110 is that the laterally inward forces required to release the cap 130 from its retracted and extended positions are applied to clip 152 in an area spaced longitudinally iriwardly or rearwardly from the outer or forward end 154 of the clip, in contrast to the embodiments of the invention hereinbefore disclosed. This precludes any possibility of having the users thumb or fingers come in contact with the writing tip 116 in retracting or extending the cap 130, and thus avoids getting ink on the users thumb or finger in the event that the instrument 110 is some type of inking device. This is an important advantage over the embodiments previously disclosed.
It will be understood that, if desired, the spring 138 may be omitted so that the cap 130 must be extended entirely manually. In this case, the shoulders 168 and 170 for releasably retaining the cap 130 in its retracted position may be omitted, if desired, and a ball of the nature shown in FIG. 25 may be used.
FIGS. 23 AND 24.
These figures illustrate a writing instrument 180 which is identical in most respects to the writing instrument 110, identical parts being designated by identical reference numerals, and similar parts being designated by adding the suffix to the reference numerals applied to corresponding parts of the writing instrument 110.
The writing instrument 180 differs only in having a slightly different cap 130a and a slightly different clip 1520. The clip 152a differs from the clip 152 in omitting the transverse shoulder 162. Instead of providing the clip with this shoulder, the button 160 of the writing instrument 110 is lengthened laterally so that it projects through the clip 1520, as clearly as shown in FIG. 23. The button 160a is in the form of an isosceles triangle having its apex pointed toward the writing tip 116, whereby its base 161a serves the same purpose as the shoulder 162 on the clip 152 of the writing instrument 110.
The writing instrument 180 has the advantage of avoiding the stress concentrations in the clip 1520 which tend to result from bending of the clip 152 to form the shoulder 162. Also, the triangular button 160a simulates an arrow designating the direction of the combined laterally inward and longitudinally forward pressures to be applied to the clip 15211 to release the ball of the clip 152a from its recess and to displace the cap 130a longitudinally forwardly into its extended position.
This figure of the drawing shows a writing instrument 190 which is virtually identical to the writing instrument 180, the same reference characters being employed for identical parts, and the suffix b" being used to designate modified parts. The only difference in the writing instrument 190 over the instrument 180 resides in the provision of a modified clip 1521) having a ball 16417 which terminates at its longitudinally inner or rearward end in a projecting tip b. This projecting tip is engageable by the users finger tip to disengage the ball 164b from its recess and to displace the cap 130a longitudinally forwardly into its extended position, there preferably being no spring comparable to the spring 138 of the instrument 110. In all other respects, the writing instrument 190 operates in the same way as the instrument 180.
FIGS. 26 TO 28.
Respectively illustrated in FIGS. 26, 27 and 28 are alternate cartridge units 202, 204 and 206, any one of which may be substituted for the cartridge unit 114 of any of the writing instruments 110, and 190.
Considering first the cartridge unit 202 of FIG. 26, it includes a central body portion divided into two compartments 212 and 214 by a ring 216. The two compartments 212 and 214 contain ink saturated fillers. Vents 218 serve to admit air into the compartments 212 and 214 as the inks therein are used, it being understood that the body of the cartridge unit 202 is sufficiently smaller than the interior of the body 112 to provide a slight annular clearance admitting air to the vents 218.
At the ends of the body of the cartridge unit 202 are necks 220 and 222 having threaded portions 224 and 226 at their inner ends. The necks 220 and 222 terminate in writing tips 228 and 230.
One of the writing tips, e.g., the writing tip 228, is protected against drying during shipment, storage, and the like, by a temporary cap 232 pressed over the corresponding end of the central body portion of the cartridge unit 202. The other writing tip, e.g., the writing tip 230, is similarly protected by a cup-shaped plug 234 having a cylindrical portion 236 threaded onto the threaded portion 226 of the neck 222. The cylindrical portion 236 of the plug 234 terminates at its longitudinally outer end in an annular shoulder 238. The cylindrical portion 236 of the plug 234 is adapted to be pressed into the counterbore 122 in the end 124 of the body 112 of any of the writing instruments 110, 180 and 190, the shoulder 238 abutting the end 124 in the same manner as illustrated in FIG. 19. It will be understood, of course, that the temporary cap 232 is removed and discarded before inserting the cartridge unit 202 into the body 112.
