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Publication numberUS3710527 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 16, 1973
Filing dateFeb 9, 1971
Priority dateFeb 9, 1971
Publication numberUS 3710527 A, US 3710527A, US-A-3710527, US3710527 A, US3710527A
InventorsFarebrother J
Original AssigneeFarebrother J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multi-storey buildings
US 3710527 A
Abstract
In a multi-storey building of which the walls and floors are erected from prefabricated panels, each wall panel extends from one to the other of two adjacent floors and the opposite ends of each floor panel are supported respectively, upon the upper edges of panels in two adjacent parallel walls, a plurality of continuous, vertical ducts, each extending the full height of the building, is formed in each of the walls and the floor panels supported thereby, a co-extensive reinforcing member in each duct is bonded to the surface of the duct by a solidified fill surrounding the member and forced, before solidification, into the lower end of the duct, and the floor panel ends supported by each internal wall are castellated, the tongues of the castellations are shorter than the thickness or are located wholly between the faces of the respective wall panels and are narrower than the pockets in the castellated ends, and each of the tongues is engaged in and is located symmetrically to a corresponding one of the pockets in the adjacent castellated end of another of the floor panels and is bonded to the pocket by a solidified fill inserted, before solidification, into clearances between the sides and tip of the tongue and the sides and floor of the pocket.
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United States Patent 1 1 Farebrother [4 1 Jan. 16, 1973 [54] MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS [76] Inventor: James E. C. Farebrother, Tan- [57] ABSTRACT glewood, Park Drive, Lime Aston, In a multi-storey building of which the walls and floors Staffofdshlre, England are erected from prefabricated panels, each wall panel [22] Fi'ed: 9, 1971 extends from one to the other of two adjacent floors and the opposite ends of each floor panel are sup- PP N04 113,855 ported respectively, upon the upper edges of panels in two adjacent parallel walls, a plurality of continuous, 52 US. Cl. ..52/236, 52/259, 52/264 vertical ducts, each extending the full height of the 51 Int. Cl ..E04b 1/38, E04b 1/04 building, is formed in each of the walls and the floor 58 Field 61 Search ..52/236, 266, 264, 258, 259, panels supported thereby, a co-extensive reinforcing 52/228, 302, 136 439 303, 251, 250 member in each duct is bonded to the surface of the duct by a solidified fill surrounding the member and [56] References Cited forced, before solidification, into the lower end of the duct, and the floor panel ends supported by each in- UNITED STATES PATENTS ternal wall are castellated, the tongues of the castella- 1,884,319 10 1932 'Smith ..52/236X lions are Shorter than the thickness or are located 3,354,594 11/1967 Kilcher ..52/25l wholly between the faces of the respective wall panels 3,530,626 9/1970 Mezes ..52/236 X and are narrower than the pockets in the castellated 3,372,519 RUSSC" X ends and each of the tongues is gngaged in and is 3,354,593 11/1967 Zukas ..52/25l located symmetrically to a Corresponding one of the FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS pockets in the adjacent castellated end of another of the floor panels and is bonded to the pocket by a 9l5,629 7/1946 France inserted before sgfidjfication into 660,079 1/1964 Italy ..S2/259 clearances between the Sides and tip of the tongue and the sides and floor of the pocket. Primary Examiner-Pnce C. Faw, Jr. Attorneylmirie & Smiley 11 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures (FIT Z,

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MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS This invention relates to multi-storey buildings of the kind wherein the walls and floors are erected from prefabricated panels, the height of each wall panel is equal to the distance between a corresponding adjacent two of the floors and each floor panel is of a length such that its opposite ends seat, respectively, upon and are supported by the upper edges of the panels included in two adjacent parallel walls.

The principal object of the present invention is to enhance the ability of the wall and floor panels of such a building to withstand, respectively, the horizontal shear and upward forces to which they would be subjected should an explosion, such as an explosion of town gas, occur within the building and, in the event of any one or more of the panels being removed, displaced or fractured by the explosion, to minimize the possibility of progressive collapse of the building.

A further object of the invention is to increase the applied bending moments which the joints between the wall panelsand foundations and between the wall and floor panels, are capable of withstanding so that the rigidity of a structure erected from the panels approaches the rigidity of a fully homogeneous structure.

