US 3720031 A
A structural surface covering means for a wall or roof of a building or the like and method of making a cover element used in said covering means, said covering means including a plurality of tapered flanged panels or outer metal shingle-like cover elements disposed in side-by-side relation and in overlapping rows or courses upon a surface, said outer cover elements defining a plurality of tapered slots therebetween, the covering means also including a plurality of tapered flanged spacer flashing strips underlying and interlockably connecting the flanges on the adjacent outer cover elements in masking relation to the slots to provide a relatively lightweight, virtually leak-proof, fireproof metal structural covering requiring fewer construction components than a comparable wooden shingle or shake covering.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Wilson et al.
[ 1Marcl1 13, 1973 ELEMENT THEREFOR  Inventors: Robert J. Wilson, 1076 W. San Bruno; Robert W. Naden, 39880 Avenue 7% both of Fresno, Calif.
 Filed: Dec. 14, 1970  Appl. No.: 97,773
Related U.S. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 817,607, March 24,
 U.S. Cl. ..52/520, 52/542, 52/560  Int. Cl. ..E04d 3/362  Field of Search ..52/520, 533, 521, 542, 560; 72/339  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,358,113 11/1920 Robertson ..52/560 3,375,622 4/1968 Murray 2,264,546 12/1941 Ochs ..52/542 3,496,753 2/1970 Gibbings ..72/330 736,801 8/1903 Veen ..52/538 1,155,559 10/1915 Franklin ..52/553 1,434,166 10/1922 Thompson ..52/536 Heymann ..72/339 Brown ..52/521 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Canada ..52/533 Switzerland ..52/542  ABSTRACT A structural surface covering means for a wall or roof of a building or the like and method of making a cover element used in said covering means, said covering means including a plurality of tapered flanged panels or outer metal shingle-like cover elements disposed in side-by-side relation and in overlapping rows or courses upon a surface, said outer cover elements defining a plurality of tapered slots therebetween, the covering means also including a plurality of tapered flanged spacer flashing strips underlying and interlockably connecting the flanges on the adjacent outer cover elements in masking relation to the slots to provide a relatively lightweight, virtually leak-proof, fireproof metal structural covering requiring fewer construction components than a comparable wooden shingle or shake covering.
3 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PATENTEUHARIBIQTS 3,720,031
SHEET 10F 2 ROBERT J. WILSON ROBERT W NADEN /6 wmv 70/6 ATTORNF Y5 STRUCTURAL SURFACE COVERING AND METHOD OF MAKING A COVER ELEMENT THEREFOR This application is a continuation-in-part application of Ser. No. 817,607, filed Mar. 24, 1969, which is being abandoned in favor of the present continuation-in-part application.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Wooden shingles and shakes. have long been employed as a covering for exterior building walls, roofs and the like in view of their traditionally rustic, aesthetic appearance, ready availability, and economical cost. The shingles are arranged on a suitable supporting surface, usually spaced wood lath, in multioverlapping rows. The rows of shingles are extensively overlapped to minimize leakage, and a relatively large number of shingles per square foot coverage of the supporting surface are required. However, such coverings can only be installed by the most skilled workmen. Consequently, with the increasing cost of labor and shingle material itself, such coverings are becoming economically prohibitive.
Furthermore, wooden shingles have a relatively short life before rotting unless pretreated with preservatives, and are also highly susceptible to damage from high winds and fire. The latter poses a particularly onerous problem in forested areas which may be subject to intense rapidly moving flres which may produce myriads of sparks which may fall upon a wood roof and set the roof on fire. In such areas the shingles must be chemically treated with fire retardant materials which factor also contributes to the higher cost of wood roofing materials and installation. Fireproof roof materials other than wood are commercially available, such as slate or clay tile or the like, but these materials are frequently expensive, difficult to handle and install, and because of their relatively great weight, require a much more substantial supporting structure than the other described non-fire resistant materials. Metal shingles of copper are subject to the same disadvantages; while those of light weight aluminum have utilized expensive complex interlocking arrangements between shingles. Accordingly, in most instances and particularly in the construction of small homes, the additional expense of such fireproof covering materials is prohibitive. In addition, structural framing for a wood shingle or shake roof is inadequate to support a clay tile roof covering; changing of the wood type roof covering on existing buildings to a clay tile or other heavy fireproof material is structurally cost wise usually not feasible.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved fireproof structural surface covering of exceptionally long life for buildings and the like which may be economically, easily and conveniently installed in either new or existing building constructions.