As will be apparent. the cartridge unit 202 is reversible end-for-end so that either writing tip 228 or 230 may be used. To reverse the cartridge unit 202, it is merely necessary to withdraw it from the body 112, unscrew the plug 234, screw the plug onto the threaded portion 224 at the opposite end of the cartridge unit, and reinsert the cartridge unit in the body 112 with the writing tip 230 projecting from the end 132 of the body. Such end-for-end reversal of the cartridge unit 202 takes but a few seconds.
With the cartridge unit 202, the inks in the two compartments 212 and 214 may have different characteristics, such as different colors. To change the color, it is merely necessary to reverse the cartridge unit 202 in the manner hereinbefore described. Alternatively, the writing tips 228 and 230 may differ in type, line width, or some other characteristic. Thus, the writing tip may be changed merely be reversing the cartridge unit 202 end-for-end. Alternatively, the inks and writing tips may be identical, and the cartridge unit 202 may merely be reversed end-for-end when the ink supply in one compartment is used up, or when one of the writing tips is worn out, or the like. Also only one reservoir can be used, eliminating the spacer ring 216 and having vent holes on both shoulders at 217 and 219. When one tip wears out, the cartridge is turned around and replaced by the other writing tip.
It shall be clear that one can use a cartridge having at one end a fiber point, as in FIG. 26, and at the other end a ball point, as shown in FIG. 27. The body of the ball point cartridge can be inserted into a longitudinal bore made in the center of the body 112, or just use one-half the length of the total space provided in the barrel 110 for each cartridge. The cartridge unit 202 shown in FIG. 26 can also have the following versions: a marker nib on one end writing with one kind of ink and at the other end writing with a different color of ink; a marker nib having a thin point at one end and a wider point at the other end; a marker nib having, for example, a nylon fiber point at one end and a sintered teflon point at the other, i.e., two different types of marker points; a pen having entirely different points on each end, such as a marker point at one end and at the other a ball point. It should be understood that the unit 202 can also be a fountain pen nib, the cartridge containing a reservoir for aqueous ink to be fed in the manner well known in the fountain pen field.
Turning now to FIG. 27, the cartridge unit 204 comprises a body 240 insertable into the body 112 of any of the writing instruments 110, 180 and 190. The body 240 is provided with an axial bore 242 of a size to receive a conventional ball point cartridge 244. The body 240 is provided with a longitudinal slit 246 on one side which communicates with the bore 242, the latter being slightly smaller in diameter than the ball point cartridge 244 so that the slit 246 opens slightly upon insertion of the ball point cartridge. This enables the inherent resilience of the material of the body 240, which material is preferably a suitable plastic, to cause the body to grip the ball point cartridge firmly,
The end of the body 240 remote from the writing tip of the ball point cartridge 244 terminates in a plug 250 similar to the plug 118 in that it is faired into the body 112 when an external annular shoulder 252 thereon is seated against the end 124 of the body. The plug 250 is provided with a cylindrical portion 254 having thereon circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending ribs 256 which fit snugly into the writing instrument body 112 to hold the cartridge unit 204 in place. The spaces between the ribs 256 serve to conduct air to the groove 246 which serves as a vent to the open end of the ball point cartridge 244. The ribs 256 are there mainly for the purpose of making the friction fit between the plug and barrel more positive without having to use close dimensions. This is due to the deformation of the roundness of the barrel and it is easier to maintain the right friction fit in mass production.
The cartridge unit 206 of FIG. 28 comprises a mechanical pencil mechanism having a body 262 adapted to fit snugly in the writing instrument body 112. Projecting from one end of the body 262 is a stem 264 rotatable relative to the body 262 to advance and retract a pencil lead 266 projecting from a stem 268 which extends longitudinally from the other end of the body 262. Projecting from the free end of the rotatable stem 264 is an eraser 270. The rotatable stem 264 may contain extra pencil leads retained therein by the eraser 270 in the usual manner. Mechanical pencil mechanisms of this character are well known so that no further description is necessary.
Pressed onto the rotatable stem 264 is a plug 272 similar to the previously-described plug 118. The plug 272 has a cylindrical portion 274 of a diameter slightly less than the diameter of the counterbore 122 so that it is free to rotate relative to the writing instrument body 112 to permit retraction or extension of the pencil lead 266. The plug 272 has an external annular shoulder 276 adapted to seat on the end 124 of the writing instrument body 112.
