Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3715990 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 13, 1973
Filing dateMay 21, 1971
Priority dateMay 21, 1971
Publication numberUS 3715990 A, US 3715990A, US-A-3715990, US3715990 A, US3715990A
InventorsPalmer H
Original AssigneePalmer Chem And Equip Co Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Liquid or powder dispensing dart
US 3715990 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 13, 1973 H. c. PALMER LIQUID OR POWDER DISPENSING DART 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed May 21, 1971 lNvENToR HAROLD C. PALMER .WI KH l. maks mms/f MM, ATTORNEYS Feb. 13, 1973 H. c. PALMER LIQUID OR POWDER DISPENSING DART 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 21, 1971 HGB lNvENTon HARQD C. PALNR nv m,

ATTORNEYS Filed May 2l, i971, Eier. No. 45,612

lut. Cl. Fllh /12 US. Ci. 102-92 16 @latins ABSIRACT UF THE DISCLUSURIE -A dart projectile with a cylinder mechanism for carrying and discharging a tlowable material on impact having a hollow cylinder wall threadedly iitted with a front nose plug and a rear stabilizer tailpiece. Within the cylinder is at least one plunger piston enclosing an explosive charge. At least one fluid directino piston covers material discharge ports in the cylinder wall, and has an inner cuspidal curved surface with a removable plug inserted longitudinally therethrough for loading liowable material into the projectile. Impact hres the explosive charge, thereby moving the plunger piston and exerting pressure on the ilowable material, causing the fluid directing piston to be moved clear of the material discharge ports so that the cuspidal surface on said piston may direct the iiow of material through the material discharge ports.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a dart projectile, and more particularly to an easily loaded dart projectile with a cylinder mechanism for carrying and discharging a flow able material, such as dye or tear gas, in a spray pattern on impact with a target.

Dart-type projectiles carrying a charge of dye have heretofore been used in marking animals from a distance so that an animal to be removed from a pack or herd of animals at a subsequent time may be easily identified. More recently, proposals have been made to use such material dispensing dart projectiles in police work, particularly i-n the area of riot control. Law enforcement officers may, for example, mark an individual agitator or agitators in an emotionally aroused crown for subsequent identication, withouthaving to actually enter or break through the ranks of a crowd. In such cases, various types of dyes may be used for maximum visibility, such as brightly colored dyes or materials containing iluorescent compounds which emit a visible radiation when exposed to radiation from a suitable source.

A dart type projectile of this nature also becomes an effective agent for dispersing a crowd when it is loaded with a chemical such as, for example, a tear gas. In this case, the dart is effective whether it actually strikes an individual or merely strikes within or near the area in which one or more individuals are located, since the tear gas is discharged or sprayed in either-'case upon impact. An individual who breathes the tear gas, whether he is struck directly by the dart or is merely in the area of the darts impact, will suffer a temporary disabling burning sensation of the eyes, but will not otherwise be harmed or injured.

While the material discharging darts of this type have been heretofore described in the prior art, those currently being used are generally constructed of a relatively complex mechanism, and are difcult to load for use.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of this invention is to provide an improved dart type projectile for carrying and discharging a Howable material upon impact.

CII

3,715,996 Patented Feb. I3, i973 ice Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved marking dart of relatively simple and inexpensive construction.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved dart projectile for discharging a owable material from both ends thereof upon impact.

An additional object of this invention is to provide a material discharging projectile having an improved spray pattern.

A more specific object of this invention is to provide an improved dart type projectile for carrying and discharging `a owable material on impactwhich may easily be loaded for use.

Yet another object of this invention is to provide a material discharging projectile suitable for use with a variety of nose plug designs.

A still further object of this invention is to provide an improved explosive charge for use as an impact detonating device.

Briefly, these and other objects are attained in one aspect of the present invention which provides a dart projectile having a unique simplified cylinder mechanism for loading, carrying, and discharging a owable material therefrom on impact. A hollow cylinder wall is threadedly fitted with a front nose plug and a rear stabilizer tailpiece. Within the cylinder is a plunger piston having an explosive charge inserted into the rear end thereof. -A fluiddirecting piston normally covers material discharge ports in the cylinder wall, and has an inner cuspidal curved surface to direct the discharge pattern with a removable plug threadedly inserted longitudinally therethrough for loading fiowable material into the projectile. Impact lires the explosive charge, thereby moving the plunger piston and exerting pressure on the ilowable material, causing the huid-directing piston to be moved clear of the exhaust ports so that the cuspidal surface thereon may direct the ow of material through the exhaust ports. The dart may be accurately loaded with tlowable material merely by removing the plug which is inserted longitudinally through the fluid-directing piston and adding flowable material therethrough. Dilferent types of nose plugs may be provided by threading them into the cylinder wall.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRANVINGS These and other objects, features, and advantages of the invention will become more fully apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description of an illustrative embodiment of the invention, as shown in the annexed drawings, wherein like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several iigures, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a side cross-sectional view of a dual end discharge chamber dart in accordance with the present invention ready for use;