Another object is to provide such an improved structural surface covering which substantially simulates the ornamental and aesthetic appearance of conventional wooden shingles or shakes but which requires fewer roof construction components than a comparable wooden shingle covering.
Another object is to provide an improved structural covering which employs a plurality of structurallycoacting shingle and flashing strips which can be arranged effectively to provide a leak-proof, fireproof covering.
Another object is to provide an improved structural covering in which the covering elements are constructed of a relatively lightweight metal material of selected gauge having high strength, good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, and also enhanced in aesthetic appearance while aging.
Another object is to provide an improved structural covering in which the shingles and flashing strips have cooperating flange portions with the flashing strips precisely constraining the shingles in desired spaced relation upon a support surface, which arrangement requires only a minimum of nails to hold the shingles and flashing strips in place on the support surface and provides a covering surface adapted to be walked upon without damage to appearance or weatherability of the covering.
Another object is to provide an improved structural covering element and method of making in which the flanged covering elements can be individually fabricated from substantially rectangular blanks of such sheet material substantially without any waste.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a metal shingle having structural characteristics and a method of rapidly and economically making such a shingle from sheet or roll or coiled stock.
Still another object of the invention is to disclose a roof or wall structure adapted for inexpensive new construction and for old construction without requiring substantial structural change for roofs, for example, of wood shingle type.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following description of the drawings in which an exemplary embodiment of the invention is shown.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a fragmentary top plan view of the improved structural covering embodying the principles of the present invention showing a plurality of shingles and flashing strips disposed in coacting installed position upon a support surface such as a building, roof or the like.
FIG. 2 is a somewhat enlarged top plan view of one of the shingles of FIG. I removed from the support surface.
FIG. 3 is a side elevation of the shingle of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a somewhat enlarged top plan view of one of the spacer flashing strips of FIG. 1, removed from the support surface.
FIG. 5 is a side elevation of the spacer flashing strip of FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a pair of adjacent shingles of FIG. I removed from the support surface with their common spacer flashing strip lowered somewhat from its installed position between the adjacent side edges of the shingles in masking relation to the space between the shingles.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view of a roof structure provided with the structural covering shown in FIG. I, the view being taken from below the roof structure and looking upwardly thereto.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken in the plane indicated by line VIII-VIII of FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is an exploded schematic view illustrating the method of making a surface covering element embodying the present invention.
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view taken in the plane indicated by line X-X of FIG. 9.
FIG. 11 is an enlarged perspective view of a corner of a covering element, the corner area being indicated by the phantom circle 11 indicated in FIG. 9.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring particularly to the drawing, an improved structural covering means embodying the principles of the present invention includes a plurality of elongated tapered shingle for outer cover elements or panels 10 of slightly trapezoidal configuration. The shingle elements 10 are adapted to be stamped from a single substantially rigid sheet of relatively thin gauge steel plate, aluminum, or the like. It is particularly contemplated and preferred that the shingle elements be constructed of a relatively new sheet metal material marketed under the trade name of Cor-Ten by United States Steel, this new material requiring no protective painted covering or the like and being adapted to weather naturally without any maintenance, such Cor-Ten material being described hereafter.
As best shown in FIGS. 2, 3, and 6, each of the outer shingles or cover elements 10 which substantially simulates a conventional wood shingle or shake, provides opposite substantially flat top and bottom surfaces 12 and 14, respectively. Each shingle element further includes a lower butt end 15 and an opposite, relatively wider upper head end 16. The upper and lower ends of each shingle element are interconnected by opposite sides 17 which converge toward lower end 15. An elongated depending flange 20 is integrally formed from the lower end 15 and said flange 20 has sufficient width to substantially simulate the thick or butt end of a conventional wood shingle or shake. A longitudinal edge flange 22 is integrally formed in depending relation from each side 17 of the shingle element 10. Each flange 22 longitudinally tapers from a maximum height at its lower end adjacent to butt flange 20 to blend or merge at its opposite end into lower surface 14 of shingle element 10 at the upper head end 16 thereof to simulate in side elevation the tapered cut of a wood shingle or shake. It should be noted that the maximum height of flange 22 at butt flange 20 is slightly less than the height of butt flange 20 by an amount approximately the same as the thickness of the metal, such difference in height being indicated at 21, FIG. 11. A pair of nail hole 25 are provided through each of the shingle elements, each hole 25 being adjacent an upper corner of head end 16 to receive therethrough conventional shingle constraining nails 26 (FIGS. 1 and 6).