As will be apparent, any of the cartridge units 202, 204 and 206 may be substituted for the cartridge unit 114 of any of the writing instruments 110, 180 and 190. Additionally, the cartridge unit 202 may be reversed end-for-end to bring either writing tip 228 or 230 into use.
FIGS. 29 TO 34.
Illustrated in FIGS. 29 to 34 is a writing instrument 310 which is similar in many respects to the instrument 110, differing primarily in the substitution of a pocket clip 352 for the clip 152 of the instrument 110. In all other respects, the instrument 310 is substantially identical to the instrument and the same reference numerals are used for substantially identical parts. (There are a couple of minor differences in parts identified by identical reference numerals. For example, there are two of the stops 134 and two of the stops 136, the stops 134 being formed by the outer ends of diametrically opposite ribs on the cap 130, as will be clear from FIG. 34. The outer end of the spring 138 has several closed coils which fit snugly into the interior of the cap to prevent the spring from coming out when the user changes cartridge units 114).
The clip 352 is generally similar to the clip 152 and serves the same functions. Thus, the latch tongue 142 may be flexed laterally inwardly by the clip 352 to cause the free end 144 of the latch tongue to clear the retraction stop 146 so that the cap may be retracted for writing purposes. When the cap is retracted, the clip 352 holds it in its retracted position, as will be described hereinafter.
As is the case with the clip 152, the clip 352 is connected adjacent one end 354 thereof to and is carried by the latch tongue I42, whereby the free end 144 of the latch tongue may be disengaged from the retraction stop 146 by laterally inward pressure on the end 354 of the clip. The cap 130 may be displaced longitudinally rearwardly into its retracted position, FIG. 29, by simultaneously applying a longitudinally rearward force to the clip 352. In this respect, the operation of the clip 352 in actuating the latch tongue 142 is essentially the same as that of the clip 152.
Considering the manner in which the clip 352 is connected to the latch tongue 142, the clip is provided with two tabs 356, FIG. 34, which are bent around a portion of the latch tongue 142 and which have their ends disposed in an undercut 358, FIGS. 29 to 31, in the latch tongue laterally inwardly of the stop 150. At its extreme forward end, the clip 352 is provided with a laterally-inwardly-extending tab 360 in a complementary recess 362, FIG. 32, in the cap 130. The tabs 356 in the undercut 358 and the tab 360 in its recess 362 securely fasten the end 354 of the clip 352 to the latch tongue I42 so that the free end 144 of the latch tongue can be released from the retraction stop 146 by laterally inward pressure on the end 354 of the clip 352 in the manner hereinbefore discussed.
The clip 352 is provided at its free end with a ball" 364 pivotally connected thereto by an integral pivot means 366. The ball is positioned between the two side plates of the clip. The ball 364 is pivotable relative to the clip 352 between the extreme positions shown in FIGS. 29 and 30, integral stop means 365 and 367 on the clip preventing pivoting of the ball beyond these positions.
As shown in FIG. 29, the ball 364 is receivable in a ball recess 368 in the body 112 when the cap 130 is retracted. Interengageable retaining shoulders 370 and 372 respectively formed on the ball 364 and in the ball recess 368 serve to releasably retain the cap 130 in its retracted position, against the action of the spring 138, when the ball is in the ball recess, as shown in FIG. 29.
The pivoted ball 364 is provided with an actuator tab 374 which slopes outwardly and rearwardly, relative to the axis of the writing instrument 310, and rearwardly and outwardly beyond the rearward end of the ball recess 368. With this construction, the ball 364 can be disengaged from the ball recess 368, to permit springbiased movement of the cap 130 into its extended position, by lifting laterally outwardly on the actuator tab 374. Also, in the event that the user of the writing instrument 310 inserts same into a pocket, with the clip 352 in use in the normal manner for a pocket clip, the material of which the pocket is formed will be inserted under the actuator tab 374 to automatically disengage the ball 364 from the ball recess 368 so that the spring I38 automatically extends the cap 130 into its tip-enclosing position. Thus, the mere act of placing the writing instrument 310 in ones pocket automatically results in extension of the cap 130, which is an important feature of the invention.
The shoulders 370 and 372 may also be disengaged, to permit extension of the cap 130, by pressing inwardly on the actuator tab 374, as shown in FIG. 30. When this is done, the combination of the ball 364 and its actuator tab 374 pivots around the rearward edge 376 of the ball recess 368 to displace the shoulder 370 on the ball 364 laterally out of the ball recess. Thereupon, the spring 138 extends the cap 130 into its tip-enclosing position, shown in FIG. 31.
