US 3712759 A
A multiple piston refrigerant gas compressor for use in air conditioning systems for vehicles in which the inlet of the compressor receives a mixture of refrigerant gas and oil in suspension that is impinged upon a novel rotor or swash plate, whereby the oil suspended in the refrigerant is separated by the centrifugal action of the rotor or swash plate and is distributed to the respective areas of the compressor requiring lubrication. The excess oil, if any, is slung outwardly by centrifugal force against the walls of the compressor housing.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 91 Olson, Jr.
 LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE PISTON COMPRESSOR UNITS AND DRIVEN PARTS THEREOF  Inventor: John W. Olson, Jr., Oklahoma City,
 Assignee: John E. Mitchell Company, Dallas,
[*1 Notice: The portion of the term of this patent subsequent to Jan. 5, 1988,
has been disclaimed.
 Filed: Jan. 4, 1971  Appl. No.: 103,413
Related U.S. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 775,334, Nov. 13,
1968, Pat. No. 3,552,886.
 U.S. Cl. ..417/269  Int. Cl. ..F04b 1/14, F04b 27/08  Field of Search ..417/269, 281; 91/501  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Olson ..4l7/269 1 *Jan. 23, 1973 3,085,514 4/1963 Budzich ..417/269 3,143,973 8/1964 Budzich ....417/269 3,209,701 10/1965 Phinney ..4l7/269 2,534,153 12/1950 Widmer ..41 7/269 Primary Examiner-Paul E. Maslousky Attorney-Birch & Birch  ABSTRACT A multiple piston refrigerant gas compressor for use in air conditioning systems for vehicles in which the inlet of the compressor receives a mixture of refrigerant gas and oil in suspension that is impinged upon a novel rotor or swash plate, whereby the oil suspended in the refrigerant is separated by the centrifugal action of the rotor or swash plate and is distributed to the respective areas of the compressor requiring lubrication. The excess oil, if any, is slung outwardly by centrifugal force against the walls of the compressor housing.
5 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENTEUJAN 23 ms 3,712,759
sum 1 pr 2 INVENI'OR I JOHN w. ousomua ATTORNEY PATENTEDJANZB 1973 3,712,759
SHEET 2 0F 2 INVENT OR JOHN w. OLSON,JR.
ATTORNEY LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE PISTON COMPRESSOR UNITS AND DRIVEN PARTS THEREOF This invention is a continuation-in-part of my prior copending application 775,334, filed Nov. I3, 1968, now US. Pat. No. 3,552,886 issued Jan. 5, l97l.
In my prior application the separation of oil and refrigerant was done primarily by agitation and gravity in response to the oscillations of the wobble plate means of the compressor unit. While this system of oil and refrigerant separation has been reasonably effective and efficient, it has been discovered that a more efficient and positive separation of oil and refrigeration may be accomplished by centrifugal action and affinity to respective bearing surfaces in the unit.
It is an object of this invention to utilize the rotation of the working components of the compressor to provide for efficient separation and flow of lubricant from the refrigerant gas by the sling action of a rotating element of the compressor unit.
Another object is to provide for use of both the rotary and oscillating parts of the compressor to separate and distribute the separated oil into the bearing areas between the parts of the compressor.
Yet another object is to provide a novel lubricating system for refrigerant gas compressors, whereby suspension of oil separated from the refrigerant gas are directed into the bearing areas of the compressor and excess oil is so negligible that the usual oil sump required for excess oil is eliminated in the provision of a true cylindrical housing to facilitate mounting of the compressor under the hood of a vehicle or the like.
With these and other objects in view, which will become apparent as the present invention is fully understood, the same resides in the novelty of construction, combination and arrangement of parts hereinafter described in detail and distinctly summarized in the appended claims.
The following description should be read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters designate like or similar parts throughout the several views, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a cross section view taken longitudinally of an embodimentof the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a transverse section view taken along section line 2-2 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is an'end elevation view taken in the direction of line 3-3 of FIG. 1.
Referring in detail to the drawings and the specific embodiment shown, the compressor unit is mounted in a one-piece housing 10. This housing is preferably formed of a 'single seamless bell-shaped cylinder of metal, such as impact extruded steel or aluminum, which is spun over to provide an inturned flange 11 at the open skirt end 14 of the bell.
The flange 11 is positioned to lap over in mating relation with an outturned flange 12 of a cylinder head 13 during assembly of the compressor parts within the housing. The end 15 of the housing opposite to the open skirt end 14 thereof is formed with a central opening 16 in which is mounted a shaft seal 18 and bearing assembly 19 within a sleeve 20 for a power take-off shaft 21.
The shaft 2'] is thus rotatably mounted to be driven by the usual pulley drive of an automotive vehicle and extends through the bell head sleeve 20 slightly beyond bearing assembly 19 into the housing 10. The extended end of the shaft 21 has secured thereto, by suitable means, such as key means 22, a rotor or swash plate 23 formed with an internal collar 25.