These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description of a typical embodiment thereof when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a sectional elevation of part of a multistorey building.

FIG. 2is a section, on an enlarged scale, along the line 11-", FIG. 1, and

FIG. 3 is an exploded sectional elevation, on a still larger scale, of a joint between a floor and internal wall of the building.

FIG. 1 of the drawings shows, in section, one outer wall 1, one internal wall 2, prelaid foundations 3 carrying the said walls, and parts of the floor 4 of the second storey, of the floor 5 of the top storey and of the roof 6 of, for example, a four storey building.

The building is erected from precast concrete wall panels 8 each of which is of a height equal to the distance between two adjacent floors, and from precast concrete floor panels 9 each of which is of a length such that it spans, and its opposite ends are supported upon the upper edges of, panels in an adjacent parallel two of the walls.

A plurality of continuous vertical ducts extends throughout the height of each of the walls. The ducts are of the same predetermined diameter, are pitched at the same predetermined interval apart, and are formed by aligned passages 10 in the foundations, passages 11 in the wall panels and passages 12 in the wall supported ends of the floor panels.

The several passages in each wall panel are lined (see FIG. 3) with tubular and co-extensive metalsleeves 13 which are formed with external spiral ribs and complementary internal spiral grooves and are incorporated in the panel during the precasting operation so that the sleeves are keyed in the panel by the external ribs.

Before the erection of the walls of the building is commenced, an accurately levelled bed of mortar or cement is laid upon the foundations 3 and a rodlS is inserted into and located concentrically of each of the foundation passages 10. The rods are of a uniform diameter less than the diameter of the passages and of a length such that they project above the foundations by a bond length, that is to say by a distance in the region of one third of the height of the wall panels.

Before or after inserting the rods 15 into the passages 10, a layer 16 (also see FIG. 3) ofepoxy resin mortar is painted upon, or otherwise applied to, a site area of the bed 14 at least equal to the area of the ends of a wall panel to be erected upon the area, the upper surface of the layer is stippled, and an annular gasket 17 composed of expanded polyurethane or analogous compressible material, and having an internal diameter greater than the diameter of the passages, is positioned upon the stippled layer around and concentrically to each of the passages opening to the said site area.

After the gaskets have been placed in position, the wall panel is lowered on to the site area so that each of the passages 11 in. the panel receives and is concentric to a corresponding one of the rods 15 and the lower edge of the panel beds upon and compresses the gaskets and then beds upon the layer 16, whereupon the panel is propped in position. This procedure is repeated until a first course of wall panels has been erected.

The first floor 4 of the building is then erected upon the first course of wall panels by laying each of the requisite number of floor panels 9 upon the upper edges of the panels 8 in an adjacent parallel two of the walls having, first of all, applied additional stippled layers 16 of epoxy resin mortar upon, and positioned one of the gaskets 17 around and concentrically to each of the panel passages 11 opening to, the said edges.

Each of the floor panels laid upon the upper edges of an outer wall (such as the wall 1) and an internal wall (such as the wall 2) of the building, has one castellated end (see FIG. 2) which seats upon and is supported by the upper edge of the internal wall, and one plain end which seats upon and is supported by the upper edge of the outer wall, and both of the said ends are formed with passages 12 which register, respectively, with the passages 11 in the wall panels. However, each of the floor panels laid upon the upper edges of any of the panels 8 in two adjacent parallel internal walls of the building, is castellated at both ends.

All the tongues 18 on the castellated panel ends are of the same dimensions and, likewise, all of the pockets 19 in the said ends are of the same dimensions; the length of the tongues is equal to the depth of the pockets but less than the thickness of the wall panels, and the width of the tongues is less than the width of the pockets. Further and as shown in FIG. 2, the adjacent castellated ends of the floor panels supported by the upper edges and projecting to the opposite sides of the panels in each internal wall, are so positioned that, first, all the tongues of the said ends are located wholly between the opposite sides of the wall panels thereby minimizing spalling of the said edges, secondly, each tongue engages in and is symmetrical to a corresponding one of the pockets so that each side of the tongue is spaced. from the adjacent side of the pockets, and, thirdly, a clearance exists between the tip of the tongue and the floor of the pocket. These spaces and clearances between the tongues and pockets are filled with cement grout 20 so that, when the grout sets and hardens, the inter-engaging castellated panel ends are bonded together; by dimensioning the floor panels, tongues and pockets so as to provide the said spaces and clearances, both longitudinal and lateral tolerances in the said dimensions are compensated automatically.