FIG. 2 is a similar view of the above dart after the charve has been fired;

FIG. 2a is an enlarged side cross-sectional view of a moditication of the explosive charge of FIGS. l and 2;

FIG. 2b is a sectional View taken along line 2b-2b of FIG. 2a;

FIG. 3 is a similar view of a single end discharge dart in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view showing discharge slots suitable for use with the dart of the present invention;

FIG. S is an enlarged detailed cross-sectional exploded view of a dispenser plug and threaded plug pin therefor suitable for use in the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a rubber-tipped nose plug which may be used with the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a steel-tipped penetrating nose plug for use with the present invention; and

FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a penetrating needletipped nose plug for use with the present invention.

DESCRIPTION F AN ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to FIGS. l through 3, two types of dispersers for ejecting owable material upon impact with a target are illustrated. A disperser having exhaust ports on each end of the barrel is shown ready for tiring in FIG. 1, and after the charge has been ignited in FIG. 2. FIG. 3 illustrates a disperser having exhaust ports on only one end of the barrel. The size and type of the disperser is determined by how much and what type of flowable material, i.e., liquid gas or powder, is to be used. Likewise, configuration and location of exhaust ports will be determined by the physical ow properties of a particular o-wable material being used, using small holes for a low uid viscosity, and larger holes for higher viscosity compositions. Very high viscosity compositions will require the use of slotted ports, as shown in FIG. 4.

Referring now more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, a dart constructed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention comprises a tubular body member for carrying a flowable discharge material such as a dye or tear gas. The tubular body member is threaded at the forward and afts ends 12 and 12' thereof for receiving a forward cylindrical end cap 14 and a rear cylindrical end cap 14. The tubular body member 141 and the end caps 14 and 14' may be constructed of any suitable rigid material, such as aluminum or the like.

A plurality of material discharge apertures 15 and 15 for delivering the owable material carried by tubular body member 10 are disposed in the Wall of the tube slightly in from each of the ends thereof, being aligned transversely with the longitudinal axis of tubular body member 10 and circumferentially spaced about the circular wall thereof.

At the forward end of tubular body member 10, the forward end cap 14 is provided with a circumferential groove for receiving therein a fluid sealing device 16, for example a rubber O-ring, adapted to be compressed between a flange 17 on the end cap defining the groove and the annular end wall 18 of tubular body member 10 when the end cap is threadedly secured thereto. While the material discharge darts shown in FIGS. 1-3 have plain nose plugs, different types of special purpose nose plugs may be used with any of the darts constructed in accordance with the present invention, such as, for example, those illustrated in FIGS. 6-8, described in more detail below.

Within the tubular body member 10, the owable dispersing material is contained between a Huid-directing piston member 22 and a fluid-propelling piston member 24 as illustrated in FIG. 3. A similar construction is shown in FIGS. l and 2 for a material discharging dart designed to deliver a larger volume of iiuid material over a wider area and having exhaust ports 15 and 15 located near respective ends of tubular body member 10. In such a construction, two fluid-propelling piston members 24 and 24 are centrally positioned within tubular body member 10 with an explosive charge 70 tted into inwardlydirected open ends of each such member, as shown in FIG. l. Two fluid-directing piston members 22 and 22' are positioned in front of each respective set of exhaust ports 15 and 15 to prevent premature discharge of owable dispersing material in the same manner as in the single end discharging dart of FIG. 3. Each of the uidpropelling piston members 24 and 24' is a generally tubular member having an outwardly facing closed end and an inwardly facing open end, formed of a compressible material, such as rubber. The fluid-propelling piston members 24 and 24 have a closed end facing outwardly toward material discharge ports 15 and 15 located in the distal ends of the tubular body member. The cylindrical surface 25, 25 of fluid-propelling piston member 24, 24

provides a fluid-tight seal with the inner lwall of tubular body member 10. Fitted into the inwardly-directed open ends of huid-propelling piston members 24, 24' is a single explosive charge generally indicated at 70.