Thus, with the construction illustrated in FIGS. 29 to 34, the cap 130 may be released for movement to its extended position in any one of three ways. First, the user may displace the actuator tab 374 laterally outwardly with his finger tip or fingernail. Secondly, he may merely place the instrument 310 in his pocket with the clip 352 on the outside of the pocket. Third, he may press laterally inwardly on the actuator tab 374. Thus, the instrument 310 is very versatile with respect to releasing the cap for spring-biased extension to enclose the writing tip 116, which is an important feature of the invention.
Although exemplary embodiments of the invention have been disclosed for purposes of illustration, it will be understood that various changes, modifications and substitutions may be incorporated in such embodiments without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined by the claims appearing hereinafter.
1. A writing instrument comprising:
a. an elongated body having a part for a retraction stop;
b. a writing tip on one end of the body;
c. a reciprocating protector disposed on said one end of the body and extendible to substantially surround the tip and retractable to expose the tip for writing;
(I. a tongue on the protector and pointing toward the other end of the body and having a tongue tip engageable with the retraction stop part of the body to latch against retraction of the protector; and
e. a clip mounted on said tongue with a hinge joint so that an outward pull by the clip will hold the tongue in latching position and a manual push inwardly on the clip will move the tongue tip out of engagement with the retraction stop and allow retraction of the protector.
2. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein the tongue is normally biased to engage the body stop and thereby normally latch the protector against retraction.
3. A writing instrument as defined in claim I wherein the tongue is integrally formed from the material of the protector and is resilient.
4. A writing instrument as defined in claim 3 wherein a limit stop is provided on the reciprocating protector to limit inward movement of the resilient tongue to prevent exceeding its elastic limit.
5. A writing instrument as defined in claim 3 wherein a limit stop is provided to limit outward movement of the resilient tongue tip in the form of a slot in the body to receive the upper part of the clip and wherein the transverse width of the slot is less wide than the tongue width.
6. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein a spring engaging the body and the protector urges the protector to an extended position to insure that the protector is normally extended.
7. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein the body has a surface recess to receive the clip ball in the protector-retracted position, so that a substantially smooth outline is provided for the fingers of the user grasping the writing instrument in the region of the body normally grasped by fingers.
8. A writing instrument as set forth in claim 1 wherein a spring engaging the body and the protector is provided normally urging the protector toward the extended position, and the clip is hinged intermediate its ends to the tongue intermediate the tongue ends, the clip has a ball that is flatted on the side toward the writing tip, and the body has a surface recess for the ball with a corresponding flat in the recess against which the ball flat bears when the protector is retracted, whereby the spring keeps the two flats in engagement to act as a latch against extension of the protector without the necessity of manual pressure on the clip, and the clip ball is rotated outwardly from the body to extend the protector, by manually pressing on the clip part toward the writing tip from the hinge point.
9. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein the clip is hinged to the tongue with a solid flexible material.
10. A writing instrument as set forth in claim 1 wherein the body has a surface recess to receive the clip so that the clip is flush with the body surface.
11. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein the hinge joint is formed by a notched portion of the clip riding on a transverse edge formed on the tongue.
[2. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein a longitudinal slot is formed on the tongue, and the clip is provided with an inwardly projecting flange that fits in the slot, and the clip flange is notched to fit over the end of the slot away from the writing tip, to form a hinge joint, and the height of the flange above the notch is substantially the same length as the slot to make a permanent hinge joint, so that the assembly of the protector to the body maintains the clip in an angular range that maintains the clip flange in the tongue slot.
13. A writing instrument comprising:
a. an elongated body having a part for a retraction stop;
b. a writing tip on one end of the body;
c. a sliding apertured cap mounted on the body for extension movement over the writing tip to protect it and for retraction movement away from the tip to expose it for writing;
d. a tongue carried by the cap having an attachment end to the cap and a free end and pointing in the retraction direction of movement of the cap and engageable with the retraction stop to prevent retraction and thereby to hold the cap extended over the tip; and
e. a clip mounted on the cap with a part that mechanically engages the tongue intermediate the ends of the tongue so that an outward pull on the clip will hold the tongue in latching position and a manual inward push on the clip will move the tongue tip out of engagement with the retraction stop and allow retraction of the protector cap.