Before the next course of wall panels is erected, an additional rod 15 is inserted in each passage 12 in the floor panels and the corresponding aligned passage 11 in the first course of wall panels so that the lower end of the rod buts the upper end of the rod 15 in the corresponding aligned passage in the foundations. The length of the additional rods is such that they also project above the wall supported floor panels by at least a bond length.

Additional courses of wall panels 8 are erected and additional floors are laid in like manner until the walls are of the designed height, the rods inserted into the passages 11 in the top course of wall panels are anchored to the roof 6 (which may be of any desired construction) erected upon and supported by the upper edges of the said top panel course and, finally, cement grout 21 is pumped, through grout holes 22 in the foundations into the bottom of each of the several continuous ducts formed by the passages 10, 11 and 12, until the annular clearances between the rods 15 and the internal surfaces of the sleeves 13 are filled with grout for the full height of the walls so that, when the grout sets and hardens, the rods are bonded to the said internal surfaces. The gaskets l7 interposed and compressed between the beds 14 and the bottom course of wall panels, and between each of the floor panels and the next adjacent lower and upper courses of wall panels, act as seals against grout pressure and the stippled layers 16 of epoxy resin mortar not only ensure optimum bedding of the wall and floor panels but, in addition, assist the gaskets in resisting grout pressure, minimize sound transference through and bond the joints between the foundations, wall panels and floor panels, and impart to the joints a greater ability to withstand applied bending moments so that the rigidity of the building approaches closely to the rigidity of a fully homogeneous structure.

Each end of each floor panel 9 is reinforced by a transverse metal bar 23 which is embedded in and extends between the longitudinal edges of the panel. The reinforcing bars are spaced from the respective panel ends by the same constant distance so that, in each floor of the building, the bars in the corresponding panel ends are in alignment and end to end abutment and each two abutting ends may be fixed to one another by, for example, a plate 24 which overhangs and is welded to the said ends.

In the event of any one or more of the wall panels at any storey of the building being damaged as a consequence of an explosion within the building, the bond between the reinforcing rods 15 and the wall panel will minimize the possibility of the panel being disintegrated and the bond between the said rods and the floor panels below and above the damaged wall panel and the reinforcing bars 23 will minimize the possibility of the said floor panels failing and causing progressive collapse of the building.

Although in FIG. 2, one of the floor panel passages 12 and one of the rods 15 are shown in each of the tongues 18, it is to be understood that, by increasing the pitch of the continuousvertical ducts, the said passages and rods may extend through a predetermined smaller number of tongues.

If desired, the rods 15 may be twisted or otherwise deformed before being inserted into the passages 10, 11 and 12 so as to enhance the bond between the rods and the grout filling 21, the layers of epoxy resin mortar may be replaced by layers of asbestos or analogous prefabricated material, the grout holes 22 may be replaced by grout holes 22a in the lower ends of the bottom course of wall panels, and the rods 15 may be replaced by cables each of which extends through and from end to end of a corresponding one of the continuous vertical ducts, is anchored at its lower end to the foundations and at its upper end to means adapted to tension the cable before pumping the grout into the corresponding duct.

in buildings of more than four stories, it may be desirable to provide floor levelling means of any known and suitable kind, at the fourth and each subsequent fourth storey.

When, as shown in FIG. 1, an external cladding 24 is erected upon an outer wall of the building, certainof the floor panels laid upon the'upper edges of the panels 8 may project beyond the external surface of the wall to provide a support 9a for the cladding.

Iclaim:

l. A multi-storey building comprising external and internal walls and internal floors erected from prefabricated panels, wherein the opposite ends of each floor panel are supported respectively upon the upper edges of panels included in an adjacent parallel two of the walls, each of the floor panel ends supported upon the upper edges of panels included in the internal walls, is castellated from one to the other of the longitudinal edges of the floor panel, the length of the tongues on each of the castellated ends is less than the thickness of the wall supporting the said ends, and each of the said tongues is positioned wholly between the opposed surfaces of the said wall.

