US 3717965 A
In a modular building having modules abutting each other to form a living unit, the roofing for the modules is sealed by providing a receptacle on the roof of one of the modules adjacent to the juncture between two modules, overlapping roof membranes within the receptacle, sealing the overlapping joint of the membranes within the receptacle with sealing cement in the receptacle, and sealing the roof membranes at edges of the modules. In a preferred embodiment, the modules have an opening in a wall next to the roof, and this opening is sealed by a waterproof sheet which is affixed to the roof and extends from the roof over the wall opening. This sealing sheet is provided on the module before it is assembled with other modules to form a living unit in order to protect the module against rain during storage and transport of the module. At one edge of the roof of the module which is the preferred embodiment, a mansard structure is affixed to the roof, and the roof membranes extend over the mansard structure and are sealed at the edge of the mansard structure by means of a sealing strip.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Morton et al.
1 11 3,717,965 [451 Feb. 27, 1973 ROOF SEALING OF MODULES  inventors: Evans T. Morton, Pompano Beach; Kimbel L. Vescio, Fort Lauderdale, both of Fla.
 Assignee: Behring Corporation,
 Filed: April 16, 1971 ] Appl. No.: 134,624
Fort Lau- 1,309,112 10/1962 France ..52/300 France ..52/521 France Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant Examiner-Henry E. Raduazo AttorneySettle and Oltman  ABSTRACT In a modular building having modules abutting each other to form a living unit, the rooting for the modules is sealed by providing a receptacle on the roof of one of the modules adjacent to the juncture between two modules, overlapping roof membranes within the receptacle, sealing the overlapping joint of the membranes within the receptacle with sealing cement in the receptacle, and sealing the roof membranes at edges of the modules. In a preferred embodiment, the
'modules have an opening in a wall next to the roof,
and this opening is sealed by a waterproof sheet which is affixed to the roof and extends from the roof over the wall opening. This sealing sheet is provided on the module before it is assembled with other modules to form a living unit in order to protect the module against rain during storage and transport of the module. At one edge of the roof of the module which is the preferred embodiment, a mansard structure is affixed to the roof, and the roof membranes extend over the mansard structure and are sealed at the edge of the mansard structure by means of a sealing strip.
5 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures PATENTEDFEBZYIQB V 3,717, 965 SHEET 18F 2 INVENTORS p EVANS T MORTON.
BY KIMBEL L. VESCIO.
SETTLE 8 OLTMAN.
PATENTED FEB 27 75 SHEET 2 BF 2 FIG.5
INVENTORS EVANS T MORTON KIMBEL L. VESCIO.
SETTLE 8 OLTMAN.
1 soor SEALING or MODULES BACKGROUND or THE INVENTION A modular building is composed of units or modules which are constructed in a factory, transported to a building site, and assembled on a foundation at the building site to form a living unit. Such modules may be used in constructing homes, office buildings, schools, apartments and other types of buildings. By building the modules in a factory, it is easier to apply modern technology to the construction program than if the buildings are fabricated entirely on a building site. It is also easier to economize labor and materials than in site construction. Components for the'modules can be prefabricated to close dimensions, and, according to production schedules, they can be assembled and connected together with less chance of misfits or other errors than where the fabrication and assembly takes place entirely on a building site.
However, the modules, although prefabricated as relatively complete units, must still be assembled together on the foundation at the building site. Thus, there are junctures between modules which must be sealed to keep out the weather. For example, where roof sections of individual modules come together, some sort of sealing must be provided.
In a particular type of modular construction, each module has a unitary roof membrane which covers the roof of the entire module. This particular module also has mansard structures around the edges of the roof, and the mansards are made so that they can swing up onto the roof of the module at the timethe module is transported from the factory to the building site so that the mansard does not project out from the side of the module while it is being transported over the road. There are dimensional limitations on the width of a module for highway travel, and it is not desirable to have the mansard structures either projecting beyond particular embodiment, the membranes are sealed to mansards provided at the edge of the roof, and this is accomplished with a sealing strip provided at the corner of the mansard structure. Where the modules abut each other, there is an opening in the wall of each module. A waterproof sheet is affixed to the receptacle and extends down over the opening in the wall to protect that opening. The waterproof sheet is applied in the factory, so that it seals the opening during storage and shipment of the module.
, membranes to mansards provided at the edge of the these dimensional limits, or occupying the extremes of these limits. The manner in which the roof membranes are sealed bothto the roof of the individual modules and to each other must accommodate the mansard structures in this particular type of module. This is true whether the rnansards are of the swinging type just described or a fixed-in-place type.
The particular modules to which the invention is directed also have an opening atthe upper edge of each wall which is not covered by the sheathing on the exterior of the module wall. The mansard structures when the modules are in condition for storage or transport. Also, where two modules-abut each other, there is no mansard, sofs'ome provision must be made for protecting the openings at the places where modules are to be joined together.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION cover these openings in the completed building, but not roof of a module.