As shown in FIGS. 2a and 2b, the explosive charge 70 includes a hollow cylindrical casing 71 having a closed end 72 and an open end 73. An explosive powder 74 is provided in casing 71 between casing closed end 72 and a suitable percussion explosive means, such as primer cap 75. A firing pin 76 is supported for axial sliding movement within casing 71 and is maintained in a displaced non-iring position by a spring means 77, as shown in FIG. 2a, or by a detailed frictional engagement of the ring pin with the casing as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The open end of casing 71 is crimped as at 78 for retaining the firing pin 76 therein. Firing pin 76 is provided with a pointed tiring tip 79 and includes a body portion smaller in diameter than casing 71 to permit explosive gases to escape from casing 71 in the event the firing pin 76 is not blown out of the casing 71 by the explosion, and the firing pin may be provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced axially extending passageways S0 to aid in the escape of explosive gases in such event.

Upon impact, the momentum of the dart projectile carries tiring pin 76 forward, striking primer 75 and thereby igniting powder 74. In some cases the explosive face of the primer 75 may be suflicient for the necessary operation and then powder 74 may be omitted. The resulting explosion causes a buildup of gas pressure on the inner side of the fluid-propelling piston members, and the expanding explosive gases force this piston to the ends of the material discharging dart, thereby exerting lforce on the material to be discharged and forcing it through the material discharge apertures 15, 15. As previously indicated, the design of this element is essentially the same whether the dart is provided with discharge apertures 15 and 15' at the forward and aft ends, as shown in FIGS. l and 2, or only provided with discharge apertures 15 at the forward end thereof, as illustrated in FIG. 3. If desired, a small coil spring 77 may be disposed between the ring pin 30 and the primer cap 32, as shown in FIG. 2a in order to prevent accidental ring thereof.

The aft end of tubular body member 1li is sealed by the rear end cap 14', sealably secured thereto in the same manner as the forward end cap 14. Flight stabilizer ns 40 are secured to rear end cap 14' to provide stability in ight.

Within the tubular body member 10, the flowable material to be discharged is contained between a fluid-directing piston member 22 and the rubber insert member 24. The unique construction of piston 22 is an important feature of the present invention. When assembled, piston 22 includes a cylindrical body 23 having a flat outer surface 2S at one end thereof and a cuspidal-curved inner surface 30 forming the opposite end thereof. Annular grooves are provided in the lateral surface 26 of cylinder 23 for receiving a pair of O-rings 36 and 36', thereby providing a Huid and frictional seal between the piston 22 and the inner wall of tubular body member 10. As seen in more detail by reference to FIG. 5, the fluid-directing piston member 22 is formed of two detachable sections, an outer female portion 23 and a corresponding inner male portion 27. Piston member 22 serves several functions: occluding the material discharge apertures formed in tubular body member 10 when the dart is in its storage condition; separating to allow the addition or removal of dispersible material into the material discharge dart; and, when fitted together, directing the iinid ow in a unique pattern through the material discharge apertures in the tubular body member when the device has fired. In the particular embodiment illustrated, the hollow portion of outer cylindrical female body portion 23 has three separate chambers: a first threaded cylindrical chamber 42, an inner intermediate cylindrical chamber 44, and an innermost and narrower tubular chamber 46. The inner male portion 27 of the cylindrical body member 22 comprises a threaded section 43, corresponding in size to threaded receptacle 42 of the outer female portion of the cylindrical body. An intermediate cylindrical section 45, corresponding in size to opening 44 in the female portion, narrows to an elongated cylindrical member 47 which protrudes through corresponding opening 46 in the female body portion. An O-ring 48 is inserted at one or more junctions between two adjoining sections of inner male portion 27 to insure a uid-tight seal when the inner male portion is threadedly fitted to the outer female portion. To aid in inserting and removeing the inner male portion, a slot 50 is provided in the outer fiat surface 28 thereof for receiving a tool such as a screwdriver.

In operation, the tubular body member 10 is usually formed of such size and shape as to fit into the tiring chamber of a standard bore gunfThe word gun is used herein in its broadest sense, to include any device for discharging a missile from a barrel, such as a rifle, shotgun, or other explosive-powered guns, or any similar means for propelling bullets, shot or other missiles.

Upon impact with a target, the explosive force generated and the liberated expanding gases combine to apply a force against the fluid-propelling piston members 24, 24. The force against pistons 24, 24 is transmitted through the material contained within the dart tubular body member 1t) to fluid-directing piston members 22, 22' thereby moving the pistons 22 and 22 fore and aft, respectively. When the cylindrical portions 26, 26 of pistons 22 and 22 are moved past the fore and aft material discharge apertures l5 and 15 in the tubular body member wall 1li of the dart, the material is swept outwardly and directed by the cuspidalcurved portions 30 and 3G' of Huid-directing piston members 22 and 22 in the manner shown in FIG. 2, thereby creating a spray pattern for the material as it is discharged.