The improved structural covering means of the present invention further includes a plurality of spacer flashing elements or inner strips 30 which are constructed of the sheet metal material as outer shingle elements 10. As best shown in FIGS. 4, 5, and 6, each of the spacer flashing strips 30 has planar top and bottom surfaces 31 and 32, respectively, and a narrow lower end 33 and an opposite relatively wide upper end 34. Flashing strips 30 are longitudinally tapered in trapezoidal configuration with opposite ends interconnected by converging sides 35. Each side 35 includes an upstanding longitudinal side flange 37 which is longitudinally tapered from lower end 33 to substantially blend or merge into top surface 31 of strip 30 at upper end 34. Side'flanges 37 thus define with top surface 31, an open ended longitudinal slightly converging drainage channel 38 therebetween. The flanges 37 have a height at lower end 33 approximately the height of side flange 22 on the cover element 10 so as to precisely nest within the outer shingle element 10 in substantially corresponding lengthwise tapered relation along the length of side flanges 37 and 22. When so nested, the lower end edge face of side flange 37 is in abutting relation to the inner surface of the lower butt flange 20 of shingle element 10. Also in this nested relation, the bottom edge face of butt flange 20 of shingle element 10 may rest upon the top surface 12 of the adjacent lowermost shingle element 10, such relationship being permitted by the difference in height of the side flange 37 and 22 at a lower butt corner of a shingle element and flashing strip assembly.
It is noted that both side flanges 22 of shingle elements l0 and side flanges 37 of flashing strips 30 can preferably be formed as by bending in a stamping operation from a substantially rectangular sheet of blank material as more fully described hereafter. It is also apparent that the combined peripheral dimension of the edges of the butt flange 20 at lower end 15 and the side flanges 17 is virtually equal to the width of the edge at the opposite head end 16. Accordingly, no costly trimming operations are required and a substantial savings results by eliminating any waste of the sheet material from which shingles and flashing strips are formed.
METHOD In particular, the method of making a shingle element and a flashing strip is now described with specific relation to the shingle element 10. Adaptation of the method to flashing strip 30 will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art. The method of the invention is illustrated in FIG. 9 wherein a coil or reel 40 of sheet metal stock of selected width is suitably supported for rotation about its axis by means not shown. As sheet metal strip 41 is withdrawn from the coil 40, it is passed into a stamping apparatus which may comprise a bottom anvil die 42 and a top mating stamping die 43. The shingle element 10 is formed by one stamping operation, the several stamping sub-operations being shown in exploded sequence in FIG. 9. Thus, when strip 41 is fed into position above fixed die 42 and upper die 43 is moved downwardly in a stamping operation, the first substamping action is the cutting from the strip as by a knife or shear blade 44 of a sheet metal blank 45 of selected width. As blank 45 is supported on die 42 movable die 43 notches lower corners 46 from blank 45. As the stamping operation continues, die 43 folds over side flanges 22 and butt flange 20. An upper die 43 moves upwardly in the stamping operation, the formed shingle element 10 is ejected from the stamping apparatus and is placed in a box 47 for packaging or transported by other means to storage. It is apparent from the above description of a method of making the shingle element that the only wastage which occurs is the loss of the minute corner material at 46 and that the one-step stamping operation converts strip stock material into a usable shingle in an economical manner.