2. A multi-storey building according to claim 1 wherein the tongues of each castellated floor panel end are narrower than, but of a length equal to the depth of, the pockets in the said end, each of the tongues on the castellated end of each panel projecting to one side of any of the internal walls is engaged in and is symmetrical to a corresponding one of the pockets in a castellated end of a floor panel projecting to the opposite side of the same wall, a clearance exists between the tip of each tongue and the floor of the pocket engaged thereby, and the tongue is bonded to the pocket by a solid fill charged into the said clearance and spaces between the tongue and pocket sides.

3. A multi-storey building according to claim 1 wherein a reinforcing bar embedded in each end of each floor panel extends between the longitudinal edges of the panel and, at each floor level, each bar is aligned and is in end to end abutment with, and is secured to, a corresponding one of the bars in an adjacent floor panel.

4. A multi-storey building comprising external and internal walls and internal floors erected from prefabricated panels, wherein the opposite ends of each floor panel are supported respectively upon the upper edges of panels included in an adjacent parallel two of the walls, and each wall is formed with a plurality of continuous vertical ducts extending the full height of the building through the panels of, and the floor panels supported by, the wall and eachduct contains a co-axial and coextensive reinforcing member which is of smaller cross sectional area than the duct and is bonded throughout its length to the surface of the duct by a solid fill charged into an annular clearance between the said member and surface, and wherein the lower edge of each wall panel is bedded upon a compressible layer which, atground'level, is appliedto the foundations of the building and, at each floor level, is applied to the upper surfaces of the panels included in the corresponding floor, the underside of each floor panel is bedded upon a compressible layer which is applied to upper edge ofthe next adjacent'lower course of wall panels, and at each of'the said layers each of the continuous vertical ducts is surrounded by an annular gasket which is composed of compressible material and is interposed between the corresponding layer and the next adjacent upper panel.

5. A multi-storey building according to claim 4 wherein each wall panel is formed with at least one vertical passage which extends between the upper and lower edges of the panel, forms a part of a correspond ing one of the vertical ducts and is lined with a metal sleeve which is bonded'to the internal surface of the passage and to the solid fill.

6. A multi-storey building comprising external and internal walls and internal floors erected from prefabricated panels, wherein the opposite ends of each floor panel are supported respectively upon the upper edges of panels included in an adjacent parallel two of the walls, each of the floor panelends supported upon the upper edges of panels included in the internal walls, is castellated from one to the other of the longitudinal edges of the floor panel, each of the tongues on each of said castellated ends engages in and is located symmetrically to a corresponding one of the pockets in another of the castellated panel ends, and each of the external and internal walls is formed with a plurality of continuous vertical ducts extending the full height of the building through the panels of and the floor panels supported by, the wall and each duct contains a coaxial and co-extensive reinforcing member which is of smaller cross sectional area thanthe duct and is bonded throughout its length to the surface of the duct by a solid fill charged into an annular clearance between the said member and surface, and wherein the lower edge of each wall panel is bedded upon a compressible layer which, at ground level,-is applied to the foundations of i the building and, at each floor level, is applied to the upper surfaces of the panels included in the corresponding floor, the underside of each floor panel is bedded upon a compressible layer which is applied to upper edge of the next adjacent lower course of wall panels, and at each of the said layers each of the continuous vertical ducts is surrounded by an annular gasket which is composedof compressible material and is interposed between'the corresponding layer and the next adjacent upper panel.

7. A multi-storey building according to claim 6 wherein eachwall panel-isformed with at least one vertical passage which extends between the upper and lower edges of the panel, forms a part of a correspondcal to a corresponding one of the pockets in a castel-- ing one of the vertical ducts and is lined with a metal sleeve which is bonded to the internal surface of the passage and to the solid fill.