The dart discharge device of the present invention may be used with a plain nose plug consisting only of forward end cap 14, or may be fitted with various nose plugs for particular purposes. Thus, for example, the nose plug shown in FIG. 6 may have a compressible, suction-cuplike nose portion 52 fitted at the end thereof, permitting the use of the dart against individuals or animals Without fear of causing permanent injury to them from having been struck thereby, and the dart will cling to the struck body during discharge.

When it is desired to penetrate wood or metal, a steel tipped nose plug 54 such as that shown in FIG. 7 may be used. Still another suitable design is shown in FIG. 8 wherein a hollow needle 56 is affixed to the end of the nose plug in order to enable ready penetration through wire mesh, glass, steel or wood and for subcutaneous injections.

As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, the assembly and loading of dart discharge devices manufactured in accordance with the present invention is greatly simplified over those known in the prior art. Fluid propelling piston members 24, 24 are lubricated along the cylindrical Wall thereof with a suitable lubricant, such as one of the known silicone lubricants, and slidably moved back and forth along the inner wall of tubular body member 10 in order to thoroughly lubricate said wall. When a device for discharging owable material out of both the fore and aft ends is being loaded, an explosive charge 70 may be inserted in receptacles formed in the two fluid propelling piston members, 24 and 24', taking note of the front and rear ends of the assembly to insure that the firing pin 76 will move forward on impact. This assembly is then inserted into the tubular body member barrel and pushed to the center thereof. The female portions 23 and 23' of fluid-directing piston member cylindrical bodies 22, 22 are inserted into both ends of tubular body member barrel 10, just beyond material discharge apertures 11S, 15. With a suitable injection apparatus, such as a hypodermic syringe or the like, the cavity in the tubular body member which is now formed between the fluid-directing piston members and the duid-propelling piston members may be iilled with the powder, gas or liquid to be dispersed. The inner male portions 27, 27 are tightly screwed into the respective duid-directing piston member cylindrical body portions 26, 26 as far as they will go. A suitable forward end cap 14, with or without a nose plug as herein described, is fitted onto the front end of the disperser, and the rear end cap 14 and flight stabilizer fins 40 are fitted onto the rear of the disperser. The disperser is now ready for use.

A similar assembly procedure is used in preparing a dispersing dart projectile having material discharge apertures located on only one end thereof, such as that shown in FIG. 3. After the tubular body member barrel has been lubricated as described above, an explosive charge 70 is inserted into the huid-propelling piston member 24, keeping the open end of the cylinder 71 facing outwardly therefrom. This assembly is then inserted into the barrel, and pressed flush with the rear end thereof. A rear end cap 14' and a iiight stabilizer tin tail piece 40 are then fitted onto the rear end of the tubular body member 10. The remainder of the assembly process is the same as described above for the dual disperser.

Of course, many modifications of the described device are possible. For example, referring now to FIG. 4, material discharge apertures 15 and 15 may be slotted and directed obliquely with respect to the longitudinal axis of the tubular body member 10 as shown at 58 to provide a unique dispersion pattern for high viscosity owable materials.

It will be appreciated that while the foregoing disclosure relates only to a preferred embodiment of the invention for delivering flowable materials, such as liquids, powders, granules, iiakes or any other dispersible materials, onto a distant target, it is capable of numerous modifications or alterations which may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A material discharging dart projectile for carrying and discharging a owable material on impact, comprising:

(a) a hollow cylinder means having at least one discharge aperture formed in the wall thereof;

(b) a first retainer means movably supported within said cylinder means adjacent said aperture;

(c) means for releasably holding said iirst retainer means within said cylinder means at a location axially spaced from said aperture;

(d) a second retainer means movably supported within said cylinder means;

(e) means for releasably holding said second retainer means within said cylinder means in axially spaced relationship relative to said first retainer means to define an enclosed cavity area therebetween for containing an amount of material to be discharged, said means for releasably holding said first and second retainer means within said cylinder means detailed for forming a sealing relationship between said cylinder means and said retainer means whereby said material will be trapped within said enclosed cavity area; and

(f) means for axially displacing said retainer means relative to said cylinder aperture in response to an im'pact force so that said aperture will be in fluid iiow communication with said enclosed cavity area whereby material contained within said cavity area can be discharged through said aperture.

2. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 1 further characterized in that at least one of said retainer means includes a selectively scalable opening extending therethrough whereby material to be discharged can be introduced through said selectively sealable opening into said enclosed cavity area.

3 A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 2 further characterized iu that said selectively sealable opening includes a removable plug detailed to be releasably inserted Within said material introduction opening.

4. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 1 further characterized in that said retainer means adjacent said cylinder aperture includes a shaped inwardly directed portion detailed for directing material contained Within said enclosed cavity area outward through said aperture in response to said impact force.

5. 'A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 1 further characterized in that said cylinder means includes flight stabilizing means supported thereon adjacent an end thereof.

6. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 1 further characterized in that said means for axially displacing said retainer means includes a power operable element detailed for releasing a power force in response to an impact force being applied to said dart projectile.

7. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 6 further characterized in that said power operable element includes an explosive and means for effecting detonation of said explosive in response to said impact force.

8. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 1 further characterized in that said projectile includes a third retainer means movably supported within said cylinder means and wherein means is provided for releasably holding said cylinder means in axially spaced relationship relative to said second retainer means and on an opposite side thereof from said first retainer means to define a second enclosed cavity area therebetween for containing a second amount of material to be discharged and wherein said cylinder means includes a second aperture means formed in the Wall of said cylinder means axially spaced relative to said second enclosed cavity area.

9. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 8 further characterized in that said second material retainer means includes a first and second axially displaced portion with a power operable element supported therebetween, said power operable element detailed for driving said second retainer means first and second portions in opposite axial directions in response to said impact force whereby said first retainer means will be axially displaced an amount to effect a uid flow communication between said first aperture means and said first enclosed cavity area and whereby said third retainer means will be axially displaced an amount to effect a fluid flow communication between said second aperture means and said second enclosed cavity area so that the material contained within said first cavity area and said second cavity area can be discharged through said first and second aperture means, respectively.

10. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 8 further characterized in that said operable power element includes an explosive and means for efrecting detonation of said explosive in response to said impact force.

11. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 8 further characterized in that said third retainer means includes a selectively scalable opening means extending therethrough for allowing said material to be 8 discharged to be introduced into said second enclosed cavity area.

12. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 11 further characterized in that said selectively scalable opening includes a removable plug means releasably mounted within said retainer opening.

13. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 8 further characterized in that said third retainer means includes a shaped inwardly directed portion detailed for directing material contained within said second enclosed cavity area outward through said second aperture means in response to said axial displacement of said third retainer means.

14. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 1 further characterized in that said cylinder means includes a removable cap at each end thereof for maintaining said first and second retainer means Within said cylinder means.

15. A material discharging dart projectile as described in claim 8 further characterized in that said cylinder means includes a removable end cap mounted at each end thereof for maintaining said first, second and third retainer means within said cylinder means.

16. A material discharging dart projectile for carrying and discharging a owable material upon impact, cornprising:

(a) a hollow cylinder means having at least one discharge aperture formed in the wall of said cylinder means adjacent each end thereof;

(b) a first retainer means movably supported within said cylinder means adjacent one end thereof;

(c) means for releasably holding said first retainer means Within said cylinder means at a location spaced inward from one of said aperture means;

(d) a second retainer means movably supported within said cylinder means;

(e) means for releasably holding said second retainer means within said cylinder means adjacent an opposite end thereof and inwardly spaced from said other aperture means;

(f) a third retainer means movably supported within said cylinder means substantially intermediate said rst and second retainer means; and

l(g) means contained within said third retainer means for axially displacing said first and second retainer means relative to said cylinder aperture means in response to an impact force so that said first and second aperture means will be in flow communication with said first and second cavity areas, respectively, whereby material contained within said cavity areas can be discharged outward through said aperture means.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,209,695 10/ 1965 Crockford et al. 102-92 3,209,696 10/1965 Palmer et al 1012-921 3,419,274 12/1968v Tabor 10'2-92 X ROBERT F. STAHL, lPrimary Examiner U.S. Cl. XR. 12S-#Digest 11

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4735612 *Sep 3, 1986Apr 5, 1988Ballistivet, Inc.Trauma minimizing dart
US4863428 *Mar 24, 1988Sep 5, 1989Ballistivet, Inc.Injecting projectile dart
Classifications
U.S. Classification102/512, 604/130
International ClassificationF42B12/54, F42B12/02
Cooperative ClassificationF42B12/54
European ClassificationF42B12/54