OPERATION The operation of the described embodiment of the subject invention is believed to be clearly apparent and is briefly summarized at this point. An exemplary roof structure upon which shingle elements 10 and flashing strips 30 may be employed is shown in FIG. 7 wherein spaced studs 50 support horizontal plates or beams 51 which carry upwardly inclined roof rafters 52 upon which may be nailed at selected spaced intervals nailing boards or roof lath 53 which may usually comprise l X 4 or 1 X 6 boards. In customary installation of a wood shingle roof, a double thickness or layer of shingle is provided at the lowermost roof edge. In some installations a sheet of roofing felt may be laid over the roof lath or nailing boards before applying the wood shingles. Prior to nailing, spacer flashing strips 30 and shingle elements 10 may be generally arranged in a horizontal starter course at the bottom edge of the roof with the strips 30 underlying adjacent edges of-shingle elements 10. The strips 30 and shingle elements 10 interengage to positively position each shingle element 10 with respect to the adjacent shingle element 10 and the intermediate flashing strip 30. When arranged in such interengagement, the upper corners of the shingle elements 10 are in close proximity and may touch when the top edges of adjacent shingles lie in a straight line. In this relationship of the outer cover or shingle elements 10 the flashing strip at its lower end has upstanding end portions of side flanges 37 in proximity to and in engagement with the depending side flanges 22 of shingle element 10. Further, abuttment of upstanding end edges of side flanges 37 on the strip 30 against the inner surfaces of the depending butt flange of the shingle elements serves to facilitate proper alignment and arrangement of shingle elements 10 and the flashing strip element 30. When properly arranged it will be apparent that the upper portions of sides 35 of the strip 30 will lie closely between nail holes 25 of adjacent corners of adjacent shingle elements 10. Thus, when nails are driven through holes 25 the nails 26 laterally fix the position of the top end of flashing strip 30. Moreover, the flashing strip 30 cannot move downwardly because of the convergence downwardly of the side edges of strip 30 which act to wedge the strip between the nails 26 and further because of the abuttment of side flanges 37 against butt flanges 20 on the adjacent shingles. Thus, a channel is defined between adjacent shingle elements 10 which flares downwardly and outwardly.
After a portion of the first course has been laid, a second course of shingles may be layed in which the second course shingle elements are offset laterally a selected distance from the first course shingle elements. Amount of such offsetting depends upon the type of roof pattern desired. The lower ends of the second course shingles may overlap the upper end of the lower end course shingles a selected distance so as to provide a desired amount of weathering surface on the lower course of shingle elements. Laying the second course may be performed in the same manner as that described for the first course. It will be apparent that the lower edges of the second course shingle elements l0 and flashing strips 30 will rest upon the top surfaces of the lower course shingle elements and will present a virtually straight butt line with slight interruptions amounting to the thickness of the sheet metal employed at the flashing strips 30.
It should be noted that in the arrangement of the courses of the shingle elements 10 and strips 30 that no nails are driven through the flashing strips 30 and that the nails are covered by the central portion of the weather area of the upper course of shingles. A minimum number of nails is thus required for securing the shingle elements and flashing strips on the roof surface and no penetration of the flashing strips 30 is made since water falling from one course of shingles to another will include some water falling onto the flashing strip 30 and being drained thereby to the next lower adjacent shingle element. The lack of nails in the flashing strip 30 together with the disposition of strip 30 in fixed position by interengagement of shingle elements and flashing strips is advantageous in providing a waterproof weathertight roof covering.
It should be noted that each lower corner of shingle element 10 is provided with a weep opening for drainage of any water which might collect beneath an outer shingle element 10 by reason of wind or capillary action. It will be apparent that the amount of overlapping of one course with a lower course or the amount of head lap may be minimized because of the present construction and thus permit a greater surface of each course to be exposed to the weather and thus result in fewer shingles being used to cover a roof area.
It is important to note that the interleaving of the depending side flanges 17 of shingle elements 10 and the upstanding flanges 37 of the flashing strips 30 together with their corresponding reduction in height permits such flanges to act as structural walls to support the outer shingle or cover elements 10. Thus, a metal single roof covering embodying the construction of the present invention may be walked upon without damage to the protection offered by the roof covering. Moreover, the butt and side flanges of each shingle element 10 provide stiffness and rigidity so that adjacent courses provide a rigid structure adapted to resist strong heavy winds.