Another object of the invention is to seal roof membranes to mansards which swing up onto the roof of a module for transport of the module.
A further object of the invention is to seal a wall opening adjacent the roof of a module in such a manner that while the opening is exposed during storage and shipment'of the module, it is protected against rain.
Still another object of the invention is to provide roof sealing for modules of amodular building which does not require extensive effort at the building site.
Among the other objects of the invention are to provide roof sealing which has a long useful life, which is economical, which is rugged in use, and which can be implemented without requiring unduly elaborate fabrication of components.
Other objects of this invention will appear from the following description and appended claims, reference beinghad to the accompanying drawings forminga'part of this specification whereinlike reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several views.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a modular home in ac cordance with one embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is an end view of a portion of the module showing a mansard structure attached to the module;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view of a portion of a module at the roof where a receptacle is attached for receiving an edge of a roof membrane;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of the module portion of FIG. 3; t
FIG'.5 is a fragmentary view similarto FIG. 3 showing a waterproof sheet attached to the receptacle and.
extending down over an opening in the side wall of the module;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of the module portion of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view of two modules abutting each other showing a second roof membrane received in the receptacle of FIGS. 3 and 5 and sealing material sealing the joint between the overlapping membrane portions; and
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary plan view of the module sections of FIG. 7.
Before explaining the present invention in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawings, since the invention .is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.
AS SHOWN ON THE DRAWINGS The modular home shown in FIG. 1 includes three modules designated l0, l2 and 14. In a particular embodiment, module contains bedrooms and closet space, module 12 is a utility module containing kitchen, dining, laundry and bathroom space, and module 14 contains living room space. In addition to the three modules, there are add-on sections l6, l8 and Section 16 may be a roof over a covered patio, or this space may be walled in to form a den. Section 18 is a covered carport space, and section 20 is an entryway. Each of these sections includes at least a roof unit as shown.
Each of the modules and sections is individually prefabricated in a factory, transported from the factory to a building site, and assembled with the other modules and sections to form a living unit. Modules 10 and 12 are assembled together in a T configuration, and module 14 is assembled at the side of module 12 so that the basic configuration of modules is a J shape. Roof sections 16, 18 and 20 are added to the basic conbe constructed to the full width possible within existing load limitations for travel over roadways. After the module has been installed on the foundation at the building site, the mansard 40 can be lowered into the position shown in FIG. 2. The mansard is then attached to the wall as with a bracket 58 which is screwed to the lower panel 60 of the mansard and also screwed to the wall 28.
A roof membrane 62 covers the entire module I0 and laps over the covering panel50 of the mansard 40. The roof membrane 62 may be a flexible material, preferably of a rubbery composition, which will withstand the weather conditions to which the roof is exposed. A single piece of this material preferably covers the entire roof of the module and also the mansards. The membrane can be attached to the roof panel 26 and also to the panel 50 with cement. However, before the module is transported to the foundation at the building site, the edge of the roof membrane 62 may be rolled back to the dashed line position shown in FIG. 2.
I The mansard 40 can be swung up onto the roof as figuration of modules to provide the extra spaces described above.
Each of the modules l0, l2 and 14 has a flat roof which, as shown in FIG. 2, includes metal joists 22 welded to a surrounding perimeter beam 24. Covering the beam structure there is a roof panel 26 which may be made of wood or other suitable material.
There is an outside wall 28 which may be made with vertical metal studs welded to the perimeter beam 24. Exterior panelling such as rockboard or fiberboard 30 is provided on the exterior of the wall 28. Interior panelling 32 and 34 is provided on the inside of the wall 28 and the roof 22. It may be noted that the exterior panelling 30 terminates at 36 leaving an opening at 38 providing access so that the walls and roof can be welded together during fabrication of the module.
Attached to the wall 28 and the roof 22 is a mansard structure 40 which covers the opening 38. The mansard structure includes metal members 42, 44, 46 and 48 I which are welded together in a closed configuration to form a framework, there being other like members spaced along the length of the framework and connected by stringers to form the frame of the mansard. On top of the mansard is affixed a covering panel 50. Another covering panel 52 is afiixed to the outer side of the mansard. Shingles 54 are attached to the panel 52. The panel 50 is hingedly attached to the panel 26 by a thin strip of metal or flexible fabric 56. Thus, after the module has been constructed and the mansard 40 has been attached, the mansard can be swung up onto the roof of the module with the strip 56 bending and acting as a hinge. This allows the module to be transported over a roadway without the mansard 40 projecting from the side of the module. The module itself can previously described. Thus, after the module is installed on the foundation, the edge of the roof membrane 62 is attached to the panel 50 and the edge of the membrane is sealed so as to positively prevent moisture from getting under the membrane. Alternatively, the membrane may be sealed in the factory.