14. A writing instrument as defined in claim 13 wherein resilient fingers are secured inside the cap that close together when the cap is extended to protect the writing tip from filamentary type debris, and which move apart to permit passage of the tip when the cap is retracted.
15. A protective closure as defined in claim [4 wherein the fingers have projections extending toward the path of retraction of the writing tip, and the writing tip is supported by a structure of greater transverse dimension than the writing tip so that the structure will contact the projections and open the fingers upon relative movement with respect to the fingers, before the writing tip touches the fingers.
l6. In a writing instrument wherein a writing tip is relatively movable with respect to an apertured hollow end on the instrument and the tip is projected through the end aperture for writing, a protective closure secured to the interior of the end comprising: a pair of resilient leaf fingers having fixed bases secured inside the end against longitudinal movement with respect to the end and having outer end tips that resiliently touch each other when the tip is retracted with respect to the end, to protect the tip from foreign matter entering the aperture in the end, said fingers being resiliently movable away from each other to permit passage of the tip between them on projection.
17. in claim 16, wherein the writing tip is supported by a structure of greater transverse dimension than the writing tip, a closure as set forth in claim 16 wherein the fingers have projections extending toward the path of travel of the writing tip so that the structure will open the fingers upon relative movement with respect to the fingers before the writing tip touches the fingers.
18. A writing instrument as defined in claim 1 wherein: the clip has a ball on one end of the clip and the clip is located at said one end of the body that is normally grasped by the user for writing, the body has a recess to receive the ball of the clip in the protectorretracted position of the clip, and a spring engages the body and the protector to normally urge the protector to an extended position where it protects the tip, said protector being held from extending by the clip ball because of the user manually holding the clip ball in said body recess.
19. A writing instrument comprising:
a. an elongated body having a retraction stop;
b. a writing tip on one end of said body;
c. an apertured cap slidably mounted on said body for extension movement over said tip to enclose it and for retraction movement in the opposite direction to expose said tip;
. a resilient latch on said cap and engageable with said retraction stop to prevent retraction movement of said cap and thus hold said cap in its extended position; and
e. means for disengaging said latch from said retraction stop, comprising a pocket clip connected to and carried by said latch and located externally of and extending longitudinally of said body and said cap.
20. A writing instrument according to claim 19 including a ball on said clip spaced from said connection of said clip to said latch, and interengageable retaining means on said ball and said body for releasably retaining said cap in said retracted position.
21. A writing instrument as set forth in claim 20 including means, comprising interengageable pivot means on said clip and said body, between said ball and said connection of said clip to said latch, for releasing said retaining means in response to pressure on said clip between said pivot means and said connection of said clip to said latch.
22. A writing instrument as defined in claim 19 wherein said body is tubular and said tip is on one end of a cartridge unit in said body, said cartridge unit being provided on its other end with a plug having a portion disposed in the other end of said body and having an annular shoulder seated on said other end of said body.
23. A writing instrument according to claim 20 wherein said ball is pivotally connected to said clip.
24. A writing instrument including: a. an elongated body; b. a writing tip on a forward end of said body;
an apertured cap slidably mounted on said body for forward extension movement over said tip to enclose it and for rearward retraction movement to expose said tip;
. a ball recess in said body and having a rearward-1y facing shoulder;
. a pocket clip connected to said cap and extending rearwardly therefrom toward said ball recess;
. a ball pivotally connected to the rearward end of g. an actuator tab connected to said ball and extending rearwardly and outwardly therefrom.
25. A writing instrument as set forth in claim 24 wherein the combination of said ball and said actuator tab is pivotally engageable with the rearward edge of said ball recess, whereby said forwardly facing shoulder may be disengaged from said rearwardly facing shoulder either by pressing inwardly on said actuator tab to rock the combination of said ball and said actuator tab about said rearward edge of said ball recess, or by displacing said actuator tab laterally outwardly.
26. A writing instrument according to claim 25 including interengageable stop means for limiting pivotal movement of the combination of said ball and said actuator tab relative to said clip.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 ,709 ,619 Dat d January 9 1973 Inventor(s) Nathan A. Zepell It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Item 45: "1972" should read --l973--.
Signed and sealed this 10th day of July 1973.
EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. Rene Tegtmeyer Attesting Officer Acting Commissioner of Patents FORM P0-1050 (10- uscomm-oc scans9 9 U 5 GOVERNMENT FHPNYING OFFICE: I959 0-366-33l