The metal shingle construction described above is preferably made with Cor-Ten" as above mentioned. Such material provides exceptional resistance to atmospheric corrosion and thereby eliminates the need for any protection of surfaces exposed to the atmosphere and also eliminates subsequent maintenance. Moreover, the protective oxide formed gradually darkens and assumes an aesthetically pleasing texture and color varying from a dark brown to a warm purpleblack depending upon the exposure conditions. Such material is also of high strength and therefore a lightweight weather resistant structurally rigid shingle element and roof covering is provided which enhances the appearance of the roof with age and which will serve its protective purpose for an exceptionally long period of time without maintenance. The surface of such Cor-Ten" material rapidly heals in the event it is scratched or broken and thus the life of such a roof remains virtually unimpaired.
In view of the above description, it is readily apparent that the shingle element and roof structure of the present invention provides an improved covering for support surfaces such as walls and roofs of buildings by the use of relatively lightweight metal shingle elements and spacer flashing strips which provide a virtually leakproof, fireproof covering for the building structure. The flashing strips precisely constrain the shingle elements in the desired spaced relation for permitting quick and easy installation by workmen of even less than average skills, the flashing strips being precisely held in described position by the nails which hold the outer shingle elements in place without the necessity of such nails passing through the flashing strips, Such structural covering means embodying the present invention may substantially simulate wood, shake, or shingles employed on conventional wood roofs and requires relatively fewer components than a comparable wood shingle roof and provides a substantially fireproof covering with only a fraction of the weight imposed upon the supporting roof structure than with other fireproof roofing material such as clay tile and the like.
Although the invention has been herein shown and described in what is conceived to be the preferred embodiment, it is recognized that departures may be made from within the scope of the invention, which is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent devices, methods, and structures.
1. In a structurally rigid supporting structure such as a roof constructed to be water tight without the use of roofing paper, including in combination a plurality of horizontal lath boards arranged in spaced-apart parallel relation;
a plurality of horizontally arranged courses of formed rigid steel shingle elements each having a wall of trapezoidal shape, a downturned bottom butt flange, downturned side flanges tapering from said butt flange to the upper end of said element, said wall having an uninterrupted plane from said bottom butt flange to the upper end thereof, said upper ends being arranged in parallel lines and in close proximity and with downturned butt flanges in spaced relation,
a pluralityof flashing strip elements of trapezoidal shape narrower than said shingle elements in each course, each strip element extending between and beneath longitudinal edges of adjacent shingle elements and each flashing element having upturned side flanges tapering in height from its bottom end to its upper end, and interleaved with downturned side flanges on adjacent shingle elements, the taper of said side flanges on said shingle and flashing elements being in corresponding relation to provide structural support for said shingle element wall,
the upper ends of said shingle elements and flashing elements of a course being disposed downwardly from a line defined by the butt flanges of the next adjacent upwardly disposed course of shingle elements, whereby said shingle and flashing elements of each course are overlapped only by the next above adjacent course; and means securing each shingle element to said lath boards;
said flashing elements being retained in position by said butt flanges and said securing means.
2. In a structure as stated in claim 1, wherein said securing means interengage side edges of the upper end of said flashing strip elements for limiting lateral movement thereof;
and wherein said butt flanges on said shingle elements and said side flanges on said flashing strip elements interengage to limit longitudinal movement of said strip elements.
' 3. In a roof structure:
at least two steel shingle elements each comprising a wall of trapezoidal shape having an uninterrupted planar shingle surface extending the length of said wall,
a downturned bottom butt flange and downturned side flanges tapering from said butt flange to the top end of said shingle element,
said side and bottom edge flanges serving as structural walls,
adjacent side flanges of adjacent shingle elements diverging toward the bottom of said shingle elements;
at least one flashing strip element of trapezoidal shape having bottom end underlying the space between said downturned side flanges of adjacent shingle elements and having a wider top end,
said flashing element having upturned side flanges tapering in height from its bottom end to its upper end and interleaved with downturned side flanges on the adjacent shingle elements,
a pair of spaced holes each prepunched in said shingle element in spaced relation to the adjacent side flanges and to the top end of said shingle element,
securement members extending through said spaced holes and laterally containing the top end of a flashing strip element therebetween and without penetration thereof,
said upturned flanges on said flashing strip element at the bottom end thereof closely receiving the downturned side flanges on said shingle elements,
and the bottom edges of said flashing strip element having abutting contact with the butt flanges on adjacent shingle elements for limiting downward and lateral movement of the lower bottom end of the flashing strip element.
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