The sealing of the edge of the roof membrane to the mansard 40 is shown in FIG. 2. The edge 64 of the membrane extends down over the upper end of the panel 52. A long, rigid strip, which may be made of plastic, is applied over the corner between panels 50 and 52 and over the membrane 62 so that one leg 66 of the strip 65 overlies panel 50, and the other leg 68 of the strip overlies panel 52. Sealing cement is applied under the edge of the leg 66 and on top of the roof membrane 62 before the strip 65 is put in place. After the strip 65 is put in place, it is stapled at 70 to panel 50 and at 72 to panel 52. Then sealing cement is applied at 74 over the inner edge of leg 66 and over the staples 70 to complete the sealing of the strip 65. Sealing cement could also be applied under the leg 68 and over the stuples 72 in the same manner as shown at 74 if desired, but it has been found that this is not essential since the downwardly projecting leg 68 provides a flashing for runoff of water.
FIGS. 3 through 8 show the manner in which the juncture between two adjoining modules is sealed. FIG. 7 shows the juncture at between module 10 and module 12. The roof membrane 62 of module 10 has already been referred to. The module 12 has an identical roof membrane 82 covering a roof panel 84 on the roof beams 86. A wall 88 of module 12 is also shown.
Mounted on the roof panel 84 of module 12 is a receptacle 90 which, in this embodiment, is defined by two wedge members 92 and 94 which are nailed to the roof panel 84 so as to define a channel 96'between them. The wedge members 92 and 94 could be made as one piece with a web extending between them, but in the illustrated embodiment they are long strips of wood having the wedge shape as shown. The wedge members 92 and 94 have tapering sides which define ramps up which the membranes 62 and 82 lead into the channel 96. The edges of the membranes 62 and 82 overlap within the channel 96 as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8. The
space within the channel 96 above the membrane edges is filled with sealing material such as tar 98. The tar seals the overlapping joint between the membranes to prevent moisture from entering under the membranes.
FIGS. 3 through 6 show different stages in the process of sealing the membranes 62 and 82. In FIGS. 3 and 4, the edge 100 of the membrane 82 is placed in the channel 96 defined by the members 92 and 94, and the edge 100 is nailed to the panel 84 with nails 97. In FIGS. 5 and 6, the same structure is shown except that a waterproof sheet 102 has been added. The sheet 102 may be flexible plastic material, by way of example. The sheet 102 is also placed in the channel 96, and its edge is nailed through the edge 100 of membrane 82 to the panel 84 with nails 97. The sheet 102 extends from the channel 96 over the edge of the roof and down over the opening 38 in the wall 88, the opening 38 being identical to the opening 38 shown in FIG. 2. The sheet 102 may be fastened to the wall 88 as with staples or screws 104 in order to protect the opening 38 and prevent rain from entering the opening. The module 12 with the opening 38 protected by the sheet 102 can be stored in the open and shipped on an open truck in the condition shown in FIGS. 5 and 6.
When the modules 10 and 12 are assembled together in the manner shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the membrane 62 is lapped over the edge 100 of membrane 82 within the channel 96, and is stapled or nailed to the panel 84. Then the space above the overlapping membrane portions within the channel 96 is filled with sealing material such as tar 98 as previously described.
Thus, the invention provides a roof sealing structure for modules of a modular building in which membranes are overlapped within a receptacle attached to the roof of one of the modules and sealed with sealing material. Other edges of the roof membranes are sealed to mansards around the edges of the roof. An opening in the wall of the module is sealed by a waterproof sheet which protects the opening, particularly during storage and shipment of the module.
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
I. In a modular building having first and second modules abutting each other, roofing for said modules comprising a first roofing membrane on the roof of said first module, a second roofing membrane on the roof of said second module, a mansard structure suspended from the roof of said first module at an edge thereof and projecting laterally outward from said roof, a channel affixed to the roof of one of said modules adjacent the juncture between said modules, said membranes overlapping each other within said channel and being affixed to said channel, sealing cement in said channel sealing the overlapping joint between said membranes, and means sealing said first membrane to said mansard at a place where said first membrane overlaps said mansard, said mansard comprising a frame having a panel on the top thereof over which said first membrane extends, and shingles on an exterior side thereof for protection and decoration, said sealing means comprising a strip affixed to said pane] and lapping over both said panel and said shingles at a juncture between the same, and cement sealing the joint between said strip and said membrane.
2. The roofing as claimed in claim 1 in which said channel has tapered side portions formin ramps under said membranes where said membranes ead into said channel.
3. The roofing as claimed in claim 2 in which said channel and said tapering side portions are integral with each other. I
4. The roofing as claimed in claim 1 in which at least one of said modules has an opening at the juncture between said modules, and further including a flexible waterproof sheet affixed to said channel and extending therefrom over said opening for covering said opening before said modules are interconnected.
5. The roofing as claimed in claim 4 in which said sheet is affixed to said roof of said first module only at said channel.