8. A multi-storey building comprising external and internal walls and internal floors erected from prefabricated panels, wherein the opposite ends of each floor panel are supported respectively upon the upper edges of panels included in an adjacent parallel two of the walls, each of the floor panel ends supported upon the upper edges of panels included in the internal walls, is castellated from one to the other of the longitudinal edges of the floor panel, each of the tongues on each of said castellated ends engages in and is located symmetrically to a corresponding one of the pockets in another of the castellated panel ends, and each of the external and internal walls is formed with a plurality of continuous vertical ducts extending the full height of the building through the panels of and the floor panels supported by, the wall and each duct contains a coaxial and co-extensive reinforcing, member which is of smaller cross sectional area than the duct and is bonded throughout its length to the surface of the duct by a solid fill charged into an annular clearance between the said member and surface, and wherein the length of the tongues on each castellated floor panel end is less than the thickness of the wall supporting the said end, and each of the said tongues is positioned wholly between the opposed surfaces of the said wall.

9. A multi-storey building according to claim 8 wherein the tongues of each castellated floor panel end are narrower than, but of a length equal to the depth of, the pockets in the said end, each of the tongues on the castellated end of each panel projecting to one side of any of the internal walls is engaged in and is symmetrilated end of a floor panel projecting to the opposite side of the same wall, a clearance exists between the tip of each tongue and the floor of the pocket engaged thereby, and the tongue is bonded to the pocket by a solid fill charged into the said clearance and spaces between'the tongue and pocket sides.

l0. A-multi-storey building comprising external an internal walls and internal floors erected from prefabricated panels, wherein the opposite ends of each floor panel are supported respectively upon the upper edges of panels included in an adjacent parallel two of the walls, each of the floor panel ends supported upon the upper edges of panels included in the internal walls, is castellated from one to theother of the longitudinal edges of the floor panel, each of the tongues on each of said castellated ends engages in and is located symmetrically to a corresponding one of the pockets in another of the castellated panel ends, and each of the external and internal walls is formed with a plurality of continuous vertical ducts extending the full height of the building through the panels of and the floor panels supported by, the wall and each duct contains a coaxial and co-extensive reinforcing member which is of smaller cross sectional area than the duct and is bonded throughout its length to the surface of the duct by a solid fill charged into an annular clearance between the said member and surface, and wherein a passage extends'through each of a predetermined number of tongues of each castellated panel end and each of the said passages forms a part of a corresponding one of the vertical ducts.

11. A multi-storey building according to claim 10 wherein a passage in the lower end of each vertical duct opens to the internal and external surfaces of the duct and the solid fill within the annular clearance between the duct and the corresponding reinforcing member 5 consists of solidified cement grout which, before solidification, is forced into the clearance through the said passage.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1884319 *Aug 10, 1929Oct 25, 1932Kenneth L SmithWall structure
US3354593 *Jan 7, 1964Nov 28, 1967Ber Zukas SimonConcrete beamless building construction
US3354594 *Sep 1, 1964Nov 28, 1967Fredy Kilcher FrederickBuilding structure having an elastic bearing member in at least one course joint, method for making the structure and intermediate ply for carrying out the method
US3372519 *Oct 23, 1965Mar 12, 1968Lockheed Aircraft CorpIntersecting, modular barrier clamp joint
US3530626 *Dec 23, 1968Sep 29, 1970Mezes IstvanConcrete pre-fabricated space frame structure
FR915629A * Title not available
IT660079A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4068425 *Apr 5, 1977Jan 17, 1978Permacrete Products CorporationModular mausoleum
US4073102 *May 29, 1973Feb 14, 1978Fisher John SergioPremanufactured modular town house building construction
US4194339 *Aug 7, 1978Mar 25, 1980Fisher John SMethod for constructing town houses and the like
US4195453 *Nov 9, 1977Apr 1, 1980Komendant August EModular, multi-floor building
US4461130 *May 29, 1981Jul 24, 1984Calvin ShubowBuilding construction using hollow core wall slabs
US4998393 *Sep 11, 1989Mar 12, 1991Martinez Baena Juan AConstruction of buildings
US5887405 *May 21, 1997Mar 30, 1999Carranza-Aubry; RenePrecast integral structure elements and procedure for the fast construction of buildings with such elements
US7124545 *Jun 7, 2002Oct 24, 2006Frank PomaTilt-up panel and method
WO2002050382A1Dec 13, 2001Jun 27, 2002D L C S R LIntegral prefabrication system with frame structure featuring finished lightweight components
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/236.7, 52/264, 52/259
International ClassificationE04B1/02, E04B1/04
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/04
European ClassificationE04B1/04