The rotor 23 is wedge-shaped and is provided with level bearing surfaces 26 and 27 on each opposite side thereof. It is formed with an internal bore 28 around the collar 25, so shaped and so formed as to receive an end portion of the seal and bearing sleeve 20 therein in axial alignment with the annular collar 25. This arrangement provides for accurate axial alignment as a base for all of the compressor parts and bearing means, such as roller bearings 30 and 31 with shims or flat rings 32 and 33 mounted on the respective bearing surfaces 26 and 27, and provide substantially friction-free rotation of the rotor 23 with the shaft 21 journalled by main bearing 19 in the sleeve 20.
The rotor 23 is in angular driving relation with a follower or wobble plate 35 formed with a central opening counterbored to form an annular land or surface 36. This surface 36 mates with a facing annular shoulder 37 formed from the base 38 of a bevel gear 39, which angularly meshes with a non-angularly positioned second bevel gear 40.
The gears 39 and 40 are axially positioned with respect to each other and the axis of the driven shaft 21 and maintained in mating relation by a spherical means, such as a reaction ball 41. This ball serves as a bearing between the respective facing gears 39 and 40 mounted in the wobble plate 35 and centrally in the bore 43 of compressor cylinder block 44.
The central bore 43 of the block 44 is formed adjacent the bevel gear 40 with a concentrically formed mounting means, such as sleeve 45, around which are formed from the block a plurality of longitudinal ducts generally indicated by the numeral 47 to provide for fluid distribution therethrough as indicated by the arrows in FIG. 1. This sleeve 45 adjustably receives and axially mounts the axial extension 48 of the bevel gear 40. For example, as shown in FIG. 1, the gear 40 is spaced from the cylinder block 44 by a Belleville washer 42 and is secured adjustably by means, such as a set screw 42 threadably mounted in a washer 48 seated in a groove in the bore 43 of the cylinder block. The block 44 may be formed of extruded aluminum, and to provide for reduction in bulk and weight may be fonned with longitudinally extending cut-outs or semicircular open sections 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and 55, see FIG. 2. Also, the cylinder block 44 in this embodiment of the invention is illustrated with seven cylinders 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 and 62 for piston means 63, see FIGS. 1 and 2. However, any number of cylinders and associated pistons may be used, as desired.
The piston means 63 include the usual piston rings 64 and the piston means each connect to the follower plate 35 through connecting rods 65. Each rod 65 is formed with a spherical end 66 and 67 at each respective end for staked connection with spherical sockets 68 and 69, respectively mounted in the follower plate 35 and within the confines of the skirt portion of a connected piston means 63. Thus, the wobbler or follower plate 35 serves as a bearing ring for the respective spherical ends of the respective piston connecting rods and, when oscillated by the rotor 23, activates the piston means to operate the compressor.
The compressor includes a minifold head plate 70 formed with an outlet or exhaust nipple 71 leading to a suitable refrigeration system from an annular exhaust mainfold chamber 73. Also, around the external perimeter of the head plate 70 is an outboard flange 74 secured in the open end of bell-housing 10 by the inturned flange 11, see FIG. 1, in spaced relation to the compressor block 44. This space between the mainfold head plate 70 and the adjacent end of the block 44 has positioned therein a valve plate 75 formed with pairs of inlet and exhaust ports 76 and 77 controlled by inlet reed valve means located at 78, such as generally known in the art and illustrated in FIGS. 4 and of my co-pending application 775,334 now US. Pat. No. 3,552,886 issued Jan. 5, 1971.
Such reed valve means are suitably secured by bolt means to the valve plate so that one inlet valve and one exhaust valve is positioned over a respective cylinder 62, to thereby be activated by the reciprocation of the piston means 63 in a respective cylinder. Thus, when a piston moves downward, the intake valve located at 78 is activated in the direction of the arrows in FIG. 1; and when the piston means moves upward the associated exhaust valve located at 79 opens to exhaust refrigerant from the compressor through the outlet nipple 71 to the air conditioning system. As the respective exhaust reed valve means open the same may engage stop means, such as stop ring 80.
OPERATION The operation of the compressor is believed generally apparent from the foregoing description. Briefly, the compressor piston means are activated by the motion imparted thereto from the shaft 21, the rotor 27, the wobble or follower plate 35 and the connecting rods 65. When thus activated refrigerant and oil in suspension are supplied from a suitable source into an intake coupling 81 positioned in an intake opening in the side of the housing 10.
This intake coupling is positioned to feed into rotor 23 through opening 82 into the bore 28 of the rotor 23. The oil mist passes to the bearing areas 19 adjacent rotor 23 through ducts 84 and 85 and through the bore 28 of the rotor 23, see FIG. 1, to an opening 86 formed in the base of bevel gear 39 to bearing 31 and to the area of the reaction ball 41. These bearing surfaces and rotor 23 have a surface affinity to retain the oil, while the refrigerant gas continues to be drawn through the unit by the action of the pistons of the compressor forward through the ducts 47, bore 43 and into a suction chamber 87 in the manifold head plate 70. Excess oil, if any, will be slung out to the walls of housing by centrifugal force and drop by gravity to the lower part of the housing 10, such excess oil level being so negligible as to eliminate the need for any enlarged sump portion, see oil level line 88 in FIG. 1. The slinging action or centrifugal force of rotor 23 also enhances the lubrication of bearing means 30 and 31.
Therefore, the mixture of refrigerant and oil supplied through the intake coupling is separated and distributed by both the centrifugal action of the rotor and the afflnity of the oil for the bearing surfaces.
From the suction chamber 87 of head manifold plate 70, the refrigerant gas is drawn into the respective cylinders through the intake reed valves and out through the exhaust reed valves to discharge outlet fitting 71 and the compressor pistons produce their respective suction and discharge strokes, see the arrow path shown in FIG. 1.
Also, as shown in FIG. 1, the arrows 90 in cylinder 62 represent a permitted amount of gas and oil to blow by the piston means when head pressure is high, to thereby prevent pulley slippage and possible resonance or ring in the drive belt and pulley connections to the shaft 21 of the unit.
Thus, there is provided a novel lubricating system in a unit comprising a multiple piston type compressor with driving means therefor, whereby a rotor of the driving means provides lubrication of the bearing areas of the unit and causes separation and flow of the refrigerant gas from the oil mixed therewith from the inlet fitting connected to a source of supply to feed to an air conditioning system connected to the outlet fitting of the unit.
Without further description it is believed that the advantage of the present invention over the prior art is apparent and while only one embodiment of the same is illustrated, it is to be expressly understood that the same is not limited thereto as various changes may be made in the combination and arrangement of the parts illustrated, as will now likely appear to others and those skilled in the art. For a definition of the scope or limits of the invention, reference should be had to the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A multiple reciprocating piston type compressor unit including a driven shaft having a wedge-shaped hollow rotor with an opening therein, a bell-shaped cylindrical housing having an open end and an end having journal means to concentrically mount said shaft and rotor therein for rotation, an inlet means through a wall of said housing adjacent said rotor for introducing a refrigerant gas containing a suspension of oil therein, a wobble plate adjacent an angular surface of said wedge-shaped rotor oscillating in response to rotation of the rotor, a cylinder block in said housing adjacent said wobble plate, means mounted in said cylinder block to prevent rotation of said wobble plate, roller bearing means for joumaling said shaft and rotor in the housing and between the surfaces of said wobble plate, said wobble plate comprising a ring formed with spherical piston connecting rod sockets, said cylinder block being formed with annularly spaced cylinders, a piston with a spherical socket within a skirt portion thereof in each of said cylinders, each cylinder being aligned in concentric position with respect to one of said ring connecting rod sockets, connecting rods with spherical ends conformable with said aforementioned sockets, one rod end being mounted in one of said ring sockets and the other spherical rod end of each respective rod being mounted in said spherical socket within the skirt portion of one of said pistons, a manifold head portion mounted over the open end of the housing, said mainfold head portion having an annular suction chamber and an annular exhaust chamber, pairs of intake and exhaust reed valve means mounted between said cylinder block and said mainfold head portion, each of said reed valves means being positioned to function as intake and exhaust valves during the respective suction and discharge strokes of said pistons, an outlet from the exhaust chamber of said mainfold head portion to an air conditioning system, and duct means leading to the surfaces of each of said respective bearing means, whereby a mixture of refrigerant and oil supplied through said inlet in the wall of the housing is separated and distributed by centrifugal action and the affinity of the oil for the bearing surfaces when said compressor is activated to rotate said rotor adjacent to said inlet in the wall of the housing and the refrigerant is exhausted from said exhaust chamber outlet of the manifold head portion.
2. A multiple reciprocating piston type compressor unit as described in claim 1, wherein said cylinder block is formed with a central bore and longitudinal semi-spherical cut-out areas around the periphery thereof, said refrigerant and oil mixtureduring distribution and separation in the compressor flowing therethrough to said reed valve means.
3. A multiple reciprocating piston type compressor unit as described in claim 1, wherein said means, to prevent rotation of said wobble plate, comprises bevel gear means, one of which is fixed and the other of which is oscillatable with said wobble plate.
4. A multiple reciprocating piston type compressor unit as described in claim 1, wherein said central bore of the cylinder block includes a sleeve to mount said fixed bevel gear.
5. A multiple reciprocating piston type compressor unit as described in claim 1, wherein said means mounted in said cylinder block, to prevent wobble plate rotation, comprises a non-rotatable bevel gear and adjustment means in connection therewith to vary the longitudinal thrust of said bevel gear.